SERVICE QUALITY SCALE DEVELOPMENT FOR HOSPITALITY SECTOR By MARHABA TASSADAQ MS TQM 15-05 Under the supervision of Dr

SERVICE QUALITY SCALE DEVELOPMENT FOR HOSPITALITY SECTOR

By
MARHABA TASSADAQ
MS TQM 15-05
Under the supervision of
Dr. Muhammad Usman Awan
A thesis submitted for the partial fulfillment for the
Degree of MS. TQM (Total Quality Management)
Institute of Quality and Technology Management
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Quaid-e-Azam campus, University of the Punjab Lahore – Pakistan
Session 2015 – 2017

Approval Certificate
This Thesis by “Marhaba Tassadaq” is hereby approved for submission to University of the Punjab Lahore for the Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MS. Total Quality Management.

______________________________
Prof. Dr. Abdul Salam
Director
Institute of Quality and Technology Management
Quaid e Azam Campus
University of the Punjab, Lahore
______________________________
Dr. Muhammad Usman Awan
Supervisor
Institute of Quality and Technology Management
Quaid e Azam Campus
University of the Punjab, Lahore
Dedication
This thesis is dedicated to my parents and my siblings for all the love, support and encouragement they have given me and all prayers and supplications to God for me during my journey to achieve my goals in life. This thesis is also dedicated to my beloved friend Sarah Ali Janjua for her endless love, support and encouragement all along the way. Her faith and confidence in me never fails.
Declaration
I declare that this work has not been acknowledged before for any degree and isn’t in effect simultaneously submitted for some other degree. I additionally proclaim that this research is the consequence of my own work, research and investigation, aside from where generally expressed (an appendix is attached).

I, the witnesses, thusly declare that the work is exhibited in this thesis entitled “Service quality scale development for hospitality sector” in fulfillment of prerequisite for the honor of Degree of Ms. Total Quality Management, Submitted in the Department, Institute of Quality and Technology Management, University of the Punjab is my very own genuine record work did under the supervision of Dr. Muhammad Usman Awan. The material in this thesis has not been presented by me for the honor for some other degree or certificate either by this or by some other University.

Acknowledgements
In the name of Allah, the most Gracious, most beneficent and most Merciful. First of all, I would like to express my gratitude to Allah S.W.T and His Beloved Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (Peace Be upon him) for all the love and blessings to allowing me to complete this thesis.

I might earnestly want to offer my genuinely thanks to my administrator Dr. Muhammad Usman Awan from Punjab University Lahore, without whom this work would not have been conceivable. It has been extremely a long voyage. Especially, I might want to much oblige for his understanding, time and expert direction, consistent help, inspiration, trust in my work and important contributions amid this long adventure. He was dependably there inquiring as to myself and my work, solving basic issues that i looked amid the time of this research, since he was sure even in the difficult circumstances. He’s an extraordinary instructor, a perfect coach and a man of words.
Other than that, I might want to expresses gratitude toward Mr. Jafar Husain for giving me significant data, all his work and resource of life with respect to SPSS and data analysis. Next, I additionally wish to say thanks to Madam Saliha for her endless effort and support.
To wrap things up, because of my family particularly to my Father (Tassadaq Ahmed Khan) for having confidence in me and my Mom (Nuzhat Lodhi) , siblings (Madiha, Komal, Hamza) for their help. And how can I forget you guys a very special thanks my beloved best friends Sarah Ali Janjua, Noor Manzor and Nafessa Akram for having a confidence in me, thank you all for awesome understanding, moral help and love which helped me impressively.

Thank you very much.

Marhaba Tassadaq
If this pursuit of mine is praiseworthy, the credit goes to “Allah Almighty and His beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be upon him)” without whose blessings, faith and love, I would not have been standing here blessed, educated, loved, since I was formed in my mother womb. O’ Allah Almighty, I praised you for blessing me this wonderful life, family, friends, and teachers.

Thank you Allah for everything you gave me, for everything you didn’t give me, for everything you protected me from- that which I know and that which I’m not even aware of, thank you for blessings that I didn’t even realize were blessings, thank you for guidance when I felt like I was slipping and thank you for everything else because no matter how many things I try to list, at the end of the day, I can’t even come close to thanking you enough.

Thank you Allah Almighty for giving me abilities to do my work. Thank you Allah for the provisions you have given me.

ALHAMDULILLAH
Table of contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Chapter 1: Introduction PAGEREF _Toc518403749 h 141.1: Preface PAGEREF _Toc518403750 h 141.2: Introduction PAGEREF _Toc518403751 h 141.3: Background Information PAGEREF _Toc518403752 h 151.4: Significance of the research PAGEREF _Toc518403753 h 161.5: Objectives of Research PAGEREF _Toc518403754 h 171.6: Structure of Thesis PAGEREF _Toc518403755 h 17Chapter 2: Literature Review on Hospitality Industry PAGEREF _Toc518403756 h 192.1: What Is Hospitality Industry? PAGEREF _Toc518403757 h 192.2: History of Hospitality PAGEREF _Toc518403758 h 202.3: Hotel PAGEREF _Toc518403759 h 202.4: Classification of Hotels PAGEREF _Toc518403760 h 212.4.1: Business Hotels PAGEREF _Toc518403761 h 212.4.2: Airport Hotels PAGEREF _Toc518403762 h 222.4.3: Suite Hotels PAGEREF _Toc518403763 h 222.4.4: Extended Stay Hotel PAGEREF _Toc518403764 h 222.4.5: Apartment Hotel PAGEREF _Toc518403765 h 232.4.6: Resort Hotels PAGEREF _Toc518403766 h 232.4.7: Bed and Breakfast Hotel PAGEREF _Toc518403767 h 232.4.8: Timeshare ; Condominium Hotel PAGEREF _Toc518403768 h 242.4.9: Casino Hotel PAGEREF _Toc518403769 h 242.4.10: Conference Centre PAGEREF _Toc518403770 h 242.4.11: Convention Centre PAGEREF _Toc518403771 h 242.5: Departments of Hotel PAGEREF _Toc518403772 h 252.5.1: Food and Beverages PAGEREF _Toc518403773 h 252.5.2: Front Office PAGEREF _Toc518403774 h 252.5.3: Kitchen PAGEREF _Toc518403775 h 252.5.4: Housekeeping PAGEREF _Toc518403776 h 252.5.5: Gaming PAGEREF _Toc518403777 h 262.5.6: Sales ; Marketing PAGEREF _Toc518403778 h 262.5.7: Human Resource PAGEREF _Toc518403779 h 262.5.8: Accounts PAGEREF _Toc518403780 h 262.5.9: Maintenance PAGEREF _Toc518403781 h 262.5.10: Security PAGEREF _Toc518403782 h 27Chapter 03: TQM, Service Quality ; Tourism Industry PAGEREF _Toc518403783 h 283.1: Total Quality Management (TQM) PAGEREF _Toc518403784 h 283.2: Customer Satisfaction PAGEREF _Toc518403785 h 293.3: Service Quality PAGEREF _Toc518403786 h 323.3.1: Dimensions of Service Quality PAGEREF _Toc518403787 h 333.3.2: Service Quality in Hospitality Industry PAGEREF _Toc518403788 h 353.4: Tourism Industry PAGEREF _Toc518403789 h 363.4.1: Tourism Industry and Its Importance PAGEREF _Toc518403790 h 373.5: Service Quality in Tourism PAGEREF _Toc518403791 h 393.6: Tourism in Pakistan: PAGEREF _Toc518403792 h 403.6.1: Contribution of Tourism in GDP and Jobs in Pakistan PAGEREF _Toc518403793 h 41Chapter 04: Research Methodology PAGEREF _Toc518403794 h 434.1: Research Design and Approach PAGEREF _Toc518403795 h 434.2: Development of Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc518403796 h 444.3: Sampling PAGEREF _Toc518403797 h 444.4: Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc518403798 h 454.5: Development of Theoretical Framework for Analysis PAGEREF _Toc518403799 h 45Chapter 05: Data Analysis and Results PAGEREF _Toc518403800 h 475.1: Preface PAGEREF _Toc518403801 h 475.2: Demographical Analysis PAGEREF _Toc518403802 h 475.3: Data Normality Analysis PAGEREF _Toc518403803 h 505.4: Reliability and Factor Analysis PAGEREF _Toc518403804 h 515.5: Principal Component Factor Analysis PAGEREF _Toc518403805 h 525.6: KMO and Bartlett’s Test PAGEREF _Toc518403806 h 565.7: Descriptive Statistics PAGEREF _Toc518403807 h 575.8: Correlation Analysis PAGEREF _Toc518403808 h 585.9: Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) PAGEREF _Toc518403809 h 60Chapter 6: Conclusion and Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc518403810 h 696.1: Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc518403811 h 696.2: Limitations PAGEREF _Toc518403812 h 716.3: Recommendations for Future Studies PAGEREF _Toc518403813 h 71References PAGEREF _Toc518403814 h 72Appendix 1. Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc518403815 h 82Appendix 2: Questionnaire Items (Along With Dimensions And Abbreviations Used In Analysis) PAGEREF _Toc518403816 h 88
Table of Figures
TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1.1: Structure of Thesis PAGEREF _Toc518403831 h 18Figure 2.1: Hierarchal Chart of Hotel PAGEREF _Toc518403832 h 27Figure 3.1: Components of TQM Philosophy and Their Interrelationships PAGEREF _Toc518403833 h 29Figure 4.1: Theoretical Framework for Service Quality Scale Development PAGEREF _Toc518403834 h 46Figure 5.1: Developed CFA Model Using AMOS 20 PAGEREF _Toc518403835 h 64
List of Tables
TOC h z c “Table” Table 1: Service Quality Dimensions PAGEREF _Toc518403817 h 34Table 2: Demographic Analysis PAGEREF _Toc518403818 h 49Table 3: Normality Table PAGEREF _Toc518403819 h 50Table 4: Reliability Table PAGEREF _Toc518403820 h 51Table 5: Dimension Wise Reliability Table PAGEREF _Toc518403821 h 52Table 6: Principal Component Factor Analysis PAGEREF _Toc518403822 h 53Table 7: KMO and Bartlett’s Test PAGEREF _Toc518403823 h 57Table 8: Descriptive Statistics PAGEREF _Toc518403824 h 57Table 9: Correlation Analysis PAGEREF _Toc518403825 h 59Table 10: Goodness of fit statistics in CFA PAGEREF _Toc518403826 h 61Table 11: Sequence Wise List of Deleted Items PAGEREF _Toc518403827 h 62Table 12: Reliability Analysis of Developed CFA Model PAGEREF _Toc518403828 h 65Table 13: Correlation among Variables of Developed CFA Model PAGEREF _Toc518403829 h 66Table 14: Dimensions and Items of Developed Service Quality Scale PAGEREF _Toc518403830 h 67
Abstract
Providing quality service is one of the significant difficulty the hospitality supervisors will look in the next years as it is a basic condition for achievement in the rising, distinctly competitive, worldwide hospitality markets. There are different legal instrument that standard and enhance quality service, and in summation components for quality acknowledgment in the tourism and hospitality industry.

