The relationship between physical activities and social skill level of preschool children in Maldives School

The relationship between physical activities and social skill level of preschool children in Maldives School.

Fathimath ZeenaBachelor of ECETable of contents TOC h z “USB PhD proposal heading 1,2,USB PhD Proposal heading 2,2,USB PhD initial and appendix headings,1,USB PhD proposal heading 3,3,USB PhD proposal heading 4,3”
1.INTRODUCTION 2.PROBLEM STATEMENT3. cONTEXTUAL LITERARATURE5. Specific Objectives6. Research questions7. Significance10. ETHICAL CONSIDERATION11. CONCLUTION12. TIMETABLE13. BUDGET14. references
Chapter- 1
Introduction
Recent research has suggested a new avenue to improve cognitive functioning, namely physical activity (Alexander, Allen, & Bindoff, 2013; Chaddock-heyman, Hillman, Cohen, & Kramer, 2014; Chaddock et al., 2012; Etnier & Chang, 2009; Kamijo & Takeda, 2010). Indeed, physical activity has proven to be a catalyst for myriad positive outcomes in human development (Centers for Disease Control, 2014). The most documented effects are those involving improvements in physical health; these include improvements in cardiovascular functioning, diabetic and stroke risk reduction, improved muscle and bone strength, as well as an increased life span (Centers for Disease Control, 2014).

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One purpose of this paper is to review evidence assisting a hyperlink among bodily pastime and organic and psychosocial improvement in the course of the preschool years (a long time 2–5 years). We can summarize pertinent literature informing the nature of the pa required at some point of these early years to sell healthy physical, cognitive, emotional, and social improvement. a selected recognition could be on the interplay between physical hobby and motor skill acquisition. malina (1991) has proposed that during preschool-age children standard movement sports increase unique motion patterns and capabilities; these in flip provide the premise for acquisition of future complicated capabilities where extra emphasis may be located on the fitness, health, and behavioral additives of bodily sports. Unique attention could be directed to the character of physical hobby that promotes healthy weight gain during early life. The paper will even discuss correlates of pa in preschool-age youngsters, which include the have an impact on of the individual baby’s environment (e.g., own family, baby-care, socio-monetary reputation).

One purpose of this paper is to review evidence supporting a link between physical activity and biological and psychosocial development during the preschool years (ages 2–5 years). We will summarize pertinent literature informing the nature of the PA required during these early years to promote healthy physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development. A particular focus will be on the interaction between physical activity and motor skill acquisition. Malina (1991) has proposed that in preschool-age children general movement activities develop specific movement patterns and skills; these in turn provide the basis for acquisition of future complex skills where greater emphasis can be placed on the health, fitness, and behavioral components of physical activities. Special attention will be directed to the nature of physical activity that promotes healthy weight gain during childhood. The paper will also discuss correlates of PA in preschool-age children, including the influence of the individual child’s environment (e.g., family, child-care, socio-economic status).

Most children naturally develop the ability to run and walk. However, they require practice and instruction to develop hopping, galloping, sliding, catching, jumping, throwing, kicking bouncing, and sticking skills. Children incorporate these skills into sports, games, and dance. Playgrounds are perfect places for a child to develop mental connections, socialize, and develop fine and gross motor skills. Regular physical activities are important parts of lives of most children in many ways, including helping 3 build and maintain healthy bones, muscles and joints, helping control weight and reduce fats and preventing or delaying the development of high blood pressure (Calbom, 2012).

Developing positive social skills can help young children make friends and succeed in school (Bikos & Gregoriadis, 2012; Elkinson & Elkinson, 2000; Gregoriadis, & Grammatikopoulos, 2013; Ladd 1990; Ladd, Kochenderfer, & Coleman, 1996; Masten, & Coatworth, 1998). Patten (1992), explains that ‘no matter how gifted a child is physically or mentally, that child’s happiness and success in life will also depend on his ability to get along with people’ (p. l). Likewise, many researchers suggest that children who lack social skills may need to be trained to enhance them (Gresham 1998; Gresham, ; Elliott, 1990; Tsigilis, ; Gregoriadis, 2008). Several training methods have been used to enhance and to teach children positive social skills (e.g., Elliott, ; Ershler, 1990; Spence 2003; Lane, Wehby, Menzies, Doukas, Muntont, ; Gregg, 2003; Lo, Loe, ; Cartledge, 2002).

