1Hasmukh D. Makavana , 2Prof. Amit D. Raval , 3 Dr. Jayeshkumar R. Pitroda
1M . Tech Student , Construction Engineering & Management, BVM Engineering College, V.V.
Nagar , Anand , Guj arat, India.
2 Professor , Civil Engineering Department , BBIT College , V.V. Nagar , Anand , Gujarat , India .
3 Associate Professor , Civil Engineering Department , BVM Engineering College , V.V. Nagar ,
Anand , Gujarat , India.

Waste glass is not just waste, but it can be seen as new resource. The glass in these items can
take up space in the landfills for up to 4000 years . Gen erally, beer, wine bottles and other food
jars etc., are among the few normal household glass items put into landfills every da y. Glass is
amorphous and contain large amount of silicon and calcium, it has pozzoloni c or cementitious
properties when the particle size is less than 75 micron. The beauty of glass is, it is one of the
few materials that can be recycled indefinitely, ye t only about 22 percent of the glass produced
today is from recycled materials. Recent studies shown that the waste glass can be effectively
used as partial replacement of cement or as fine or coarse aggregate . This review paper gives an
overview of the cu rrent progress and recycling situation of waste glass and indicates the right
way for the efficient use of waste glass in construction industry. This will not only help in reuse
of waste glass but also creates an eco -friendly environment.

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KEYWO RDS: recycl e, waste glasses, pozzolanic additive , greener environment, alkali
Silica reaction


Glass is one of the oldest material that is used by mankind . It is manufactured in many forms,
like packaging or conta iner glass, flat glass, bulb glass, and cathode ray tube glass, this all have a
limite d year s of useful life after this period of time they need to be reuse d/recycled to minimise
the environmental problems that are created by the waste glass . Glass can be recycled infinitely
without any significant changes in to its original quality . As a result of industrialization and
urbanization it has been estimated that several million tons of waste glasses are generated
annually worldwide . Most of the waste glass is sent to landfill because of impurities which are
difficult to remove, prohibitive ship ping costs to glass manufacturing plants, or mixed colour
waste streams which are difficult to separate into useful raw glass stocks. As glass is not
biodegradable, the wastes produced today will remain in the environment for hundreds and
perhaps thousands of years. Waste glasses do not decompose easily by itself therefore do not
provide environment friendly solution and social impact after disposal. The use of the waste
glass in the construction industry is among the most attractive option because it can consume a
significant quantity of these materials. One of the prime ingredients of standard concrete is
cement. Every year approximately 2.35 billion tons of cement is pro duced – that is almost 1 m3
of cement for every person in the world. The carbon diox ide released into the atmosphere during
the cement production process accounts for approximately 5-10% of the overall CO2 production
in the world. As in production of one ton of Portland cement about one ton of carbon dioxide is

released into the environme nt and contributes to the greenhouse gas which is the main issue in
the global warming and the development of holes in the ozone layer . Atmospheric levels of
carbon dioxide have risen by about 30 percent over the past 200 years. If the CO2 production in
cement factories could be decreased by 10%, the overall release into the atmosphere would
decrease by 5.2% . Recycling of each ton of glass saves over one ton of natural resou rces, and
recycling of every six tons of container glass results in the reduction of one tone of carbon
dioxide emission .
A number of research studies have been performed and reported that the compressive,
tensile, and flexural strengths of concretes containing waste glass as fine aggregate demonstrated
a decreasing tendency with increases in the mixing ratio of the waste glass. It is found that 30%
glass powder could be incorporated as aggregate or cement replacement in concrete without any
long -term detrimental effects. It is found that compressive, flexural, and indirect tensile strengths
had the ten dency to decrease in proportion to the increase in content of waste glass as coarse
aggregate in concrete mixtures. It is also reported that no alkali -silica reaction has been detected
with particle sizes up to 100 mm, thus reflecting the feasi bility of waste glass reuse as fine
aggregate in mortars and concrete . A significant improvement in the compressive strength of
waste E-glass concrete mixe s at late ages, but the workability decreased as the glass content
increased . It is recommended using glass powder and gla ss aggregate together in 40 -MPa
concrete mixtures without any adverse reaction. The use of finely milled waste glass in concrete
mixes had a bad effect on workability, but considerably improved the mechanical properties of
concrete at later ages.


1. Tung -Chai Linga, Chi -Sun Poona, Hau -Wing Wonga : They discussed the present
management and recycling situation of waste glass . Moreover, the existing and potential
applications of the developed glass -concrete products in the construc tion industry are discussed.

