Titles Pages Introduction

Titles Pages
Introduction………………………………………………………..……….3
What is Red Tide?…………………………………………………….3
What causes red tide?………………………………………………4

Red Tide & Red Algae Effects……………………..…..……………4

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How does it affect humans? ………………………………………..5
The red tide in UAE in 2008-2009………………………..………5
Seawater Properties …………………………………………………..6
Toxicity Tests ………………………………………….………………….6
The Impacts of Red Tide Phenomena ……………….…….…..7
Technology used to fight UAE’s red tide……………….……8,9
References…………………………………………….……………………10

Introduction
Red tide is a phenomenon caused by algal blooms (Wikipedia definition) during which algae become so numerous that they discolor coastal waters (hence the name “red tide”). The algal bloom may also deplete oxygen in the waters and/or release toxins that may cause illness in humans and other animals. Species in the United States that release these harmful toxins include:
• Alexandrium fundyense—found along the Atlantic coast from the Canadian Maritimes to southern New England
• Alexandrium catenella—found along the Pacific coast from California to Alaska
• Karenia brevis—found in the Gulf of Mexico along the west coast of Florida

What is Red Tide?
The red tide is one of the oldest phenomena of human history. It is traced back to the Jurassic age, one million years ago, when the Earth underwent a number of geological changes that lead to phytoplankton bloom. It began to appear in Japan three hundred thousand years BC. It also appeared in Florida, United States of America in 1878 AC, and in India 1935 AC. While in the States of Arab Gulf and Oman Gulf, it appeared as follows:
Table 1 shows the first record of red tide in the Arab Gulf Countries.
Sr. State Year of Phenomenon Kinds of perished marine animals
1 Sultanate of Oman (Salala) 1976 Fish
2 Kingdom of Bahrain and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 1987 Mammals, Birds and Sea Star
3 Sultanate of Oman 1988 Fish and Marine Organisms
4 Kuwait 1999 Fish
5 Iran 1996 Fish
6 UAE 2000 Fish
The Arab Gulf region has witnessed the dyeing-off of fish and other marine organisms since 1986. This is attributed to the oil and chemical contamination, high temperatures, reduced oxygen, and existence of chlorine substance in the power plant.
What causes red tide?
Red tide is a natural phenomenon not caused by human beings. When temperature, salinity, and nutrients reach certain levels, a massive increase in Karenia brevisalgae occurs. No one knows the exact combination of factors that causes red tide, but some experts believe high temperatures combined with a lack of wind and rainfall are usually at the root of red tide blooms. There are no known ways that humans can control it, but many scientists around the world are studying red tide at present. It’s important to remember that red tide has happened before and the Texas marine environment has always recovered.
Although there are some scientists who believe the increase in reports of HABs is a function of increased awareness and monitoring, others have provided compelling evidence that, for some regions, human activities play an important role.
The primary human contribution to HABs is thought to be nutrient pollution — from, amongst other things, agriculture, sewage outfalls and mining — creating a more favorable, nutrient-rich environment in coastal waters in which certain groups of phytoplankton can thrive.
Climate change may also be making some coastal environments more hospitable to harmful phytoplankton species.
Many species of phytoplankton are also transported around the world in ships’ ballast water and discharged in areas where they did not previously occur. Others are distributed accidentally through the transfer of shellfish for aquaculture

Red Tide ; Red Algae Effects

Environmental: Responsible for large fish kills, leading cause of death of manatees ( an endangered species ) and blamed for many dolphin deaths.

Economic: Causes millions of dollars in lost revenue to Florida communities, hotels, restaurants and water based tourism attractions like fishing and boating

Health Ramifications: Can cause respiratory symptoms ( especially in sensitive populations like asthmatics ) and has been implicated in the cause of skin irritations. When contaminated shellfish is consumed, it can cause Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning ( NSP ).

Quality of Life: Impacts the quality of beach experiences, water recreation and fishing activities
Globally, harmful algae blooms ( HABs ) cause a variety of problematic human and environmental health issues. In Florida, K.brevis blooms create the specific collection of effects shown at left. The following questions and answers address some of the most frequent concerns about the effects of red tide.

How does it affect humans?
Irritations of the eyes, nose, throat, tingling lips and tongue are common symptoms that often occur during red tides. Waves, wind and boat propellers in high concentrations of red tides disperse toxin particles into the air causing these problems for people along the shoreline. People suffering from severe or chronic respiratory conditions such as emphysema or asthma, should try to avoid red tide areas. Symptoms usually disappear within 24 hours once the exposure is discontinued.

The Impacts of Red Tide Phenomena
? Spread of bad odder as a result of decomposing organic matter of algae and fish.
? kill of large quintiles of fish and other marine organisms.
? Desalination plants stopped.
? Coastal tourism affected largely.
? Impacts on fishing activities.
? Large quantities of fish dead in fish farm.

This phenomena may be chronic , and expected to be repeated again depending on environmental conditions suitable for growing algal spores.

