stock outs

stock outs (Palevich, 2011) and (Wisner, Tan and Leong ,2011). Once an organization realizes this, it can create online stock management instrument to screen its stock data by breaking it down into bunches by relating the categories with its customers.
Beamon and Kotleba (2006) clarify that Re-order level (ROL) is helping organizations to attain ideal efficiency and be successful. They got to have two reorder levels one that’s normal whereas a second one that’s for emergency cases .This gives customer satisfaction.
Bachetti, Plebani, Saccani and Syntetos (2010) argue that inventory management got to be organized in a consistent way to encourage the organization knowledge of when to order and amount to order. financial order amount enables organizations plan their inventory replenishment

? Economic Order Quantity
? Just-In-Time.
? Vendor Managed Inventory
? Activity Based Costing ( ABC )
? The balanced scorecard
2.2 Inventory management
Inventory management could be a bargains with administration of settled and current resources. Moreover, it involves the management of day by day operational supplies and in our case. Stock is additionally a basic resource in any organization in
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spite of the fact that agreeing to Barnes (2008) stock is looked at as a risk beneath the just-in-time (JIT) control framework. He agrees with the way accountants treat stock as an resource to the organization. Within the explanation of money related position, stock shows up beneath the current resources of the organization in any case whether it’s for benefit or not for benefit organization. Stock plays a major role and its administration goes a long way in making a difference a firm to develop because it relates to its external customers as well as the inner clients (Gibson, 2013). Therefore, stock is basic within the operation of Aref Contractor Company since they may hold stock as finished products, work in progress or raw materials for advance preparing (Fellows and Rottger (2005) and Shapiro (2009)). Shapiro, (2009) also advises that stock plays a crucial part when it comes to demand 15 planning and as a result, the organization needs to be flexible in its management of its stock when it comes to occasional or regular inventories.
Directors cannot avoid inventory management since it shapes the basis of their in general performance through disposal of uncertainties in their management. For the boards and management of Aref Contractor Company to find out that they are performing over standards, inventory management metric measures should be over board so that they may keep up the management’s certainty (Shapiro, 2009). Subsequently, J

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connecting the categories with its clients. Since organizations works differently in numerous fields, the stock can be classifies by either seasons or financial year conclusion of your most critical clients thus, request forecasting got to be employed to have an proficient supply chain (Poiger, 2010).
2.6.1 Re-Order Level
As organization endeavor to achieve effectiveness, they should be able to understand their ReOrder Levels (ROL) which empowers them know when to order and when not to order. This may be accomplished through the use of quantitative strategies which require proper inventory management (Apte, 2010). Re-Order level is critical for Aref Contractor Company to attain optimal efficiency and be successful leading to high supply chain performance and client satisfaction, at that point they need to have two reorder levels one that’s normal whereas the other is an emergency one in case of disaster (Beamon and Kotleba, 2006).
2.6.2 Economic Order Quantity
Bachetti, Plebani, Saccani and Syntetos (2010) contends that inventory management got to be organized in a consistent way so that the organization can be able to know when to order and how much to order. This will only be accomplished through the Economic Order Amount (EOQ) computation. Economic order amount enables organization to plan their stock replenishment on a timely basis such as month to month, quarterly, half yearly or yearly basis. By so doing, it empowers firms to have minimal storage costs or zero within their warehouses since stock is coming in and going out instantly. In this way, this tends towards the just in time concept of supply chain management received by Toyota motor Organization in Japan which helps in having zero holding costs, (Schonberger, 2008). In this way, as
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organizations try to progress on the stock management, the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) and Re-order Point (ROP) are critical tools that organizations can use to guarantee that stock supply does not hit a stock out as explained by Gonzalez and Gonzalez (2010). Over time, organizations have been keeping up their stock in a haphazard way which has required a change within the way firms conduct their business. Stock outs have been experienced adversely leading to client dissatisfaction hence; firms are changing their approach to be able to stay important by employing Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) and Re-order Point (ROP) for client satisfaction.
The derivation of the basic EOQ model (Quantity of economic order) is quite simple in a situation
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Figure 2 EQO Equivalents
To determine the economic order quantity given the fixed demand assumption, we can
evaluate the following model:
D = Total annual demand in unit
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Q = Economic order quantity in unit
D/Q = Number of orders placed and received during the year
Q/2 = Average inventory
Co = Cost of placing an order
Cc = Carrying cost per unit of inventory during the year
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Total inventory cost is defined as the whole of ordering cost and carrying cost. To define total inventory cost in terms of the controllable variable order amount (Q), we must express both types of cost in terms of amount. Total ordering cost can be gotten by multiplying the number of orders D/tary, time and other limitations, the research has limited this investigation to only one contractor company in Saudi Arabia: Aref Contractor Company.
3.2 Method for Information collection and analysis
The information used for this investigation were collected from primary and secondary sources of information.
3.2.1 PRIMARY SOURCES
The information were collected from the works accountant, production manager, marketing manager, sale official and other people from the chosen company. It was facilitated through questions, perception and oral interview. These
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instruments and other means of information collection were found convenient for this study because they helped to induce the view of the literate members of the company . Secondly, in a investigate work of this nature, where information collected will be totally analyzed, the researcher considered it very shrewd to use more of questions in order to avoid gathering of information that will have very small or no pertinence to the subject matter beneath study. Also, considering the kind of respondent being tended to, it was found most attractive because it does not require expound reply. Most of the questions are basic “yes” or “no” type. However others are such that require the respondent to rate a statement into choices; such as “strongly agreed”, “undecided”, “disagree” etc. The survey, generally utilizes a printed format that efficiently indicates all the questions as well as the arrangement to which they are to be presented. All these steps were made for easier investigation of information and result.
3.2.2 SECONDARY SOURCES
The result of existing literatures on stock management helped in~measurablyi n directing the researcher during the study. Other secondary sources of information include:
1.Newspapers
2.Magazines and Periodicals
3.Reference books and Dictionaries
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4.Course reading materials
5.Secondary information also exists within the company
6.Examination of the company’s yearly reports and journals.
3.3 Pilot survey
A pilot overview was carried out to eliminate all ambiguous questions from the study instrument used. The pilot study was similarly carried out since the level of understanding contrasts among the respondents. The sample for this pre-testing was drawn from the company reviewed. The pilot study empowered the researcher to test the respondents’ attitudes to the questions and terms used.
3.4 Sample techniques
For easier collection of information, only Aref Contractor Company was used as a case study, since all others might not be covered as a result of time and financial constraints. The observations and results got from the company were used to generalize and predict what is obtainable in all other contractor companies, particularly within the areas of their stock management.
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3.5 PROCEDURE AND TECHNIQUES FOR DATA ANALYSIS:
Majority of the questions within the survey have relevance to the speculation and investigate questions raised earlier. Information from the different questions were categorized concurring to their pertinence to the confirmation of the theory of this research project and realization of the stated goals. The information were analyzed utilizing basic statistical (eg mean, chi-square, regression and correlation co-efficient) and mathematical methods. The economic order quantity of the company was calculated after estimating a few figures, as a few of the required figures were not in existence within the company’s books.
However, from the available information, relationship between certain variables were determined and analyzed. The relationship that existed between variables have been tested within the speculation for validity and reliability. Information for writing survey were obtained from relevant books. Most quantitative information were drawn from the accounts office of the Aref Contractor Company.
3.6 Summary
This study sort to answer the questions what is the inventory management techniques application,

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