2. Ashutosh Sharma , Ashutosh Sangamnerkar : In their research work they shown effect of
the use of ‘Glass Powder ‘ as a replacement of cement to assess the pozzolanic nature of fine
glass powder when mixed in concrete and compa re the difference in performance with other
pozzolanic materials are mixed in concrete like silica fume and fly ash . The present study sh ows
that waste glass, if ground finer than 600µm shows a pozzolanic behaviour. It reacts with lime at
early stage of hyd ration forming extra CSH gel thereby forming denser cement matrix.

3. N. Tamanna , N. Mohamed Sutan and D. T. C. Lee , Yakub : They highl ight ed the current
progress and recycling situation of waste glass and point out the direction for the proper use of
wast e glass as replacement of cement. These will not only help in the reuse of waste glass but
also create a greener environment. the waste glass can be effectively used in concrete either as
aggregate (fine or coarse aggregate) or as cement replacement. Being amorphous and containing
relatively large quantities of silicon and calcium, glass is in theory pozzolanic or even
cementitious in nat ure when the particle size is less than 75 micron .

4. Dr. G. Vijayakuma r, Ms H. Vishaliny , Dr. D. Govindarajulu : They hav e studied the
finely powdered waste glasses are used as a partial replacement of cement in concrete and
compared it with conventiona l concrete. This work examines the possibility of using Glass

powder as a partial replacement of cement for new concrete. Gl ass powder was partially replaced
as 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% and tested for its compressive, Tensile and flexural strength up to 60
da ys of age and were compared with those of conventional concrete; from the results obtained , it
is found that glass powder can be used as cement replacement material upto particle size less
than 75µm to prevent alkali silica reaction .

5. Sahar Mohsenian Hadad Amlashi , Michel Vaillancourt , Alan Carter : They discussed the
potential use of recycled glass particles in pavement str uctures. A thorough review on reusing
recycled glass particles and their effects on improving pavement structure behaviour was
cond ucted. The results of different studies were compared with each other and some tables was
presented for better understanding the effects of recycled glass on different characteristics of its
blends with other materials. Studies indicate that engineering pr operties of recycled glass are
generally equal to or better than those of most natural aggregates. Glass particles characterist ics
suggest that glass can be used for many applications including base course, subbase,
embankment, etc.

6. Zainab Z. Ismail *, Enas A. AL -Hashmi : In this study they investigate d The properties of
concretes containing waste glass as fine aggregate . The strength properties and ASR expansion
were analyzed in terms of waste glass content. An overall quantity of 80 kg of crushed waste
glass was used as a partial replacement for sand at 10%, 15%, and 20% with 900 kg of concrete
mixes. The results proved 80% pozz olanic strength activity given by waste glass after 28 days.
The flexural strength and compressive strength of specimens with 20 % waste glass content were
10.99% and 4.23%, respectively, higher than those of the control specimen at 28 days.

7. Nurhayat Deg irmencia , Arin Yilmazb * & Ozge Andic Cakirc : In their study they shown ,
alkali silica reaction (ASR) expansion and strength cha racteristics of mortar containing waste
glasses are analyzed in terms of waste glass content and glass color. Three different col ors of
waste glasses (white, green and brown) are replaced with sand at ratios of 10%, 30% and 100%
by weight. The mixtures use d in this study did not show a considerable ASR expansion. All
batches had expansions less than 0.10% is indicative of non -delete rious expansion. However, the
samples continued to expand beyond 14 days which makes the test period questionable for glass
con taining samples.

8. Sameer Shaikh, S .S. Bachhav , D.Y. Kshirsagar : They studied about the utilising waste
glass powder(GLP) in concr ete as partial replacement of cement as well as the use of crushed
glass particles(CGP) retained on 1.18mm & 2.36mm IS sieve as a partial replacement to sand,
which offers important benefits related to strength of concrete as well as it is eco -friendly. Th e
attempts have been made to partially replace the cement as well as sand by waste glass powder
and crushed glass particles with equal combination by 5% interval up to 20% replacement and
observe its effect on the strength of concrete after 7 days and 28 days of curing.

9. C Meyer , N Egosi , C Andela : They discussed the other materials, clean it and crush it to
obtain the appro priate grading to meet the specifications for specific applications. Extensive
studies were undertaken to solve the alkali -silica rea ction (ASR) problem. Specific products such
as paving stones, concrete masonry blocks, terrazzo tiles, and precast concrete panels are close to
commercial production.