The purpose of this research is developing reliable and valid service quality measurement instruments that can be used in any hospitality industry. For this research, five dimensional scale was designed to develop and for data collection procedure questionnaire was designed on the bases of those dimensions. Sample size was 300 respondents from which only 250 responses were received in useful form and after data cleaning process it remains only 213. SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) software version 22 and AMOS version 20 were used for data analysis.

After the results come from respondents, analysis was applied on that responses to check the reliability as well as validity of items. After passing through all stages of analysis, it is concluded that only three dimensions i.e. Tangibility (HST), Reliability (HSR) and Responsiveness (HSRE) are reliable for this scale development on the bases of their Alpha values, Tangibility dimension has Alpha value of .848, Responsiveness dimension has Alpha value of .762, and Reliability dimension has Alpha value of .860, as well as on the bases of Goodness of fit index (GFI is 0.918) and RMSEA is 0.052 values.

Chapter 1: Introduction1.1: PrefaceIn chapter 1 introduction to hospitality industry will explained, background information will also addressed, briefly describe objectives of research, the basic departments in the Hotel, then quality management and hospitality, and then significance of research and overview of thesis as well.

1.2: IntroductionThe hospitality business is significantly more wide-ranging than most diverse businesses. The largest part of business uniqueness are made out of just a gang of various organizations, however this industry relates to any organization that is focused on consumer loyalty and addressing comfortable needs as opposed to fundamental frequency ones. While this industry is exceptionally expansive, there are some characterizing position that are requirement to get it.

The hospitality business is an income produced industry that be affected by the accessibility of spare time and non-returnable cash A hospitality sector such as restaurants, hotels, or an amusement park comprise of numerous clusters like facility conservation, uninterrupted actions for example attendants, housekeepers, doorkeepers, kitchen workers, bartenders, management, marketing, and human resource etc. Turnover ratio is basic variable for the hospitality business. Every business owner would desire a fruitful skill to be in use as much as possible i.e. like divergent to having to compensate stable amount without business running, just like restaurants, hotels and theme parks effort to maximize the ratio of customers they employed in all sectors of their business. It is directed to the establishment of services with target to maximize the turnover rate delivered by the hotel management. Information related to needed or presented items are traded on business network used by sellers as well as purchasers.
Service quality scale advancement is been the subject of this thesis, since it is important to build up a solid and legitimate scale which measure the desire for client as well as offer advantage to managerial level to expand client reliability to their image.

Further, I will discuss the background of the thesis and the aim of this thesis study will be introduced, and then the significance.

1.3: Background Information
Service quality is a measure of how well the level of service conveyed matches client desires. Hospitality segment is a noteworthy service situated segment in the economy of a country. Service quality can be seen from two points of view – inside and outer. Inside quality depends on the conformance to particular. Outer quality depends on relative client saw quality.

Numerous scientists have examined the hospitality business when all is said in done and lodging industry specifically with respect to the nature of service gave by these associations. A survey of a portion of these works is displayed.
Parasuraman et al. (1985) have proposed that eye to eye associations, creating client trust through long lasting system, understanding client partialities to expend, pre-testing new methodology and equipment’s, instructing buyers with respect to utilization of service development would help in closing the standard gap between client desire and client discernment.

Gronross (1987) has detailed that useful quality is a more vital measurement of saw benefit than specialized quality. Embodiment of service quality lies in enhancing the useful nature of a company’s service by dealing with the purchaser merchant connection when contrasted with customary showcasing exercises. He stressed the requirement for more research on purchaser’s perspective of service quality.
Lewis (1987) has analyzed inn service quality in connection to the service quality model proposed by Parasuraman. These discoveries could have significant effect for lodging service advertisers. Graham (1987) has said that client judgment, client boards and result in addition to conveyance are vital for better service quality.

Akbaba (2005) has said that the part of service quality in the accomplishment of inn organizations can’t be ignored. It is crucial for the inn administrators to have a decent comprehension on what precisely the clients need. Distinguishing the particular desires for clients, the measurements of the service quality, and their relative significance for clients for every particular fragment of lodging industry would help administrators in the test of enhancing the service quality. The business explorers have the most prominent desires for the measurement of “accommodation” trailed by “confirmation”, “effects”, sufficiency in benefit supply”, and “understanding and minding”.

1.4: Significance of the researchNone of any service quality scale is developed to measure the service quality in hospitality sector in Pakistan so this scale will use to measure the service quality and also give benefit to administrative level as well. So this research will benefit theoretically as well as practically in future. Theoretically in the sense of literature for readers who want to develop service quality scale for any sector. Practically it will be helpful for those who want to implement this scale on hospitality sector to measure the expectations as well as satisfaction of hotel guest and also help the administrative level of hospitality sector to increase their revenue and customer loyalty to their brand. Because this research presents a model with three dimensions only and if administrative management work out on the accepted dimensions only then they can increase their customer loyalty and revenue as well.

1.5: Objectives of ResearchTo develop service quality scale for hospitality sector is the main purpose of this research which will retain the customers and to attract the potential customers for hospitality business in future. Researcher would also address the following questions with development of service quality scale for hospitality sector which may act a vital role in scale construction.

What services are guest looking for in the hotels?
How do guest like the service of hotel and why?
Explain the factors that are important for evaluation of hotel services
How these factors influence customer turnover?
1.6: Thesis Structure
The main components of thesis are Introduction, literature review, methodology, findings, discussion and conclusion. Problem, purpose and significance of this research is explained in first section of this thesis. The next (second) section consist on dual parts to examine past inquiries about which helps to identify the research questions and also help to develop theoretical framework to meet the research objectives. Chapter two indicates the history of hospitality and its working area along with hotel types and departments.
Third chapter indicates the literature related to total quality management (TQM), service quality and impact of service quality on tourism industry. Contribution of tourism in Pakistan’s employment and GDP is also discussed. The third section of this thesis is research methodology which is discussed in chapter four. Research design and development of questionnaire are identify in the start of this chapter. Sampling and data collection is also discussed further.
Section four is about the data analysis and results of this research. Conclusion, limitations and suggestion are included in section fifth, chapter six. Sixth section is about references and appendices
Figure 1. SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: Structure of Thesis1495425181927500
Chapter 2: Literature Review on Hospitality IndustryThis chapter presents the concept of hospitality industry. It includes history, origin, classification, departments and designation hierarchy. Now a day hospitality industry is becoming most boom and flourished industry. Hotel is not simple as building, because it employs many people, especially female.

2.1: What Is Hospitality Industry?Service industry is sub divided into many sectors in which hospitality industry is one. The hospitality industry is an extensive group of fields that comprise into accommodation, banquets, transportation, casino, theme parks, cruise line and much more. The hospitality industry is a revenue generated industry that be influenced by the accessibility of free time and non-returnable money. A hospitality sector Such as restaurants, hotels, or an amusement park comprise of numerous clusters like facility conservation, uninterrupted actions for example waiters, housekeepers, doorkeepers, kitchen workers, bartenders, management, marketing, and human resource etc. Turnover ratio is basic variable for the hospitality industry. Every business owner would desire a fruitful skill to be in use as much as possible i.e. like divergent to having to compensate stable amount without business running, just like restaurants, hotels and theme parks effort to maximize the ratio of customers they employed in all sectors of their business. It is directed to the establishment of services with target to maximize the turnover rate delivered by the hotel management. Information related to needed or presented items are traded on business network used by sellers as well as purchasers. (Padash and Esfahani, 2008).
To observing at several industries, “hurdles to access” by beginners and modest advantages between existing participants are actual significant. Besides further objects, hospitality industry participants catch benefits in old classics location, early and continuing investment support limited in the material maintenance of services and the amenities present within, and specific theme assumed by the marketing support of the organization in query for example at theme restaurants. Similarly actual significances are the appearance of the staff working in one-to-one interaction with the guests. The faithfulness, proficiency and actual concern for the pleasure and comfort of the guests that is delivered by prosperous organization is a strong economic benefit (Reyad, A. 2005).
2.2: History of Hospitality
A concept of “hotel” or firstly use “inn” was given by British Law which was “the specific place that can provide housing and food to a person who is tourist and he has enough money to pay for it. So hotels must facilitate with food and shelters to tourists but they were not bound to facilitate that person who was drunk, notorious or had no money to pay bills. Initial tourists were soldiers, merchants or knowledge loving people. But at that time hotel were not advent. Therefore, soldiers and defenders use camps for housing. Inn keeping was the first concept of hospitality service for which money was alter or give and take as a business. In Biblical time there was only a single cot or bench in the core that inn were provided. Tourists were forced to spend day and night and share room with other people as well as sometime with animals. This method definitely disturb their privacy but rates or bills were cheap. When Roman Empire of 3rd century A.D established the network of roads with brick cover throughout the Spain and Turkey then a lot of roadside motels were constructed (Getty, J.M. ; Thompson, K.N. 1994).

2.3: HotelHotel is a simple terminology to define inn, motel (road side hotel), conference centers, convention centers, and many other lodging facilities. A hotel or inn is based or develop on the primary business that delivered lodging facilities to any guest which include single or multiple following services (Parpostel 1987).

F;B ( food and beverage service )
Housekeeping
Valet parking
Washing and iron of cloths
Comfortable furniture
Services related to bell and door attended
Meeting and Event planning
Conference room and business center
2.4: Classification of HotelsHotels are categories depending on the area covered, geographical location, target market, standard of amenities, room’s quantities, management, associations etc. (Tarmoezi, 2000)
Depending on area covered and room’s quantity hotels are classified as:
Less than 150 rooms
150-299 rooms
300-600 rooms
600 rooms or more
2. Depending on target market hotels are further classified into following categories:
2.4.1: Business HotelsThese type of hotel are the leading group of hotel categories and provide services to business tourist especially. They are mostly constructed in center of city or in any business areas. While business hotels mainly facilitate to business tourists so many trip crowd, single traveler and minor conference groups fell convenient in their premises. Customer service in business hotel may consist of free of cost newspaper, bed tea, free telephonic call within city and breakfast etc. Beside these facilities standardized hotels are also provide business center, PC (personal computer), internet access or WI-FI and fax facility to please their guests.

