Statistics available in 2007 showed that, the world meat consumption had risen from as low as 70 metric tonnes in 1961, to a gigantic 268 metric tonnes in 2007(Hill, 2015). There is suggestion that the global meat production and consumption will rise from 233 million metric tons in 2000 to 300 million metric tons in 2020(Delgado, Rosegrant, Steinfeld, Ehui, & Courbois, 2001; Speedy, 2003; Hill, 2015).
Ghana hosts a large number of ruminants rearing mainly under extensive system (Jarikre et al., 2015). Despite the country’s vast resources of agricultural land ,its livestock resource base is about 1,657,000 cattle and 6,044,000 goats (SRID, 2014.;Jarikre et al., 2015). In Africa, South Africa is said to be 41 kg per capita per year and is second only to Ghana(Jaja, Mushonga, Green, ; Muchenje, 2017).
Meat is a skeletal muscle tissue of an animal meant for Consumption(Nonterah, Asenso, Emikpe, ; Asare, 2015). Meat mostly is made up of roughly 75% water, 20% protein, and 5% fat, carbohydrates, and assorted proteins (Nonterah et al., 2015). Offal is describe as meat from internal organs and visceral, obtained from butchered animal carcasses which includes liver, digestive tracts, lungs, heart and kidney (Ayroe, Emikpe, Asiamah, ; Dankwa, 2016; Nonterah et al., 2015) . Offal contains huge amount of nutrients such as amino acids, vitamins and minerals with higher bioavailability(Nonterah et al., 2015).Additionally, it is estimated that a daily intake of 100g of liver can supply up to 50% of the recommended daily allowance for iron, zinc, selenium, vitamins (B1, B2, B6, and B12) and 100% of vitamin A (Ayroe et al., 2016; Biesalski, 2005; Speedy, 2003). In Ghana, preferential consumption of cattle and goat offal may be attributed to factors such as socioeconomic, social- cultural habit, and religious beliefs.(Ayroe et al., 2016; Ojewola ; Onwuka, 2001). Besides, infectious disease, is a main constraint of livestock production, however the issues of meat safety, quality and associated infectious diseases have been long neglected due to unknown reasons, hence results in the emergence of some forms of zoonotic related diseases (Fitzpatrick, 2013).
Moreover, Fresh raw offal has been connected with a number of offal-borne infections in most developing countries with Ghana not exception and this is associated with the fact that pathogenic and non-pathogenic parasites lives in the gastro-intestinal tract, lungs and liver of these ruminants which can be transmitted to consumers when consumed undercooked(Mukhopadhyay, Pillai, Pal, ; Kumar, 2009). A number of researches have documented several offal-borne zoonotic infectious diseases which include Cysticercosis, Brucellosis, Fascioliasis, Tuberculosis, hydatidosis, hydronephrosis, abscesses, liver cirrhosis and necrosis, pericarditis and hemorrhages ( Phiri, 2006;Ayroe et al., 2016). According to (Ayroe et al, 2016) survey, out of the total of 98 respondents on cattle offal consumption, preferential consumption of the liver was 72 (38.7%), with 14 (7.5%) of the respondents preferring intestines and 2 (1.1%) preferring the lungs. In Ghana, there is insufficient information on consumer preference for specific offal and the related possible pathogenic organisms that can cause zoonotic infection(Ayroe et al., 2016). Over the years, the abattoir operations have serve as a valuable sources of information concerning the incidence of animal diseases and conditions, which may be zoonotic(Fearon, Mensah, ; Boateng, 2014).
The purpose of this research was to emphasize the importance of the application of histological diagnostic technique as investigative tools for the identification and profiling of offal zoonotic infectious pathogens in goat and cattle with focus on hepatic, lung and enteric pathogens from selected meat vendors in the Ho Municipality.