1.Recycling of waste glass in concrete products offers several advantages:
>Reduce the solid waste disposal problem in landfill.
>Reduc e the use of natural material in construction.
>Utilize the reflective properties and aesthetic potential of glass for novel effect s on concrete
surfaces .

2.Replacement of glass powder in cement as well as crushed glass particles in sand by 5%, 10%,
15% and 20% increases the compressive strength after 28 days by 9.25%, 38.50%, 70.80%, and
33.09% respectively.

3.Direct Utilization of waste glass as concrete aggregates has a negative effect on the workabilit y
and strength of concrete. But ground glass powd ers exhibit very good pozzolanic reactivity and
can be used as cement replacement. Its pozzolanic reactivity increases as its finen ess increases. If
aggregates are alkali -reactive, alkalis in the glass powder can causes alkali silica reaction.

4.Glass po wder concrete increases the compressive, tensile and flexural strength effectively,
when compared with conventional concrete.

5.Th e gradation of most recycled glass particles proved that crushed glass is classified as well
graded sand or gravel materials. The specific gravity of recycled glass particles was within the
range of 2.41 to 2.54 which is lower than the typical values of mo st soils.

6.Based on compaction tests, the moisture -density trend of recycled glass is similar to that of
natural aggregate s with a bit difference in its shape which indicates relatively less sensitivity of
recycled glass particle compaction to moisture content. The typical modified dry densities of
glass particles were measured between 17.5 -19.5 KN/m3 with optimum water conte nts of 5.5 to

7.The slumps of waste glass concrete specimens decreased with increases in the waste glass
content, which is believed to be influenced by the waste glass grain shapes. In spite of this
decline in the slump of these mixtures, they have good workability.

8.The percentage of WG has a rather significant effect on compressive strength. With high
replacement percentag es of LS (Limestone agg regate ) sand with WG, the glass containing
mortar exhibited lower compressive and flexural strength than those made with 100% LS sand.
The decrease in strength becomes considerable for 100% WG containing samples. It is believed
that su ch a decrease in strength is due to the decrease in adhesive strength between the surface of
the waste glass and cement pas te.

9.Very finely ground glass has been shown to be excellent filler and may have sufficient
pozzolonic properties to serve as partial cement replacement, also crushed glass particles which
is retained on 3.36mm and 1.18 mm IS sieve shows a good filler ma terial as well.


1 Tung -Chai Linga, Chi -Sun Poona, Hau -Wing Wonga , “Management and recycling of waste
glass in concrete products: Current situations in Hong Kong “, ELSEVIER , 29 October 2012 .

2 Ashutosh Sharma, Ashutosh Sangamnerkar, “Glass Powder – A Partial Replacement for
Cement “, Internationa l Journal of Core Engineering & Management (IJCEM) Volume 1, Issue
11, February 2015 .

3 N. Tamanna, N. Mohamed Sutan and D. T. C. Lee, Yakub, ” UTILIZATION OF WASTE
GLASS IN CONCRETE “, 6th International Engineering Conference, Energy and Environment
(ENCO N 2013) .

4 Dr. G. Vijayakumar , Ms H. Vishaliny, Dr. D. Govindarajulu ,”Studies on Glass Powder as
Partial Replacem ent of Cement in Concrete Production “, International Journal of Emerging
Technology and Advanced Engineering , Volume 3, Issue 2, February 201 3.

5 Sahar Mohsenian Hadad Am lashi, Michel Vaillancourt, Alan Carter, “Current State of the
Art Practice of Us e of Glass in Pavement Structures “, Conference of the Transportation
Association of Canada Charlottetown , 2015.

6 Zainab Z. Ismail . Enas A. AL-Hashmi, “Recycling of Waste Glass as A Partial Replacement
for Fine Aggregate in Concrete “, ELSEVIER , Novembe r 2008 .

7 Nurhay t Degirmencia, Arin Yilmazb & Ozge Andic Cakirc, “Utilization of waste glass as
sand replacement in cement mortar “, Indian Jou rnal of Engineering & Materials Sciences Vol.
18, August 2011, pp. 303 -308 .

8 Sameer Shaikh , S.S. Bachh av, D.Y. Kshirsagar, “Effective Utilisation of Waste Glass in
Concrete “, Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application , Vol. 5, Issue 12, (Part – 4)
December 2015, pp.01 -04 .

Proceedings of the International Symposium Concrete Technology Unit of ASCE and University
of Dundee, March 19 -20, 200 1.


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