urinalysis consists of a sequence of examinations performed on urine constituting one of the most frequent techniques of medical diagnosis.a complete examination consists of a number of determinations: a macroscopic examination a physical-chemical examination a microscopic examination and if indispensable a urine subculture the physical-chemical evaluation can be executed by way of altering the color. and in it to decide infections. in historical instances it was common to diagnose illnesses primarily based on the remark of urine. the technique known as uroscopy was primarily based on the observation of the organoleptic residences of urine used to be described through galen and its utility took region for many centuries in the context of the concept of the four humors supported via hippocrates. although the technological know-how of the analysis is qualitative and quantitative until the give up of the 19th century the overcoming of the uroscopy technique the organoleptic properties the scent and the color and the on the spot prognosis of the several diseases.