Evaluating Preschoolers’ Social Skills: The Impact of a Physical Education Program from the Parents’ Perspective
The preschool years are critical in the development of basic cognitive, social behavioral. Children enter the world with many needs in order to grow properly, many child educational leaders agree that the goal of elementary education is to stimulate and guide the development of children behavior so that they will function in life activities. Caregivers, parents, and other adults, who deal with young children in some way must explore the developmental processes as they relate to the education of children 13. Young children are active and experienced learners with a natural curiosity. They are unique individuals, eager to make sense of their world, to develop relationships and to extend their social skills. Children enter their preschool years with a significant background of learning experiences, these experiences are formed within their family and with friends. Children learn through interaction taking place between the motor, cognitive, social and emotional domains. Therefore, in physical education contributes, through movement experiences that focus on basic movement skills, to the total growth and development of all young children in social skills 21. Preschoolers needs to master and utilize the ability to manage their emotion amongst others particularly peer groups and to meet social expectations of society at large. Preschoolers often require additional structure and support in order to regulate their emotions. During the preschool years, social competence involves learning how to separate from parents and engage with peers in shared play activities. It is very important that children feel included, if children received the best participating actively in the earliest years of life, which has an important and positive part to play in ensuring that children feel secure and accepted by others, and have a sense of belonging. Children learn social skills by interacting with other children, they learn to give and take, to share in cooperative with adults, and objects or natural materials found in the environment. Play experiences with enjoyable opportunities provide multiple ways for children to learn a variety of different social skills and concepts.

Effect of selected physical activities on behavior problems among 3-
6 years old children
Childrens physical and social context affects PA. For example, safety has been identified as a factor limiting childrens outdoor play time in their own neighbourhood, but may hinder to some extent the PA in the day care environment as well. In studies concerning social context, the interaction among the preschoolers and between the preschoolers and teachers have been perceived as important (Dowda, Pate, Trost, Almeida ; Sirard, 2004). Livesey, Mow, Toschack and Zheng (2010) and Vannatta, Garstein, Zeller and Noll (2009) examined peer relations and motor performance in elementary school: children with poor motor performance had lower levels of PA and were less preferred by their peers. Interesting findings have been made about the adult´s influence on PA. Brown et al. (2009) found that MVPA was most likely in situations where children were solitary without adults and child initiated activities resulted in more MVPA than adult-initiated activities. Cardon et al. (2008) noticed that PA decreased when more teachers were supervising. The conventional ‘isolated’ view of physical environment should thus change towards one that considers social environment as child-initiated rather than staff-initiated play (cf. Brown et al., 2009).

Physical activity and learning environment qualities in
Finnish day care
However, psychological research has begun investigating the effects of physical activity on mental functioning and well-being as well. This area of research has led to interesting findings such as its ability to alleviate symptoms of depression, improve self-concept and social skills, reduce anxiety symptoms as well as stress responses; and there is also some evidence that physical activity may prove to be beneficial in alcohol and substance abuse treatments (Taylor, Sallis, ; Needle 1985).

More recently, physical activity, both acute and chronic, has also been shown to improve executive function (Best, 2010). Executive function refers to higher order cognitive processes including attention, memory, and goal-directed behaviors that develop through childhood and into adolescence (Carlson, 2005). In fact, Lezak (1983) conceptualized executive function as being essential for effective, appropriate, and socially acceptable adult behavior. Research on the effects of physical activity on executive function has predominantly focused on two age groups: on adolescent populations as an intervention to promote academic success (Kamijo ; Takeda, 2010), and on geriatric populations as prevention therapy for Alzheimer’s and (Carlson et al., 2008). However, little research investigating the effects of physical activity on executive functioning in early childhood exists.

