SOC-220:Social Problem Analytic Framework: UrbanizationIn sociology, it is important to understand how to analyze a social problem using the micro and macro analytic perspectives. This assignment will help you learn this skill. In an essay (1,500-2,000 words) you will analyzethe problem of urbanization.
Use the following analytic framework to construct your essay. Required: a minimum of three scholarly sources to support the analysis (your text can be one source).Be sure this is an integrated, fully developed essay (e.g., do not simply provide a response in each category of the analytic framework below).As with all analytic essays, you should have a well-formulated introduction and conclusion.
Problem Statement about Urbanization
Most of the developed countries are becoming more advanced through the improvement of infrastructure, which improves the life style of the citizens of the countries (Benna & Garba, 2016). Most of the cities are having the necessary facilities, which are important in providing services to the general population improving their lifestyle. This has led to a majority of the people living in the rural areas migrating to the urban areas, which is the process known as urbanization (Benna & Garba, 2016). Urbanization has largely impacted governments in trying to provide adequate services to all citizens of the countries in a fair and equal way and this can impact the economic status of a country. (Benna & Garba, 2016). This paper will analyze the issue of urbanization and what interventions can be implemented to address the issue.
What is the social problem?
In this section of the essay, encapsulate the essence of a social problem associated with urbanization (e.g. urban renewal and “top down” city planning, air & water quality, housing)
Clearly describe a specific problem associated with urbanization. What is the extent, scope and severity of this problem? (Use your text or other scholarly sources to support your description of the problem.) Briefly summarize the negative consequences of this problem to society as a whole and/or to specific groups of people. Why is it important to understand and address this social problem? Why change the status quo?
Individuals searching for better opportunities in the urban areas may cause urbanization. This has an effect in the urban areas, which in result grow and develop to sustain the growing population, which requires more resources to sustain their lives (Benna & Benna, 2018). Majority of individuals have the perspective that urban areas provide more opportunities, better services that may include healthcare services and security services. Due to the high number of individuals moving into the cities, the urban areas are becoming overcrowded which may have negative effects on air & water quality. A large population may have a negative effect on the available resources causing a health risk to the individuals living in the certain region (Benna & Benna, 2018).
This may lead to pollution due to the exhaustion of the available resources and increase the spread of infectious diseases among the individuals living in this area. An example of one of the easily transmittable diseases includes tuberculosis, which is an infectious disease, which can be transmitted through the air, which may lead to death if not addressed early in advance (Benna & Benna, 2018). Poor water and sanitation is also a major issue due to the limited water resources originally meant to serve a smaller population and sewer system developed in the earlier days when the population was small. Addressing the issue of poor air and water quality will improve the health statue of the urban population, which is a goal of every national government reducing its budget on health (Benna & Benna, 2018).
Vision of Change and Goal Clarification
What is the envisioned change as it relates to the social problem of Urbanization?
In this section of the essay, briefly describe what things would “look like” if the Urbanization were effectively addressed, minimized, eliminated, or if prevention steps were taken to alleviate undesirable consequences of the problem. What are specific goals to achieve the desired change (e.g., test and implement local programs to address and reduce the problem). Who stands to gain or lose if the envisioned change is realized?
If the issue of urbanization were effectively addressed, many positive effects would take place including a sustained environment (Li, 2016). The environment suffers a lot and bears the negative effects of a high population. By addressing urbanization, a nation is able to achieve social and economical growth in the different regions without negatively affecting the environment (Li, 2016). This can be achieved by proper planning, governing, and an equal distribution of resources to the citizens to avoid citizens migrating to the cities to look for better opportunities. A proper planning and governing can enable a sustained development in all areas, which may prevent the crowding of people in one area (Li, 2016).
Due to the rapid growth of the population in all countries, it is important that all governments plan for improvement of rural areas to create jobs and improve the quality of life for all citizens (Li, 2016). This will lead to improved social as well as economic aspects in the rural areas as urbanization is attributed to better education, healthcare, and better opportunities to address the human needs. If the envisioned change is realized, majority of the stakeholders as well as the individuals living in the urban areas will largely gain, as these changes will have positive effects benefiting these two groups (Li, 2016).
Historical Background and Current Conditions
What contextual factors influence this social problem?
In this section of the essay, briefly describe two contextual factors that have influenced this social problem (e.g., historical, economic, cultural, structural, or technological factors). (Use the text or other scholarly sources to support your discussion of contextual factors influencing the problem).
Select TWOof the sociological theories (functionalist theory, conflict theory, symbolic interactionist theory) to briefly explain this social problem, given the contextual conditions you have identified. Use one theory associated with MACRO analysis, and one theory associated with MICRO analysis to explain the problem.
One of the contextual factors influencing urbanization includes economic factors, which leads to industrialization in the urban areas (Benna & Benna, 2018). Industrialization will result in an economic growth, which will provide employment opportunities for individuals. Due to the increasing number of unemployed individuals in the rural areas, they will migrate to the urban areas to access these opportunities (Benna & Benna, 2018). The increasing population will also lead to more companies being established in these areas leading to an increased growth. This will also lead to a high demand of industry labor. Cultural factors are also attributed to urbanization. These factors include the thoughts that the urban areas have more satisfaction due to the improved social, economic, and political developments (Benna & Benna, 2018).