2.4.2: Airport HotelsAirport hotels primarily target business customers, airline passenger they take overnight flight or those whose flights was cancelled or delayed due to some reasons and airline employees. Standardized hotel may facilitate to their guests by complimentary pick and drop service from hotel to airport or vice versa. To compete other hotels, many airport hotels are also facilitate to their guest by arranging meeting facility who travel by air for meeting and wants to shorten the ground distance. To get customer loyalty many airport hotels charge their guests hourly instead of daily basis.
2.4.3: Suite HotelsSuite hotels are the fastest growing and modern development in hospitality industry. These kind of hotels provide the facility of guestroom with attached living room and single bedroom. Some suite have less or more specific public area offered instead of giving complete living room to their guests. Though this suit hotels easily compete guestroom’s price in market. Professions like accountant, lawyers, writers, business men and managers wish to stay in suit especially because they can work and also amuse themselves in an area side by the bedroom.
2.4.4: Extended Stay HotelExtended stay hotels are more or less similar to suit hotel but slightly difference is they provide kitchen facility which suits don’t. These type are hotels are best for those tourists who want to stay more days than a week and love to cook food by their own. These hotels basically do not facilitate their guest by Food ; beverages or laundry services. These hotel are “home away from home” for these tourists.

2.4.5: Apartment HotelThese type of hotels are also considered as housing hotels and facilitate continuing or permanent lodging for guests. In this case, tourists basically do hire agreement with the hotel authority for at least 1 month to 1 year. These hire agreements repeated on yearly basis. Apartment hotels primarily provide amenities including living room, bedroom, kitchen, personal balcony, washing machine, kitchen utensils, housekeeping, laundry, telephone, some restaurants and lounge within their location.
2.4.6: Resort HotelsThese type of hotels are frequently constructed on hills, on an island, on mountains or in some mysterious place outside from cities. Resort hotels have entertaining or leisure amenities, beautiful natural locations, golf and tennis clubs, water rafting, skiing, swimming and sailing. These hotels also facilitate their guests by giving them leisure and nostalgic experiences that inspire customer to visit again.

2.4.7: Bed and Breakfast HotelBed and breakfast hotels have 20 – 30 guest rooms and provide lodging with overnight amenities. These hotels are also called “home stay”. The proprietor of B;B frequently stays in the hotel and is accountable for presenting breakfast to guests. Though these type of hotels provide minimum services to their guest so rate of room is also very low as compare to other standardize hotels which provides maximum amenities.

2.4.8: Timeshare ; Condominium HotelTimeshare hotels are the new trend of hospitality industry. These are also known as “Vacation Interval hotel”. In these hotels guests acquisition the proprietorship of lodging for limited time. Like timeshare another category of hotels is condominiums. They are slightly different from timeshare in proprietorship. Condominiums have only one owner instead of multiple and agreement of amount is also for one year only. But owner must informs the management company before to lodge in hotel.

2.4.9: Casino Hotel
Those hotels which provide gaming facilities beside other basic facilities are called casinos. They are most revenue generated hotels among all types of hotel. Besides gaming facilities food and beverages are also the part of that hotel but these are secondary facilities and supportive too. Casino hotels increase customer turnover rate by offering gambling and many leisure activities.
2.4.10: Conference Centre
Fundamentally target market of these sorts of lodgings are meeting participants. They give offices to meeting and gatherings. They additionally give astounding varying media gear, business administrations, adaptable seating game plan, flipchart and so on these lodgings generally situated outside the metropolitan territories and have offices like golf, swimming pools, tennis courts, wellness focuses, spas and so on.

2.4.11: Convention CentreConventional lodgings are biggest in estimate contrast with conference centers and likely to to have in excess of 1500 rooms. These inns are enormous and have adequate number of visitor rooms to house all participants of most traditions, even the measure of the gathering rooms, ball rooms, show rooms are very tremendous. They more often than not take into account tradition showcase for state, local, national, and worldwide affiliations. As per the class of the inn they give distinctive level of customized benefit.

2.5: Departments of HotelEvery division of the hospitality business has enter offices and thus, each of these keys offices have basic parts and capacities which must performed to give clients quality item and administrations.
2.5.1: Food and BeveragesRepresentatives in sustenance and refreshment, front of house are in charge of the feasting zone for benefit, taking reservations, welcome and seating clients, advancing specials and making proposals, taking requests, gathering installments and cleaning eating zones.

2.5.2: Front OfficeThe front office is front of house office which obliges the necessities of clients. This incorporate gathering, taking reservations, noting phone calls and taking messages for staff and clients, getting ready and preparing accounts.

2.5.3: KitchenNourishment creation or kitchen is the back of house division which plan suppers requested through in house eatery or in room benefit. Individual from sustenance generation office are in charge of menus, planning, keeps up of equipment’s, staying up to date with patterns to stay aware of client needs and desires.

2.5.4: HousekeepingIt is basically back of the house division; anyway workers around there will have some contact with clients. Individual from housekeeping office are in charge of the general cleanliness and neatness of foundation. Their obligations may incorporate keeping up open zones, cleaning and adjusting visitor rooms and clothing obligations.

2.5.5: GamingIt is front of house division in charge of giving gaming offices, for example, poker machine and TAB. Different duties incorporate giving quality administrations, keeping minor from betting and giving the capable service of betting.

2.5.6: Sales & MarketingThe reason for this back of the house division is to offer the items and administrations of a foundation. This incorporates taking an interest in public exhibitions and giving promoting in a scope of suitable media.

2.5.7: Human ResourceIt is solely back of house and in charge of the everyday running of a foundation. Obligations in this division incorporate enlisting and staff preparing, staff lists and keeping staff records. Individual from this division ought to have a decent comprehension of all suitable enactment and controls identified with work.

2.5.8: AccountsMoney related control is a back of house office and the individuals from this office are in charge of checking the salary and consumption of a foundation.
2.5.9: MaintenanceThe principle part of this back of house office is to keep a foundation kept up in a sheltered and solid way. Support might be in house in huge foundation yet in little foundation, contractual worker would be employed. Upkeep may incorporate pipes, electrical apparatus, finishing and general jack of all trades work.
2.5.10: SecurityThe part of security office is to keep up the wellbeing and wellbeing of benefactors and staff. Huge foundations will have there on security on staff in any case, littler foundation who might not have a requirement for normal security may utilize outside contractual workers for exceptional events.

-146050199386000Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2.1: Hierarchal Chart of HotelSource: Rutherford, D. G. (2002)
Chapter 03: TQM, Service Quality & Tourism IndustryThis chapter presents the concept of total quality management, customer satisfaction, service quality in detail with dimensions and importance of service quality in hospitality and tourism. Beside these Pakistan’s tourism industry and its contribution in Pakistan’s GDP is also defined.

3.1: Total Quality Management (TQM)
To build the productivity and quality life in Japan, in 1949 Union of Japanese researchers and architects (JUSE) made a board of surely understood analysts, engineers and regulatory representors who were willing to serve their nation (Kanji, 1990). This stage is known as beginning of TQM rationale (Mahour 2006). This organization hypothesis was obliged to Japan until the mid – 1980s. It ended up worldwide when once in the past unlimited American enterprises lost generous piece of the overall industry in both American and world markets. To recoup the humble favorable position, American associations began to efficiency change programs, which had shown themselves productive in other made countries. One of these “change programs” was TQM (Kaynak 2003).

According to Fynes and Voss (2002), one of the trickiest issue meeting analyst in quality organization is the search for suitable definition. There is no simultaneousness on the importance of TQM (Reed et al. 1996) in light of the way that different people had unmistakable conclusions. ISO 8402:1994 describes TQM as: “Administration approach of an association focused on quality, in light of the cooperation of every one of its individuals and going for long haul accomplishment through consumer loyalty and advantages to all individuals from the association and to society”. Ugboro and Obeng (2000) furthermore abridge that TQM is an approach used as a piece of driving various leveled tries toward the mission of buyer dependability. Khan (2003) recommended a logic of TQM based on four convictions and suggested that the outright client center is the center part of TQM theory. Other beliefs of this philosophy are employee empowerment, involvement and development, continuous improvement and use of systematic approach to management (figure 3.1). Figure 3.1 shows that absolute customer focus is the core component of TQM philosophy.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3.1: Components of TQM Philosophy and Their Interrelationships
24193503237865Employee empowerment, involvement and development
00Employee empowerment, involvement and development

8858255524500405765016954500
319976614414500
2686050170180Absolute customer focus
00Absolute customer focus

3867150730240012954005397500
left48260Continuous improvement
00Continuous improvement
479107528575Use of systematic approach to management
00Use of systematic approach to management

14287498763100
Source: Khan (2003)
3.2: Customer Satisfaction
“Satisfaction” is the mix of two Latin words satis (enough) and facere (to do or make) (Rust et al. 1996). Since the mid-1980s, when quality organization transformed into a by and large sharpened way to deal with improve thing quality, diminish expenses and upgrade customer advantage, the issue of shopper devotion has accomplished a great deal of ceaseless verbal fight (Gustafsson and Johnson, 2004; Wirtz and Lee, 2003).
The meaning of satisfaction likewise demonstrates a solid heterogeneity (Florence et al. 2006).
The essential string of civil argument in the fulfillment writing these days is centered around the idea of the psychological and full of feeling forms that outcome in the shopper’s perspective referenced to as fulfillment (Jaronski, 2004). The subjective measurement is the arrangement of data people gather through immediate or aberrant experience while the full of feeling measurement is certain or antagonistic assessment (Florence et al. 2006). As indicated by this flood of fulfillment examine, Yi (1991) arranged consumer loyalty definitions either as an assessment procedure or as a result of assessment process. Oliver (1981), Yi (1991) and Fornell (1992) depict fulfillment as an assessment procedure where as Tse and Wilton (1988) portrays fulfillment as a result of assessment process.
Satisfaction as an assessment procedure depends on the disconfirmation of desires model. Purchasers frame desires towards item/benefit execution and these desires later fill in as models against which genuine item/benefit execution is assessed (Oliver, 1980; Churchill and Suprenant, 1982). So it is really the correlation of desires and real saw execution that outcomes either in affirmation or disconfirmation. On the off chance that desires are met, affirmation happens, generally disconfirmation happens. Disconfirmation might be certain (when observations surpass desires) or negative (when desires surpass recognitions). In this manner satisfaction is the consequence of affirmation and positive disconfirmation while negative disconfirmation advisers for disappointment. Utilization of the expression “positive disconfirmation” was confounding so Anderson and Sullivan (1993) received the expression “affirmation” as a substitute for the expression “positive disconfirmation”.