Purpose of this researchThe general purpose of this research is to assess the effectiveness of using the responsibility model in
teaching social skills in physical education. Specifically, this study aims to investigate:
whether there is any difference in the students social development after exposure to the responsibility model.

the effects of the responsibility model on the students response to non-sports related dilemmas.

the effects of the responsibility model on the students response to sports related dilemmas.

This study focuses on using the responsibility model on a group of lower secondary physical education class and
studied its effectiveness in promoting social development.

Statement of the Problem
This is very important research because our student’s lack outdoor activities on physical skill development of preschool children and social skill level about many aspects of the current society and a worry about the kind of society that our adolescents will inherit. Therefore, both secondary and primary level students need to be familiar with different physical activitis as a result; their thinking abilities can be improved. By formulating this research problem, we can identify the ways to improve students’ physical activities and social skills level.

Research Objectives
The following were the specific objectives of the study:
i) To examine how types of outdoor activities influence children’s physical skill development in Langata Sub-County.
ii) To examine how the provision of outdoor play facilities and equipments influence children’s physical skill development in Langata Sub-County.
iii) To establish whether the time provided for outdoor activities influences children’s physical skill development in Langata Sub-County.
iv) To determine how the role teachers in outdoor activities influences Children’s physical skill development in Langata Sub-County.
9
Research Questions
The research questions that guided the study were:
How do types of outdoor activities have an effect on children’s physical skill development in School x?
Does provision of outdoor play facilities and equipment influence children’s physical skill development in School x?
How does the time provided for outdoor activity influence children’s physical skill development in School x?
Does the role of teachers in outdoor activities influence children’s physical skill development in School x?

Overview of the Study
This study about students’ perception of school support systems and absenteeism is divided into five chapters. Chapter 1 begins with an introduction to the topic, followed by purpose of the study, problem statement and research objective. After that, research questions and hypotheses and scope and significance of the study is discussed, as well as, limitations and definitions of key terms will be described. Chapter 2 starts with an overview of absenteeism and further examines and reviews related literature pertaining to negative peer influence, teacher support and school harshness. Chapter 3 consists of research method description, design, sampling, setting and participants. It further explains the instrument used for data collection and provides details of the processes involved in data collection. Data were analyzed using statistical tests, and both descriptive and inferential data were interpreted in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, a discussion for each tested hypotheses, conclusions, and recommendations are presented.

Definition of key terms
Preschoolers: Children between 3 and 6 years who attend pre-primary education
Preschools: Learning institutions for children between 3 an d 6 years
Outdoor Activities: Activities done in open air i.e. out of the house or class
Physical skill development: Physical growth in the ability of children to use their bodies and physical skills for example, walking, running and kicking.

Activities: A form of supervised action, as in education or recreation
Attitude: A state of feeling or mind about a person or situation
Equipment: Apparatus or materials for a specific function or task
Skill: Proficiency or ability expertise technique especially one requiring use of hands or body
Physical education: Instruction in the development, care and exercise of human body, including sports and hygiene
Influence: Have the capacity to affect the development of physical activities of preschoolers.

Impact: To have an effect on; to influence; to alter.

Reference
Malina, R.M. 1991. Fitness and performance: adult health and the culture of youth, new paradigms? In New possibilities, new paradigms? (American Academy of Physical Education Papers No. 24). Edited by R.J. Park and M.H. Eckert. Human Kinetics, Champaign, Ill. pp. 30–38.

Bikos, K., ; Gregoriadis, A. (2012). Moral judgments of sociometrically neglected children concerning their bullying experiences in the first grade. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2 (9), 23- 33.

Figure 2f from: Irimia R, Gottschling M (2016) Taxonomic revision of Rochefortia Sw. (Ehretiaceae, Boraginales). Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e7720. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e7720

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