Cultural aspects are also connected to technological innovations, which are aimed at improving the life style of the available population and sustaining the lifestyle of these individuals (Benna & Benna, 2018). Most of the investors have the cultural view of poor and low lifestyles in the rural areas, which discourage them in investing in these areas instead concentrating on the urban areas where there are increased opportunities for their investments (Benna & Benna, 2018). The conflict theory is associated with urbanization in that political and economic elites use the resources from the poor to grow their wealth, which creates a large gap between the rich and the poor. This gap contributes to a conflict in the values and norms in the urban areas and the rural areas. The different lifestyles between the poor and the rich bring different perspectives where the rich are perceived to live high lifestyles with the poor living very low lifestyles struggling to meet their needs (Benna & Benna, 2018).
Due to these perspectives, there is a conflict of beliefs and practices between the rich and the poor. Urbanization comes as a result of the rich displacing the poor in order to set their industries (Benna & Benna, 2018). Functionalism theory is based on the perspective that urban areas provide many important functions for the society compared to the rural areas (Benna & Benna, 2018). Urban areas provide a platform for development and creativity as well as increased crime and other health issues associated with a high population. Social bonds are strengthened as the urban areas continue to grow due to the increased diversity and same goals for a majority of the population (Benna & Benna, 2018).
Possible Directions to Achieve Desired Change
What is needed to achieve the vision of change and address the identified social problem?
In this section of the essay, briefly summarize and provide a rationale for adopting one possible approach to achieve the desired change. Approaches to consider using to address this problem include prevention, intervention, social reform, and reconstruction. (Refer to Chapter 1 Section 1.4 Future Prospects: Solving Social Problems in Introduction to Social Problems).
How might stakeholders (those who might support or oppose the desired social change) be considered in planning an approach to social change?
The negative effects of urbanization can be prevented by building a sustainable urban area where the government implements laws to govern the planning and the setting up of infrastructure in the urban areas (Leon-Guerrero, 2018). This will prevent the unsafe environment that surrounds the urban areas and pollution due to inadequate resources. The urban resources should also be better managed to prevent the exhaustion of these resources leading to a more serious situation (Leon-Guerrero, 2018). Some of the strategies can include recycling of resources and a pollution management policy. The current infrastructure can be reconstructed and improved to cater for the increasing number of individuals from the rural areas. Since most of the basic services are more accessible in the urban areas, the stakeholders involved should improve the provision of these services (Leon-Guerrero, 2018).
There is a high demand for these services, which include healthcare, water, and electricity. The government supporting the investors in the improvement of the available services will address the issue of urbanization (Leon-Guerrero, 2018). Stakeholders who support addressing urbanization should be included in the planning of urban areas, which include the provision of the essential services, which include education, health, food, and water (Leon-Guerrero, 2018). Employment opportunities should also be planned for to ensure that the urban population are able to earn a living to enable them to pay for the essential services. Stakeholders opposing these changes should be allowed to participate in the process through their contribution of advice and important information, which would help other stakeholders in evaluating their ideas and strategies (Leon-Guerrero, 2018).
Future Prospects: Suggested Strategies to Alleviate the Problem
Finally, in this section of the essay, propose two to three practical steps or strategies to move forward with the selected approach to change. Make sure your suggestions are aligned with the approach you proposed above (e.g. prevention, intervention) What are the strengths/limitations of your proposed strategies?
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the GCU Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
One of the intervention strategies in urbanization is the creation of more jobs to reduce the negative effects of rapid urbanization (Trevin?o, 2015). A majority of the population access the urban areas to seek employment opportunities. This creates an influx of between the supply of the required workforce and the available employment opportunities (Trevin?o, 2015). These people cannot go back to the rural areas and stay in the urban areas waiting for opportunities to show up which can increase the rate of crime and other negative effects. The stakeholders involved can use the natural resources in finding solutions to the employment opportunities. Creation of employment opportunities is an advantage in addressing the crime issue, which is as a result of the large number of individuals without jobs (Trevin?o, 2015).
This will also lead to an improved economic value in the urban areas. However, a disadvantage of this strategy is that more and more individuals will keep migrating to the cities in search of employment opportunities, which may lead to limited resources in addressing the increasing number of individuals (Trevin?o, 2015). Inadequate resources will also lead to health and economic issues. A second strategy would be to build greener cities, which involves addressing the side effects of industrialization, which may lead to climate change and other negative effects to the entire country (Trevin?o, 2015). Cities contribute over 70% of the total gas emissions which negativity affect the environment. This is a high percentage compared to the space occupied by the urban area. There are many activities in urban areas due to the intense human activities increasing the levels of pollution in the environment (Trevin?o, 2015).
A high level of pollution will affect the vegetation, the air, and the water in this region negatively affecting the health of individuals living in these areas and the surrounding areas. This also continues to increase due to the high demand for services and products. Building a green city will benefit the individuals living in this area as well as a better utilization of the available resources (Trevin?o, 2015). A limitation of this proposed strategy is the high costs involved in the implementing of the policies and strategies aimed at achieving this goal. However, this is an important social issue, which the government and all other stakeholders involved should seriously consider regardless of the total costs involved. The benefits that come with an efficient and improved system are more important compared to the costs required in addressing the issue (Trevin?o, 2015).
Benna, U. G., & Benna, I. (2018). Urbanization and its impact on socio-economic growth in developing regions. Hershey, PA IGI GLobal, Disseminator of Knowledge.
Benna, U. G., & Garba, S. B. (2016). Population growth and rapid urbanization in the developing world. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
Leon-Guerrero, A. (2018). Social problems: Community, policy and social action. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
Li, M. (2016). Urbanization and public health in China. London ; Hackensack, NJ : Imperial College Press.
Trevin?o, A. J. (2015). Investigating social problems. Los Angeles, Calif.: Sage Publications.