The structure of consumer loyalty as a result of an assessment procedure depends on the satisfaction as states the model created by Oliver (1989). Oliver (1997) additionally found that satisfaction identifies with pleasurable feelings, those moving toward energy or enjoyment and inclining toward satisfaction and unwinding; while disappointment identifies with offensive, disillusioning and infuriating feelings. Zeithaml and Bitner (2000) found that satisfaction is identified with help. Concentrates by Folkes et al. (1987), Mooradian and Oliver (1995) additionally examined the connection amongst satisfaction and feeling. These studies reported that satisfaction is obviously identified with full of feeling assessments and emotional assessments are forerunners to satisfaction. Although psychological states have some impact on satisfaction, the idea is clearly identified with full of feeling states, or feelings (Wicks, 2004).

For all intents and purposes all exploration on consumer loyalty concurs that consumer loyalty is a key segment of monetary achievement (Horvath, 2001). There are two unique sorts of assessments of consumer loyalty from the monetary brain science point of view. One is exchange particular fulfillment and the other is total fulfillment (Johnson et al., 1995). Fulfillment that happens totally at time of the organization movement is alluded to as exchange particular fulfillment (Parasuraman et al., 1988; Bitner, 1990) while aggregate fulfillment approach describes satisfaction as customer’s general comprehension to date with a thing or expert center (Johnson and Fornell, 1991). Fornell et al. (1996) fight that the combined fulfillment create is better prepared to anticipate coming about practices and financial execution over a more exchange particular view since customers settle on repurchase appraisals and decisions in light of their purchase and usage experience to date, not just a specific exchange or scene (Johnson et al., 2001).

3.3: Service Quality
Service quality has been an as often as possible contemplated subject in benefit showcasing writing (Su et al., 2008). Distinctive implications of administration quality have been proposed previously (Jain and Gupta, 2004) notwithstanding the way that it is a subtle and interesting build up that is difficult to portray and measure (Cronin and Taylor, 1992). Service quality is known as a gap between the customer’s wants for an organization and the customer’s impression of the organization got (Parasuraman et al., 1985). The shopper fulfillment writing sees these desires as evaluations about what is probably going to occur amid a future exchange, though the administration quality writing sees them as wants or needs communicated by the buyer (Kandampully, 2002). Grönroos (1984) portrays advantage quality as “the result of an assessment procedure where the shopper contrasts his desires and the administration he saw he has gotten”.
Implications of value have fused: a) fantastic or pleasing the client or surpassing desires; b) result of administration includes that fulfill expressed or suggested needs; c) conformance to plainly determined prerequisites; and d) wellness for utilize, whereby the item addresses the client’s issues and is free of insufficiencies (Chelladurai and Chang, 2000). Unmistakable makers have portrayed it differently anyway most by and large recognized definitions are those proposed by Parasuraman et al., (1988) and Cronin and Taylor (1992). Parasuraman et al., (1988) describe advantage quality as the qualification between what the customer feels that a master association should offer and his perspective of what the expert helpful truly offers. In any case Cronin and Taylor (1992) battle that lone impression of execution decide benefit quality and wants have no a motivating force in figuring service quality.

3.3.1: Dimensions of Service QualityThe writing reveals that no nonspecific measure of administration quality for all organizations has created (Blose and Tankersley, 2004). In this way, benefit quality is generally acknowledged to be a multi-level form with different estimations making up each level. Be that as it may, analysts have changed with respect to the amount of estimations joined into each model.
The service quality create progressed out of the quality writing in collecting. Quality exercises return to the 1920’s when producers began to base on controlling the physical production of stock and the inside estimations of the age strategy (Kandampully, 2002). The Total Quality Movement (TQM) inside amassing bit by bit obscured and has offered course to another odel focused upon the administration territory and the customer/provider relationship. More than 66% of American workers right now live in the organization division (Orwig, Pearson, and Cochran, 1997). Service quality has transformed into a mind blowing to comes about, for instance, buyer dedication (Anderson, Fornell, and Lehmann, 1994; differentiator among associations and is a champion among the most earth shattering weapons which various driving organization affiliations have (Kandampully, 1998). Service quality has been associated Grönroos, 1984, 1990, 2001; Ko and Pastore, 2004), customer steadfastness (Kandampully, 1998; Zeithaml, Parasuraman, and Berry, 1990), esteem (Laroche, Ueltschy, Shuzo, and Cleveland, 2004) and repurchase aim (Fornell, 1992).

-685804470400Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1: Service Quality DimensionsA wide collection of service quality dimensions have been proposed (See Table 1). Most focal points of value evaluation have underscored a) the physical setting, for example, offices; b) the relational associations between both the customer and worker or between two customers; and c) the center administration (Chelladurai and Chang, 2000). Grönroos (1984) offered a two-dimensional model contained specialized quality and useful quality. Lehtinen and Lehtinen (1983) set forward a two-dimensional approach to manage benefit quality containing process quality and result quality. Lehtinen and Lehtinen (1991) similarly introduced a three dimensional approach included physical quality, natural quality, and corporate quality. Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry’s (1988a) SERVQUAL indicate contained five estimations, which incorporates physical assets, dependability, responsiveness, confirmation and sympathy Rust and Oliver (1994) presented a three-dimensional model of administration quality including the administration item, benefit conveyance and administration condition. Dabholkar, et al’s. (1996) three-dimensional model included physical viewpoints, dependability and individual associations. Brady and Cronin’s (2001) three-dimensional model of administration quality comprised of communication quality, physical condition quality and result quality.

3.3.2: Service Quality in Hospitality IndustryService quality in hospitality industry transform into a standout amongst the most huge part of accomplishing modest advantages and clients’ confirmation in the to a great degree aggressive commercial center, and in this way service quality can give the hospitality industry an incredible chance to build humble decent variety for association. It is accordingly known as indispensable center idea and a basic achievement factor in the hospitality industry (Chelladurai and Chang, 2000). A prosperous inn gives brilliant quality service to visitors, and service quality is known as the foundation of lodging. Generally welfares can be proficient by benefit quality, for example, making consumer loyalty, sponsoring to business appearance, setting up client dependability, and giving an unassuming advantages to a business (Petzer et al., 2009). Service quality execution can mean distinctive to various individuals, for instance, workers may demonstrate higher impression of service quality than clients saw, and in this way administrators and their representatives never get a kick out of the chance to distinguish shortages in service quality. In numerous underlying exploration, service quality can be characterized as the degree to which the service legitimizes the necessities or desires for the clients or disconnected it as the general engraving of visitors as concerns the shortcoming or magnificence of the service. In any case, service quality is characterized as “what the visitor gets out and will pay for” as opposed to “what the provider puts in”. Along these lines, service quality can be viewed as the gap between the expected service and the actual perceived service (Kandampully, 2002).

3.4: Tourism Industry 
The tourism business is one of the greatest undertakings on the planet, and paying little respect to late events that have made its working condition more flighty, the industry continues creating (Theobald, 2005). Tourism has been one of the world’s snappiest creating organizations, and there are gigantic social requests absolutely subordinate upon the visitor for their sustenance. It upheld 120 million livelihoods in 1995, speaking to 7% of the overall workforce. It is assessed that the amount of all-inclusive voyagers in 1994 will double to 1 billion by 2010, and 80% of vacationers start from the 20 most excessive countries.
The impact of tourism is incredibly varied. On one hand, it has a basic and undeniably positive impact in the money related and political progression in objective countries by, for instance, offering new business openings. Moreover, in particular events, it may add to a more broad social perception by making care, with respect to the varying assortment of social orders and ways of life. On the other hand, as a gadget to make occupations, it has not fulfilled its wants. Meanwhile, contradictions from guest objectives concerning gigantic negative impacts upon condition, culture and occupants’ ways of life have offered ascend to an enthusiasm for a more practical change in tourism.
The effect of development and tourism on a system is basic. Most plainly, vacationers bring wage. Be that as it may, the conduct by which this salary is pulled in and the amounts of people who get the prizes move essentially. So does the way the money is spent and the manner by which it is reinvested. At one unprecedented, tremendous scale, far reaching resorts asserted and worked by organizations may have alongside zero money related impact on a system. People from the system may be offered simply low-skilled the least pay allowed by law businesses. In these preposterous cases, tourism transforms into a significantly disinfected, in-resort understanding. Fundamentally, there are tourists and a tourism industry, anyway basically no further system commitment.
Systems are making neighborhood tourism in innovative ways, making a point to join distinctive individuals and social occasions, business visionaries, representatives, adjacent affiliations and government experts. The social order tourism industry is, fundamentally, the get-together of neighborhood associations and people that make and pitch a combination of items and endeavors to visitors. The headway of this industry is a creating wonder as systems respond to the openings and on occasion the threats, of tourism (Tohidy Ardahaey and Hydarizade, 2010).

3.4.1: Tourism Industry and Its Importance
Thinking about the snappy and continued with improvement, both past and unsurprising, of the tourism development, paying little heed to whether for amusement, business, culture, religious or prosperity purposes, and its awesome effects, both useful and antagonistic, on the earth, the economy and the overall population of both delivering and tolerating countries, on neighborhood systems and indigenous society, and also on worldwide relations and trade, Aiming to progress tried and true, viable and all around open tourism in the arrangement of right surprisingly to use their extra time for unwinding premiums or travel with reverence for the choices of society everything considered, But influenced that the world tourism industry all things considered has much to get by working in a circumstance that backings the market economy, private endeavor and unhindered trade and that serves to upgrade its profitable results for the arrangement of wealth and work.

