This study was conducted in Yenepoya Medical College Hospital, Mangalore. The study period was from January 2017 to January 2018. The exclusion criteria for the pregnant women were diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, parathyroid, thyroid, bone, and gastrointestinal disorders, receiving drugs (e.g., diuretics, anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, and anti-diabetics), multiple pregnancies, placenta previa, and placental abruption. Further, neonates with history of peri-natal insult or requiring admission to neonatal intensive care unit due to any reason were excluded.
Venous blood specimens (2 ml maternal blood and 5 ml cord blood) were collected from the participating pregnant women at the end of the third trimester of pregnancy. Cord blood samples were collected from newborns before delivery of placenta. The collected blood was poured into metal-free plain tubes and was allowed to clot at room temperature. Plain tubes were centrifuged for 15 min at 3500 rpm and the serum was separated and kept in trace elements-free tubes and stored at -40°C until analysis.
Zinc levels were analyzed in both maternal and cord blood samples. Serum zinc was measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. After delivery, neonatal weight was measured within 24 hours after birth using the standard procedure. Infants were weighed with minimum clothing while the child was restful.
The study was approved by Yenepoya Research Ethics Committee of Yenepoya (deemed to be university). Written informed consent was obtained from both parents and legal guardians of the newborns. The statistical differences between the two groups were analyzed by Student’s t-test and calculating the standard error of difference. P-value ; 0.05 was considered statistically significant.