Other risk of red tide phenomena is the regression of seawater’s quality in the areas where phenomena took place; because of increase density of red tide in the areas near to water intakes used by seawater Desalination plants. Many plants in eastern zone in the State are intermittently closed, as follows:
1. Kalba Desalination Plant
2. Fujairah Desalination Plant
3. Khorfakan Desalination Plant
4. Ghalilah Seawater Desalination Plant in RAK

The red tide in UAE in 2008-2009
? The red tide appeared for the first time in Kalba region in August 28, 25008, as viewed by the fishermen.
? The red ride expanded along the eastern coast in different degrees until Dibba Al Hissin area on September 8, 2008.
? It continued and escalated in the eastern coast so far.
? It appeared in the Arab Gulf on the coast of RAK Emirate earlier in November, and then disappeared.
? It appeared again in RAK early in September, 2008 and spread along most of the country coasts, through Umm Al Quwain, Ajman, Sharjah and to parts of Dubai coasts on 23/12/2008 according to testimonies of fishermen and images of Satellites sent by the Regional Organization for the Protection of Marine Environment (ROPME). Added to that, the technical team from the Marine Environmental Research Center with the Ministry that closely observes the phenomenon.
? It appeared again in early in February, 2009 and spread along most of the country coasts, through Umm Al Quwain, Ajman, Sharjah and to parts of Dubai coasts. It recorded perished fish in the Emirates of Umm Al Quwain, Humaria, Sharjah and eastern coast.
? It appeared again late in March, 2009 in RAK with a record of perished fish in Umm Al Quwain and eastern coast.
? It appeared again early in September, from 1 to 9, 2009 and spread along most of the country eastern coast. The red tide is concentrated in Diba region, from Diba al-Hisn port to Al-Faqit Reservation and Khurkan, and Fujairah from Marbah port to Raghailat port, and Kalba port. It exists separetely and scarecely on the coasts and largely in the ports. No perishing of fish or marine organisms was noticed.
? The red tide appeared again on September 10, 2009 and spread to some of the eastern coastal area in the country. It separately and scarcely exists in Khufan, al-Faqit Reservation and is about 15-20 m away from the Coast. No perishing of fish or marine organisms was noticed.
? The red tide diminished along the eastern coast from 11 to 13 of September 2009
? The red tide was noticed to be reduced into low ratios in Dibba al-Hisn on September 15, 2009.

Analysis Findings, Seawater Properties and Hydrographic Measurements
1- The water temperature ranges from 33 to 34°.
2- The coastal water along the red tide coasts was characterized by moderate concentration of oxygen ranging from 4.5-5 mg/l.
3- The reading of pH was between 8.1 – 8.3.
4- The salinity ratio ranged between 39-40 proportion percent.

Toxicity Tests
The toxicity tests showed that there are no toxic kinds of phytoplankton that cause red tide, and not perished fish or other marine organisms were noticed.
Factors inductive to red tide
The red tide was probably caused by the climate changes and accompanying phenomenon
1- The Monsoon season.
2- Upwelling that carries the materials rich of nutrients and viscles from the bottom up to the sea surface water.
3- Nino Phenomenon represented in the the heating of Indian Ocean, Arab Sea, Arab Gulf an Oman Gulf.

Technology used to fight UAE’s red tide

A technology used to clean up counterweight water in ships will be tested off the shores of Abu Dhabi as a contingency tool to limit the harm of harmful algae blooms. The experiment, due to start this summer, was conceived last year as the UAE’s east coast was recovering from possibly the worst attack of the red algae, or red tide, in its recorded history. Developed in Japan, the method was showcased to officials from the Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi (EAD) during an official visit to the country last year. EAD is spending Dh8 million to adapt the purification system used on board ships to a land-based device. “It could be an answer,” said Dr Thabit Zahran al Abdessalaam, EAD’s director of biodiversity sector. “The technology has been used in ships for a few years but this application has never been tried anywhere.” He said that in the event of another algal bloom of the same magnitude, the UAE wants to protect its desalination plants. The UAE depends on desalination plants for more than 90 per cent of its domestic water supply. Last year’s red tide, so-called because it coloured the waters off Fujairah and Khor Fakkan in the hue of dark blood, caused disruptions in desalination plants on the East Coast with production in some plants decreasing by up to 40 per cent. It is estimated to have caused losses of US$100,000 a day for the industry, according to the Abu Dhabi Water Resources Master Plan. In order to keep balanced, ships take up a certain amount of ballast water at the start of a voyage. International regulations require vessels to treat that water before discharging it back at sea at the end of a journey. This is done so that bacteria, algae and other marine creatures inhabiting a certain area are not spread to other parts of the ocean. The land machine, developed by Hitachi Plant Technologies and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, is capable to treating 400 metric tonnes of water per hour and will be tested in Abu Dhabi in the summer.

Reference:
http://www.thenational.ae/news/uae-news/environment/
http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/redtide.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_tide
http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/topics/redtide/index.html
http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/envfacts/redtides/

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