In like manner determinedly induced that, gave different norms and a particular number of standards are viewed, careful and conservative tourism is by no means, conflicting with the creating movement of the conditions directing trade organizations and under whose aegis the endeavors of this part work and that it is possible to oblige in this fragment economy and nature, condition and progression, openness to overall trade and affirmation of social and social characters.
Considering that, with such an approach, each one of the accomplices in tourism headway – national, regional and neighborhood associations, wanders, business affiliations, workers in the region, non-authoritative affiliations and groupings of different sorts having a place with the tourism business, and furthermore have systems, the media and the vacationers themselves, have exceptional yet dependent commitments in the individual and societal change of tourism and that the specifying of their individual rights and commitments will add to meeting this point. Tourism industry is the most social issue of economy. Money related experts assume that tourism is only a bit of the economy, which is immensely tied up with culture, in light of the fact that on one hand it gives appealingly the introduction of social orders, improvements, races, landscapes, tribes and unmistakable tongues with each other and after that again it can in like manner be an advantage of pay for different countries. As tourism economy is the best jar for the countries that have a lessening industry due to having a singular thing or confined wellsprings of pay, it is getting the opportunity to be one of the greatest fiscal substances for making countries (Padash and Esfahani, 2008).

Tourism industry is considered as a champion among the most goal, most different and most lavish overall organizations in the twenty-first century and before the complete of the next decade it would lay at the most noteworthy purpose of the table of the world’s high pay wanders. Remote exchange benefit in this industry has a high incorporated a motivator for national economy of any country, that is the reason various countries consider this creating industry the key wellspring of pay, an open entryway for work, private territory advancement and money related system fortifying. Especially making countries and systems in which distinctive kinds of monetary change, for instance, extraction of regular resources or age of relics are not fiscally gainful and don’t have a basic part in world trade, have swung to the tourism systematic at no other time (Tohidy Ardahaey and Hydarizade, 2010).

3.5: Service Quality in Tourism
As indicated by Baker and Crompton (2000), the writing identified with quality in the tourism and amusement field goes back to the mid 1960’s. The tourism writing has uncovered different endeavors to understand how voyagers assess the nature of administrations they get while in the midst of some recreation (Atilgan, Akinci, and Aksoy, 2003; Baker and Crompton, 2000; Chadee and Mattsson, 1996; Frochot, 2004; Hudson, Hudson, and Miller,2004; Vogt and Fesenmaier, 1995; Weirmair and Fuchs, 1999), travel office quality (Ryan; Cliff, 1997), inn quality (Suh, Lee, Park, and Shin, 1997) et cetera. Be that as it may, as Frochot (2004) calls attention to, “the nature of tourism administrations, construct as much in light of the offer of practical administrations as on the arrangement of administration through which shoppers can accomplish profound established needs, renders its assessment sensibly mind boggling”.
Chiefs in tourism endeavor to enhance the nature of their administrations and the level of consumer loyalty in the conviction that this exertion will make faithful guests. Steadfast guests will come back to the goal and prescribe it to others (Tian-Cole and Cromption, 2003).
Nonetheless, among clients who encounter benefit issues, the individuals who get agreeable determination will probably stay faithful to the specialist co-op.

Pawitra and Tan (2003) utilize SERVQUAL so as to examine the picture of Singapore from the point of view of travelers from Indonesia. The creators take note of that the utilization of SERVQUAL in estimating a goal picture requires that it be altered keeping in mind the end goal to guarantee that the information mirror the interesting qualities gave by the goal. Visitor fulfillment can be gotten by evaluating the hole amongst anticipated and saw benefit. The goal picture can be controlled by examining traveler recognitions.
Atilgan et al. (2003) propose that social attributes affect view of administration quality in tourism. They found that distinctive social gatherings can have diverse levels of desires and discernments as far as administration quality measurements. Along these lines, a considerable lot of the things on the SERVQUAL instrument can be remarkable to various clients for various reasons. Darker and Bond III (1995) characteristic the significance of these things with respect to regardless of whether the client is aware of viewpoints, for example, time, nature of work, accounts, et cetera.

3.6: Tourism in Pakistan:Travel and tourism has fantastic association with various undertakings in the national economy making major underhanded wins and moreover enhances remote hypothesis, odds of trade, interests in private, close-by headway, and open structure. Pakistan has rich capacity of tourism in view of its rich culture, geographical and common arranged assortment, and history. Tourism has made as an instrument for making amazing financial increments. The country has distinctive guest objectives at Swat, Malam Jabba, Behrain, Kalam, Shangla, Balakot, Kaghan, Naran, Ayoubia, Murree, Chitral, Gilgit Baltistan, Hunza, and Neelam valleys, diverse tough degrees, and legitimate and archeological districts. Pakistan has exceptional potential and offers grouped open entryways for explorers, for instance, trout calculating in the bone chilling water of Gilgit Baltistan and Swat conduits, Shandur Polo standard rivalry, paragliding, shake climbing, and trekking in northern areas, Jeep and camel safari in the Cholistan desert, Wild Boar pursuing, and crabbing in the Arabian Sea.

The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) evaluates “the game plan of issues and methodologies that permit the down to earth progression of the Travel and Tourism division, which, in this way, awards to the improvement and power of a country.” The TTCI has 14 segments which depend upon a couple of segments. Around 90 factors are associated for figuring the TTCI. The situations in TTCI offer a speedy evaluation on the characteristics, openings, weaknesses, and threats to development and tourism of the country. The present general position of Pakistan is 124 out of 136 countries as indicated by the Report TTCI, 2017, which is low. Pakistan’s general low rank demonstrates that the present execution of the tourism part is underneath typical in light of various reasons. Some most clear parts in this stress are the Business condition (119 out of 136 countries), Safety and Security (133out of 136 countries), prosperity and neatness (101 out of 136 countries), Human Resource and Labor Market (134 out of 136 countries), Prioritization of Travel and Tourism (122 out of 136 countries), and ICT status (126 out of 136 countries). There is similarly low situating in biological supportability (133 out of 136 countries) and tourism organizations establishment (125 out of 136 countries), air transport system (99 out of 136 countries), ground and port structure (80 out of 136 countries), and normal resources (120 out of 136 countries). A steady component for guests joins Pakistan being believed to be an unassuming republic in the globe, dealt with 29 of 136 countries in the Price Competitiveness. In Cultural Resources and Business Travel, the rank was 59 out of 136 countries. Sadly, the low position of Pakistan demonstrates a sensible uniqueness from the measures as for tourism drawing in quality. In the earlier six decades, the tourism overseers have not been beneficially abusing the characteristics of tourism to develop Pakistan as a favored guest objective around the globe.

3.6.1: Contribution of Tourism in GDP and Jobs in Pakistan
The prompt duty of development and tourism in 2016 was USD 7.6 bn (2.7% of GDP) and it is foreseen to increase by 5.1% (PKR 833.8 bn) in 2017 and foreseen that would create by 5.6% father to PKR 1, 432.1 bns of GDP by 2027. The offer of development and tourism to GDP was 6.9% (USD 19.4 billion) and it is assessed to be brought by 6.0% up in 2017 and in 2027 addition to 5.8% father (USD 36.1 billion), 7.2% of GDP (WTTC, 2017). The quick responsibility of development and tourism in 2016 was 1.337 million occupations (2.3% of total work), foreseen to increase by 2.3% of each 2017 to 1.368 million occupations and in 2027 addition by 2.5% father to 1.757 million occupations (2.3% of total business). Regardless, the total offer of business was around 6.0% and the indirect duty of the business to mean work was around 3.550 million jobs. This is conceivable to develop by 3.0% to 3.657 million vocations in 2017 and increase by 2.7% father in 2027 to 4.783 million occupations (6.3% of total) (WTTC, 2017). In the development and tourism fragment, visitor conveys are a basic part of direct affiliation. In 2016, visitor conveys contributed about USD 893.8 million (3.6% of total charges), and were depended upon to create in 2017 by 3.1% and foreseen to pull in overall guest passages of around 1.179 million, and around 2.173 million all inclusive voyager arrivals are guess to create by 7.7% father to USD 1942.8 million of each 2027 (2.8% of total), while the total enthusiasm for 2016 was USD 3.6 billion (9.3% of total theory), which extended in 2027 by 8.0% father to USD 8.3 billion (11.4% of total) (WTTC, 2017).

Chapter 04: Research MethodologyThis chapter gives a noteworthy connection between writing survey of chapter two and three. Segment 4.1 clarifies inquire about research design and approach. Segment 4.2 is about development of questionnaire. Section 4.3 is about sampling and data collection is explained in section 4.4. Last but not least, theoretical framework of scale development is clarify in section 4.5.

4.1: Research Design and ApproachQuantitative research is applied to do the research for this thesis. For qualitative research, well thought out interviews designed and recorded to know about peoples’ view in the hospitality industry about this research questions. Newspaper articles, different interviews, websites and books were analyzed for textual method.
For quantitative research a questionnaire was designed to get views and opinions of people with research questions. Results have been presented at the end after all the analysis and interpretation of descriptions. Interviews and questionnaire results.

And for pilot test of the questionnaire, I have sent it to the General manger of recognize hotel, to check:
Can I get the desire result from each question?
If any question is misunderstood?
And to acknowledge the time that was required to fill the questionnaire and the time required for interviews.

Quantitative (deductive) and qualitative (inductive) are the two generally utilized research approaches. This research approaches depend on “positivism” and “phenomenology”. Every one of these methodologies has its own particular focal points and weaknesses. These methodologies can be utilized either in separation or in mix in different applications. The most vital inquiry is which research approach, quantitative or subjective or blend of these two methodologies ought to be embraced for this specific research.

4.2: Development of QuestionnaireA five dimensional questionnaire is framed to build up the service quality scale for hospitality sector. The questionnaire comprised of five fundamental segments other than statistic divide; the primary segment was intended to quantify tangible service for the visitors of the inn. The second segment was intended to gauge Reliability, Consistency, convenient and precision of the visitors amid their lodging remain. The third segment was intended to gauge Assurance, Knowledge, aptitudes and believability of the workers of that inn. The fourth area was intended to quantify Empathy of the staff of lodging amid the stay of visitors. In fifth segment Responsiveness, Fast, astounding administration was estimated. Another segment was additionally utilized adjacent to these five to quantify general significance of administration nature of neighborliness industry. Since a few scientists (Babakus and Mangold 1992; Karatepe and Avo 2002) called attention to that five point scale work better and increment reaction rate and reaction quality, a five point scale (1=very low and, 5=very high) was favored for information gathering, not the seven point scale on SERVPERF. So in this survey five point scales were utilized which were from (1= extremely unimportant, 5= most important).

4.3: Sampling The sample of the study comprised of lodging clients remaining in three-star and four-star inns in Lahore. The Lahore is a standout amongst the most well known vacationer goals in Pakistan. Respondents were asked for to round out the surveys after their registration exchanges. The visitors finished the questionnaire in backup of the researcher as could reasonably be expected and finished surveys were taken by the analyst after the collection. An aggregate of 300 surveys were conveyed amid July to December 2017. Fifty questionnaires were dispensed with on account of fragmented information, and 250 (83%) were observed to be helpful for research analysis.

4.4: Data CollectionSecondary and primary information accumulation strategy was utilized to gather required information. The researcher gather essential information from overviews, interviews (telephonic and eye to eye), perceptions and personal experiences. Primary information was gathered from various books, diaries, articles, daily papers, proposal and thesis composed by others. A phone overview was likewise directed among grown-ups matured 18. Phone numbers were chosen randomly and calls made at night and on ends of the week to keep away from an inclination against working grown-ups. 300 samples were pick and aggregate of 50 respondents were drawn closer for telephonic meeting, 30 of these declined to take an interest, bringing about a powerful reaction rate of 67%. The left 250 meetings for use in the second phase of analysis. 67% respondents were female and 33% were male.

4.5: Development of Theoretical Framework for AnalysisThis section include the basic five factors on which questionnaire was develop. It shows the relationship among all these factors with their items. Every single factor is sub divided into multiple items on which questionnaire was constructed.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4.1: Theoretical Framework for Service Quality Scale Development
Chapter 05: Data Analysis and Results5.1: PrefaceThis part speaks to the data analysis and its outcomes. Primary data was gathered through survey and those questionnaire were conveyed among 250 members. The questionnaire is sub partitioned into two segments: 1. Demographics and 2. Dimensions of service quality scale. So data was broke down through primer tests and some enlightening tests. At first to check the range, frequencies and rates demographic analysis was connected. Normality test was connected to check the separation of data and reliability test was connected to check the dependability of data whether it is regularly conveyed or not. Reliability test was connected twice, for first time to check the reliability of each dimensional variable and next time to check the dependability of entire data. Factor analysis was connected to check the capability of scale. KMO and Bartlett’s test was utilized to check the as surety and legitimacy of scale.

5.2: Demographical AnalysisThe demographical section of questionnaire was further categorize as follow:
1. Gender
2. Age group
3. Marital status
4. profession
5. Qualification
6. Frequency of hoteling
From table 2 it is uncovered that out of 213 respondents, 75 were male which 35.2% of the aggregate respondents is. 138 respondents were female which 64.8% of aggregate respondents is With respect to age group, 116 respondents were belong to age group 18-24 with ratio 54.4% of total, 63 respondents were belong to age group 25-34 with ratio 29.6% of total, 20 respondents were belong to age group 35-44 with ratio 9.4% of total, 11 respondents were belong to age group 45-54 with ratio 5.2% of total, 2 respondents were belong to age group 55-64 with ratio 0.9% of total and only 1 respondent was belong to age group 65 or above with ratio 0.5% only of total. This description shows that mostly respondents were young.

According to marital status, 56 respondents were married which 26.3% of the total respondents are. 157 respondents were single which 73.7 of the total respondents are.

Regarding the occupation of the respondents, 21 respondents were executive/manager with ratio 9.9%, 100 respondents were students with ratio of 46.9%, 83 respondents were self-employed with ratio of 39% and 9 respondents were retired to their jobs with ratio of 4.2% only.

According to qualification, 15 respondents were matriculation qualified which 7.0% of total respondents are, 91 respondents were under graduate which 42.7% of total respondents are, 107 respondents were post graduate which 50.2% of total respondents are. It shows mostly respondents were well educated.

In the last of demographical analysis frequency of hoteling variable is also measured. 133 respondents were hoteling on occasionally bases with ratio 62.4% of total ratio and 80 respondents were hoteling on sequentially bases which 37.6% of total respondents are. It shows mostly respondents get facilities of hotel on occasionally bases.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2: Demographic AnalysisVariable Range Frequency Percentage
Gender Male 75 35.2
Female 138 64.8
Age Group (Years) 18-24 116 54.4
25-34 63 29.6
35-44 20 9.4
45-54 11 5.2
55-64 2 0.9
65 or above 1 0.5
Marital status Married 56 26.3
Single 157 73.7
Occupation Executive/ Manager 21 9.9
Student 100 46.9
Self employed 83 39.0
Retired 9 4.2
Qualification Matric 15 7.0
Under graduate 91 42.7
Post graduate 107 50.2
Frequency of hoteling Occasionally 133 62.4
Sequentially 80 37.6
5.3: Data Normality Analysis
This measurable test and analysis of data was connected to check whether the data is regularly appropriated or it scattered from its mean/Average esteem. Prior to this data cleaning was occur. At the time of data cleaning 250 respondents were available yet after data cleaning 213 respondents were cleared out. 37 reactions were disposed of because of absence of variety in their reactions. Information ordinariness information demonstrates that the pattern of respondents to rate their reaction on questionnaire. Kurtosis test advises to compute the estimation of reaction from mean esteem. Esteem lies between +2 to – 2 of skewness and kurtosis is worthy. Range estimation of skewness and kurtosis is lie between 0.76 to – 0.43 appeared in table 03.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 3: Normality TableVariable Statistics Standard Error SK/SE
Tangibility Skewness -1.04 0.17 0.60
Kurtosis 0.87 0.33 -0.43
Responsiveness Skewness -1.15 0.17 -0.49
Kurtosis 0.96 0.33 0.65
Assurance Skewness -1.02 0.17 -0.43
Kurtosis 0.61 0.33 0.47
Empathy Skewness -1.14 0.17 -0.48
Kurtosis 1.18 0.33 0.75
Reliability Skewness -1.17 0.17 -0.50
Kurtosis 1.20 0.33 0.76
5.4: Reliability and Factor AnalysisReliability analysis is basically done to check and verify the authenticity of the data. It is to check the reliability of questionnaire. It is done to check the internal consistency of the model. The value of Cronbach’s alpha should be equal to 0.70 or above. The reliability test is firstly run to check the reliability of whole items and Cronbach’s value was 0.928 which was good reliability of scale and shown in table 04.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 4: Reliability TableReliability Statistics
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
.928 34
The reliability test was secondly run to check the reliability of each dimension. Dimension tangibility was Cronbach’s value 0.848, dimension reliability was 0.866, dimension assurance was 0.777, dimension empathy was 0.810 and dimension responsiveness was 0.762. Which indicate the good reliability of each dimension for scale development and shown in table 05.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 5: Dimension Wise Reliability TableVariable Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
Tangibility .848 6
Responsiveness .762 4
Assurance .777 5
Empathy .810 6
Reliability .866 6
5.5: Principal Component Factor AnalysisFactor analysis is done to more authenticate the data collected through questionnaire. It authenticates the dimensions of the construct which are adapted in this study. Five dimensions are discussed in this study. Tangibility dimension has six items, responsiveness has four items only, assurance has five items, empathy has also six items and reliability has six items as well. To check either these dimensions with their corresponding items will be best choice for scale development of hospitality or not, principal component factor analysis was taken. All dimensions have values more than 0.50 shown in the table 06 below.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 6: Principal Component Factor AnalysisDimensions Tangibility Responsiveness Assurance Empathy Reliability ?
HST1 .673 0.848
HST2 .874 HST3 .592 HST4 .845 HST5 .888 HST6 .819 HSR1 .615 0.866
HSR2 .915 HSR3 .688 HSR4 .555 HSR5 .864 HSR6 .930 HSA1 .924 0.777
HSA2 .891 HSA3 .804 HSA4 .744 HSA5 .845 HSE1 .741 0.810
HSE2 .875 HSE3 .614 HSE4 .922 HSE5 .891 HSE6 .686 HSRE1 .773 0.762
HSRE2 .937 HSRE3 .851 HSRE4 .950 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization
a. Rotation converged in 5 iterations
The process of scale development in this study is consist of five dimensions and each dimension has different items. The first dimension “tangibility” has six items. HST1 (The hotel should have visually appealing buildings and facilities) has cut off value .673, HST2 (The service units of hotel should have adequate capacity i.e. dining room, meeting room, business center, swimming pool, etc.) has cut off value .874, HST3 (The hotel should have modern looking equipment i.e. air conditioner, furniture, elevator, communication devices, etc.) has cut off value .592, HST4 (The atmosphere and equipment should be comfortable and appropriate i.e. comfortable, clean and well decorated) has cut off value .845, HST5 (Access to the hotel e.g. transportation, car parking area, etc. should be easy) has cut off value .888 and HST6 (Food and beverages served should be hygienic, adequate and sufficient) has cut off value .819. The Alpha value of the dimension “tangibility” has overall reliability of 0.848 which should not be less than 0.70. It means this dimensions and items are reliable for service quality scale development.

The second dimension “reliability” has six items also. HSR1 (The hotel should provide the services as they promised) has cut off value .615, HSR2 (The hotel should kept accurate records i.e. reservations, bills, orders, guests etc.) has cut off value .915, HSR3 (The hotel should provide customized service to the guest) has cut off value .688, HSR4 (Employees should perform prompt services) has cut off value .555, HSR5 (The hotel should provide the service at the time it promised to do so) has cut off value .864 and HSR6 (Materials associated with the services should be adequate and sufficient i.e. soap, towel, shampoo etc.) has cut off value .930. The Alpha value of the dimension “reliability” has overall reliability of 0.866 which should not be less than 0.70. It means this dimension and corresponding items are also reliable for scale development.

The third dimension “assurance” has five items. HSA1 (Employees of the hotel should look neat and tidy as uniform and personal grooming) has cut off value .924, HSA2 (The hotel should resolves guest complaints and compensate for the inconveniences guests go through) has cut off value .891, HSA3 (Employees should have in-depth occupational knowledge e.g. professional skill, foreign languages, communication skills, etc.) has cut off value .804, HAS4 (The hotel should provide consistent services. i.e. providing the same services and associated material every time) has cut off value .744 and HSA5 (Employees should have knowledge to provide information and assistance to guests in areas they would require e.g. shopping, museum, place of interest etc.) has cut off value .845. The Alpha value of the dimension “assurance” has overall reliability of 0.777 which should not be less than 0.70. It means this dimension and items are also reliable for scale development.

The fourth dimension “empathy” has six items also. HSE1 (Employees should always be willing to serve guests) has cut off value .741, HSE2 (Employees should always treat guests in a friendly manner) has cut off value .875, HSE3 (Employees of hotel should understand the specific needs of guests) has cut off value .641, HSE4 (The hotel should also be convenient for disabled guests i.e. necessary arrangements made for disabled) has cut off value .922, HSE5 (Employees should give attention to individual guest that make them feel special) has cut off value .891 and HSE6 (The hotel and its facilities should have operating hours convenient to all their guests) has cut off value .686. The Alpha of the dimension “empathy” has overall reliability of 0.810 which should not be less than .70. It means this dimensions and corresponding items are also reliable for service quality scale development.

The last dimension “responsiveness” has four items only. HSRE1 (The hotel should provide a safe and secure place to its guests) has cut off value .773, HSRE2 (The equipment of hotel should work properly without causing breakdowns) has cut off value .937, HSRE3 (Employees should always be available when needed) has cut off value .851 and HSRE4 (Information about the facilities and services of hotel should be readily available e.g. reaching information via phone, internet, direct signs, etc.) has cut off value .950. The Alpha of the dimension “responsiveness” has overall reliability of 0.762 which is also above than 0.70. Hence, this dimension and items are also reliable for service quality scale development for hospitality.
5.6: KMO and Bartlett’s TestOther than this, KMO and Bartlett’s test was also run on the data to verify the authenticity of questionnaire. It also shows the relevancy of the responses to the issue under consideration of scale development.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 7: KMO and Bartlett’s TestKaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .928
Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 2934.161
df 378
Sig. .000
5.7: Descriptive StatisticsThe descriptive statistics includes the statistics of responses i.e. mean, maximum, minimum and standard deviation. These are shown in table 08 below.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 8: Descriptive StatisticsN Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Tangibility 213 1.00 5.00 3.9264 1.03974
Reliability 213 1.00 5.00 4.0712 1.03153
Assurance 213 1.00 5.00 4.0676 0.99152
Empathy 213 1.00 5.00 4.1541 0.91993
Responsiveness 213 1.25 5.00 4.1784 0.91484
Valid N (list wise) 213 In this table, N explain the number of total respondents which are 213 regarding all dimensions. It means that the respondents respond to all dimensions equally. The Minimum response to the tangibility was 1.00, Maximum response was 5.00, Mean was 3.9264 and Standard deviation was 1.03974. Similarly, the Minimum response to the reliability was 1.00, Maximum response was 5.00, Mean was 4.0712 and Standard deviation was 1.03153. The Minimum response to the assurance was 1.00, Maximum response was 5.00, Mean was 4.0676 and Standard deviation was 0.99152. The Minimum response to the empathy was 1.00, Maximum response was 5.00, Mean was 4.1541 and Standard deviation was 0.91993. Finally, the Minimum response to the responsiveness was 1.25, Maximum response was 5.00, Mean was 4.1784 and Standard deviation was 0.91484.

5.8: Correlation AnalysisCorrelation test is applied to check the relationship between the given variables. By applying the statistical tool in SPSS, value of correlation is acquire which sate the level of dependency of one variable over other. Usually the value of correction lies between -1 to +1 which shows perfect negative and perfect positive relation respectively. 0 indicates that there is no relationship between the variables. This test is apply to check the influence and relationship of tangibility (HST) on reliability (HSR), assurance (HAS), empathy (HSE) and responsiveness (HSRE).

In this study the Person’s correlation model is use to check the nature of relationship among variables.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 9: Correlation AnalysisHST HSR HSA HSE HSRE
HST Pearson Correlation 1 .641** .567** .555** .525**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000
N 213 213 213 213 213
HSR Pearson Correlation 1 .625** .578** .548**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000
N 213 213 213 213
HSA Pearson Correlation 1 .702** .627**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000
N 213 213 213
HSE Pearson Correlation 1 .714**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 213 213
HSRE Pearson Correlation 1
Sig. (2-tailed) N 213
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The above mention table shows the correlation analysis between five factors i.e. Tangibility (HST), Assurance (HAS), Reliability (HSR), Empathy (HSE) and Responsiveness (HSRE). Here the value of relationship between tangibility (HST) and reliability (HSR) is (r=0.614, p>0.05) and the results are significant. It means that HST has semi-strong positive relationship with HSR. Similarly the value of relationship between tangibility (HST) and assurance (HAS) is (r=0.567, p>0.05) and the results are also significant so HST has also semi-strong positive relationship with HAS. The value of relationship between tangibility (HST) and empathy (HSE) is (r=0.555, p>0.05) and the results are significant also. It means that HST has semi-strong positive relationship with HSE. Lastly, the value of relationship between tangibility (HST) and responsiveness (HSRE) is (r=0.525, p>0.05) and results are also significant which shows HST has also semi-strong positive relationship with HSRE.

5.9: Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)
The next step of data analysis is done by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). CFA ensures scale on single dimension. Scale reliability and construct validity are assessed once the single dimension scale is ensured. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) program AMOS 20 is use for data analysis.

Empirical evidence in CFA is generally assessed using criteria such as the comparative fit index (CFI), the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), the significance of parameter estimates, and the amount of explained variance. Goodness of fit index (GFI) is another measure of overall fit. Table 10 summarizes the results of CFA.
Comparative Fit Index (CFI): This index compares the proposed model with a null model assuming that there are no relationships between the measures. A CFI value greater than 0.90 indicates an acceptable fit to the data. Table 10 indicates that all the CFI value is 0.963, which suggests very good model fit.
Goodness of Fit Index (GFI): This index indicates the relative amount of variance and covariance jointly explained by the model. GFI values range from zero to one, with higher values indicating better fit. Scores in the 0.8-0.89 range are interpreted as reasonable fit whereas scores of 0.9 and above represent good fit. Value of GFI is 0.918, which suggests very good model fit.
Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA): RMSEA is an index used to assess residuals and adjusts parsimony in the model. Its value must be equal to or less than 0.08 for an adequate model fit. RMSEA value is 0.52, which suggests accurate model fit.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 10: Goodness of fit statistics in CFAIndices Abbreviation Observed values Recommended criteria
Chi square ?2 137.463 >0.05
Goodness-of-fit index GFI 0.918 >0.90
Adjusted GFI AGFI 0.887 >0.80
Normed fit index NFI 0.906 >0.90
Comparative fit index CFI 0.963 >0.95
Root mean square error of approximation RMESA 0.052 <0.05 good fit
<0.08 acceptable fit
Tucker-Lewis index TLI 0.955 0<TLI<1
The covariance matrix between the 5 service quality dimensions was created. Nine runs of CFA were conducted. The process continued until satisfactory goodness of fit statistics was obtained. During this process, two dimensions (empathy & assurance) were completely disappeared. In total, 12 of an initial 27 items were deleted. The sequence list of 11 items deleted is given in Table 11. Each item deleted affects all other items also, so only a few items were deleted per CFA run. These items were found to be inadequate on model estimates examination after each CFA run based on the amount of explained variance. The lower the amount of explained variance for any item, the more poorly it is loaded in the model, thus making it a choice for deletion from the model.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 11: Sequence Wise List of Deleted ItemsSr. No. Items
Employees of the hotel should look neat and tidy
The hotel should resolves guest complaints and compensate for the inconveniences guests go through.

Employees should have in-depth occupational knowledge.

The hotel should provide consistent services
Employees should have knowledge to provide information and assistance to guests in areas they would require.

Employees should always be willing to serve customers.

Employees should always treat guests in a friendly manner.

Employees of hotel should understand the specific needs of guests.

The hotel should also be convenient for disabled guests
Employees should give attention to individual guest that make them feel special.

The hotel and its facilities should have operating hours convenient to all their guests.

Materials associated with the services should be adequate and sufficient.

After the deletion of 12 items, a scale is develop with three dimensions and 15 items respectively, which shows in figure
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5.1: Developed CFA Model Using AMOS 20
Once the scale developed was demonstrated using CFA, the reliability of the scale developed was evaluated by the determination of Cronbach’s coefficient alpha. Reliability coefficients of 0.70 or more are considered adequate. The overall value of Cronbach’s coefficient alpha for the 15 items in the scale developed after CFA is 0.906. This value is acceptable. Each subscale also has Cronbach’s coefficient alpha value above 0.70.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 12: Reliability Analysis of Developed CFA ModelDimensions No. of items Cronbach’s Coefficient Alpha
Tangibility 06 0.848
Reliability 05 0.860
Responsiveness 04 0.762
Correlation test is applied to check the relationship between the given variables of developed CFA model. By applying the statistical tool in SPSS, value of correlation is acquire which sate the level of dependency of one variable over other. Usually the value of correction lies between -1 to +1 which shows perfect negative and perfect positive relation respectively. 0 indicates that there is no relationship between the variables. This test is apply to check the influence and relationship of tangibility (HST) on reliability (HSR) and responsiveness (HSRE). Table 13 shows the correlation analysis among variables of developed CFA model.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 13: Correlation among Variables of Developed CFA ModelHST HSR HSRE
HST Pearson Correlation 1 .636** .525**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000
N 213 213 213
HSR Pearson Correlation 1 .541**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 213 213
HSRE Pearson Correlation 1
Sig. (2-tailed) N 213
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

After passing through all stages a service quality scale is develop with three dimensions and 15 items. These three dimension with their supporting items are mention in table 14.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 14: Dimensions and Items of Developed Service Quality Scale
S.No. Items Dimensions along with and abbreviations used in analysis
The hotel should have visually appealing buildings and facilities. Tangibility (HST 1)
The service units of hotel should have adequate capacity. (dining room, meeting room, business center, swimming pool, etc.) Tangibility (HST 2)
The hotel should have modern looking equipment. (air conditioner, furniture, elevator, communication devices, etc.) Tangibility (HST 3)
The atmosphere and equipment should be comfortable and appropriate. ( comfortable, clean and well decorated Tangibility (HST4)
Access to the hotel (transportation, car parking area, etc.) should be easy. Tangibility (HST 5)
Food and beverages served should be hygienic, adequate and sufficient. Tangibility (HST 6)
The hotel should provide the services as they promised. Reliability (HSR 1)
The hotel should kept accurate records. (Reservations, bills, orders, guests etc.) Reliability (HSR 2)
The hotel should provide customized service to the guest. Reliability (HSR 3)
Employees should perform prompt services. Reliability (HSR 4)
The hotel should provide the service at the time it promised to do so. Reliability (HSR 5)
The hotel should provide a safe and secure place to its customers. Responsiveness (HSRE 1)
The equipment of hotel should work properly without causing breakdowns. Responsiveness (HSRE 2)
Employees should always be available when needed. Responsiveness (HSRE 3)
Information about the facilities and services of hotel should be readily available. (Reaching information via phone, internet, direct signs, etc.) Responsiveness (HSRE 4)
Chapter 6: Conclusion and RecommendationsThis chapter provide a complete significance of this research. In this chapter conclusion, limitation of this research and recommendations for future studies are discussed in three separate sections. In section 7.1 conclusion of this research is elaborated. In section 7.2 limitations of this research is discussed and in section 7.3 recommendations for future studies of service quality scale development are given.

6.1: ConclusionThe purpose of this research is to develop a service quality scale for hospitality sector. Service quality in hospitality sector can be improved by fulfill the expectations of guest during their stay in hotel premises.

In this research five dimensional scale was developed. These five dimensions were tangibility, assurance, reliability, empathy and responsiveness. To check the reliability of valid dimension as well as scale a questionnaire was developed.

After the results come from respondents, analysis was applied on that responses to check the reliability as well as validity of items. After passing through all stages of analysis, it is concluded that although all dimensions are reliable for this scale development on the bases of their Alpha values. Tangibility dimension has Alpha value of .848, Responsiveness dimension has Alpha value of .762, Assurance dimension has Alpha value of .777, Empathy Dimension has Alpha value of .810 and last but not least Reliability dimension has Alpha value of .866. But when CFA run on the model then two dimensions empathy and assurance are eliminated with their items because these dimensions are not fit for service quality scale development.

The first research question was “What services are guest looking for in the hotels?” is clearly answer by the acceptance of “Tangibility” dimension with all its items and also having Alpha value with .848. Guests are always want complementary services from hotel administration and if these services are in tangible form then it make customer loyalty for hospitality business.

The second research question was “How do guest like the service of hotel and why?” The answer of this question is the acceptance of all three dimension i.e. tangibility, reliability and responsiveness. Guests always enjoy that services which are according to their needs or expectations. But if services will customized then guests would automatically like that services and visit again and again.

The third question was “factors that are important for evaluation of hotel services” it is clearly see that from five factors/dimension only three factors/dimensions are accepted through CFA run. These dimensions are tangibility, reliability and responsiveness. Hence, these three factors will play a vital role in the effective evaluation of hospitality business.

The last research question was” How these factors influence customer turnover”. All dimension are inter-linked to each other and effect on the efficiency and working of each dimension but If administrative management works on responsiveness dimension because it has lowest Alpha value of .762 then hospitality business will flourished very quickly and will also increase the number of customer loyalty and revenue of hotels.

6.2: LimitationsThere were some basic limitations in the study that need to be acknowledged. First, the sample size was relatively small and a convenience sampling method was employed to collect data. So, the results might not represent the hotel industry in the whole country. Second, only one item was included to the scale to measure overall service quality perceptions of hotel customers. Thus, it was not possible to say something about its reliability. Several research issues for future studies can be considered. For example, to be able to generalize the results a study that would include more hotels at the national level could be made. Performance of the hotels’ service quality according to different nationalities (cultural groups) could be analyzed. Also, since performance of the hotels’ service quality may be different by the season, the study could be conducted in peak and low seasons, comparatively.

6.3: Recommendations for Future StudiesIn this research only a service quality scale for hospitality sector is develop. In future studies this scale might be used to measure the customer satisfaction as well as customer expectations from hospitality sector. This scale might also help to administrative level of hospitality sector to increase their customer loyalty as well as revenue. It might help to flourish a new business of hospitality by Alpha value of each dimension which shows the basic concern of guest and working area to get satisfaction as well as brand loyalty from those guests.

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Appendix 1. QuestionnaireDear Guest,
This questionnaire aims to collect data that will be used in quality development efforts. This questionnaire measures your expectation of hoteling in any kind of hotel. Instructions to fill out questionnaire are given at top of each part. Thank so much for your cooperation.

Part 1: Please tick (?) the appropriate box below.

You are -69852095500 Male 6352349500 Female
Your age falls into the following groups:
33020-4508500 18-24 635-5461000 25-34 -41910-3619500 35-44 -34290-4572000 45-54 -29845-5461000 55-64 -38100-4572000 65 or above
392430022860002187575508000Your Marital status: Married Single
Your occupation:
-24130-5270500 Executive/Manager -38100-6858000 Student
-27305-5524500 Self employed -15875-3619500 Retired
The level of education you received:
-82551714500 Matric 40640-1143000 Under graduate 15240-1143000 Post graduate
453834510160002656840635000Your frrequency of hoteling: Occasionally Sequentially
Part 2: There are some attributes that customer would expect from any hotel business. Please read each attribute first and then circle the number in scale that indicates your judgments. The corresponding values for the number are shown at the top of scale.

Section 1. Tangibility
List of Attributes Extremely unimportant unimportant Moderate Important Most important
The hotel should have visually appealing buildings and facilities. 1 2 3 4 5
The service units of hotel should have adequate capacity. (dining room, meeting room, business center, swimming pool, etc.) 1 2 3 4 5
The hotel should have modern looking equipment. (air conditioner, furniture, elevator, communication devices, etc.) 1 2 3 4 5
The atmosphere and equipment should be comfortable and appropriate. ( comfortable, clean and well decorated) 1 2 3 4 5
Access to the hotel (transportation, car parking area, etc.) should be easy. 1 2 3 4 5
Food and beverages served should be hygienic, adequate and sufficient. 1 2 3 4 5
Section 2: Reliability, Consistency, timely and accuracy
List of Attributes Extremely unimportant unimportant Moderate Important Most important
The hotel should provide the services as they promised. 1 2 3 4 5
The hotel should kept accurate records. (Reservations, bills, orders, guests etc.) 1 2 3 4 5
The hotel should provide customized service to the guest. 1 2 3 4 5
Employees should perform prompt services. 1 2 3 4 5
The hotel should provide the service at the time it promised to do so. 1 2 3 4 5
Materials associated with the services should be adequate and sufficient. (soap, towel, shampoo etc.) 1 2 3 4 5
Section 3: Assurance, Knowledge, skills and credibility of the employees
List of Attributes Extremely unimportant unimportant Moderate Important Most important
Employees of the hotel should look neat and tidy.(as uniform and personal grooming) 1 2 3 4 5
The hotel should resolves guest complaints and compensate for the inconveniences guests go through. 1 2 3 4 5
Employees should have in-depth occupational knowledge. (professional skill, foreign languages, communication skills, etc.) 1 2 3 4 5
The hotel should provide consistent services. (providing the same services and associated material every time) 1 2 3 4 5
Employees should have knowledge to provide information and assistance to guests in areas they would require. (shopping, museum, place of interest etc.) 1 2 3 4 5
Section 4: Empathy
List of Attributes Extremely unimportant unimportant Moderate Important Most important
Employees should always be willing to serve customers. 1 2 3 4 5
Employees should always treat guests in a friendly manner. 1 2 3 4 5
Employees of hotel should understand the specific needs of guests. 1 2 3 4 5
The hotel should also be convenient for disabled guests.(necessary arrangements made for disabled) 1 2 3 4 5
Employees should give attention to individual guest that make them feel special. 1 2 3 4 5
The hotel and its facilities should have operating hours convenient to all their guests. 1 2 3 4 5
Section 5: Responsiveness, Fast, high-quality service
List of Attributes Extremely unimportant unimportant Moderate Important Most important
The hotel should provide a safe and secure place to its customers. 1 2 3 4 5
The equipment of hotel should work properly without causing breakdowns. 1 2 3 4 5
Employees should always be available when needed. 1 2 3 4 5
Information about the facilities and services of hotel should be readily available. (Reaching information via phone, internet, direct signs, etc.) 1 2 3 4 5
Appendix 2: Questionnaire Items (Along With Dimensions And Abbreviations Used In Analysis)S.No. Items Dimensions along with and abbreviations used in analysis
The hotel should have visually appealing buildings and facilities. Tangibility (HST 1)
The service units of hotel should have adequate capacity. (dining room, meeting room, business center, swimming pool, etc.) Tangibility (HST 2)
The hotel should have modern looking equipment. (air conditioner, furniture, elevator, communication devices, etc.) Tangibility (HST 3)
The atmosphere and equipment should be comfortable and appropriate. ( comfortable, clean and well decorated Tangibility (HST4)
Access to the hotel (transportation, car parking area, etc.) should be easy. Tangibility (HST 5)
Food and beverages served should be hygienic, adequate and sufficient. Tangibility (HST 6)
The hotel should provide the services as they promised. Reliability (HSR 1)
The hotel should kept accurate records. (Reservations, bills, orders, guests etc.) Reliability (HSR 2)
The hotel should provide customized service to the guest. Reliability (HSR 3)
Employees should perform prompt services. Reliability (HSR 4)
The hotel should provide the service at the time it promised to do so. Reliability (HSR 5)
Materials associated with the services should be adequate and sufficient. (Soap, towel, shampoo etc.) Reliability (HSR 6)
Employees of the hotel should look neat and tidy.(as uniform and personal grooming) Assurance (HSA 1)
The hotel should resolves guest complaints and compensate for the inconveniences guests go through. Assurance (HSA 2)
Employees should have in-depth occupational knowledge. (Professional skill, foreign languages, communication skills, etc.) Assurance (HSA 3)
The hotel should provide consistent services. (providing the same services and associated material every time) Assurance (HSA 4)
Employees should have knowledge to provide information and assistance to guests in areas they would require. (Shopping, museum, place of interest etc.) Assurance (HSA 5)
Employees should always be willing to serve customers. Empathy (HSE 1)
Employees should always treat guests in a friendly manner. Empathy (HSE 2)
Employees of hotel should understand the specific needs of guests. Empathy (HSE 3)
The hotel should also be convenient for disabled guests.(necessary arrangements made for disabled) Empathy (HSE 4)
Employees should give attention to individual guest that make them feel special. Empathy (HSE 5)
The hotel and its facilities should have operating hours convenient to all their guests. Empathy (HSE 6)
The hotel should provide a safe and secure place to its customers. Responsiveness (HSRE 1)
The equipment of hotel should work properly without causing breakdowns. Responsiveness (HSRE 2)
Employees should always be available when needed. Responsiveness (HSRE 3)
Information about the facilities and services of hotel should be readily available. (Reaching information via phone, internet, direct signs, etc.) Responsiveness (HSRE 4)