Saheb Tabassum

Saheb Tabassum, Shailesh Bhaliya, Prachi Fofale and Hemangi Patel Vadodara Institute of Engineering, Kotambi, Vadodara, Gujarat. Abstract River water pollution is one of the major problems in India. For ensuring appropriate quality of water from the rivers for the purpose of drinking, agriculture requirement and for industrial usage and for maintaining the balance in aquaculture, water quality has to be monitored in real time. Poor quality of water affects all well beings. Traditional River water quality monitoring involves grab sampling, testing and analysis which is time consuming. In this project, efforts are made to design an economical system for real time monitoring of river water quality. The proposed water quality monitoring system consists of several sensors to measure different physical and chemical parameters of the water. The parameters such as temperature, hardness, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity and flow can be measured through such sensors. The system can be implanted with Arduino model as a core controller. WI-FI system, Internet of Things and GSM board can be used efficiently to monitor the water quality and thereby relevant impacts for using river water safely. Key words Real Time River Water Quality Monitoring, Sensors, GSM, IoT INTRODUCTION In the past decade, online water quality monitoring has been widely used in many countries which are known to have issues related to river water pollution. The water is an essential resource for industry, agriculture, and all the beings existing on the earth. Any imbalance in water quality would severely affect the health of the human and animals and will also lead to ecological imbalance among Species. In the 21st century there are lots of inventions, but at the meantime, there are pollutions, global Warming, because of which the water is no longer safe for drinking. The drinking water is much precious and valuable for all the creatures, so the water quality should be monitored in real time. Nowadays water quality monitoring in real time faces problems because of global warming, depleting water resources, high population, etc. Hence, there is an urgent need of developing a better methodology to monitor the water quality parameters in the real time. It was estimated by World Health Organization in India that among 77 million people are suffering because of unsafe water. They also estimated that 21 of diseases are related to unsafe water in India. More than 1600 deaths are alone caused due to diarrhoea in India each day. Thus, various water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, pH, turbidity and temperature should be monitored in real time. The water quality parameter pH shows if water is acidic or basic. pH of Pure water is 7 pH, less than 7 values indicates acidity and more than 7 indicates alkalinity .The normal range of pH is 6 to 8.5. In drinking water, if the normal range of pH is not maintained, it results in eye irritation. Also, it leads to the skin disorders. The dissolved oxygen (DO) indicates the oxygen that is dissolved in water. It makes the drinking water taste better. The ability of water to pass an electrical current is called conductivity. In water, it is affected by various dissolved solids such as chlorides, sodium, calcium, sulphates, etc. The degree at which the water loses its transparency indicates its turbidity. Water temperature shows how much water is hot or cold. The deterioration in water resources has become a common problem. The conventional methods of monitoring the water quality involves the manual collection of water samples from different areas and locations .These water samples are tested in the laboratories using the analytical technologies. This approach is time consuming and no longer is to be considered efficient.Moreover, the current methodology includes analysing various parameters of water quality such has physical, chemical and biological parameters. Traditional methods of the water quality assessment have the setbacks like complex methodology, long waiting time for the results, inaccuracy due to human error and high cost .Therefore, there is a need to continuously monitor the water quality parameters in real time. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Bhatt, et al. (2016) demonstrated the existing water quality system and scenario of water and proposed a system of wireless sensor networks using microcontroller and zigbee module. Moreover, to make system user friendly web browser application is implemented. Therefore the system will be faster, more efficient. Djordjevic, et al. (2016) studied a final synopsis under the auspices of European Water Association (EWA) was to be held in October in Serbia to present the results. Mijovic, et al. (2012) analyzed the monitoring of surface water in Serbia with manual sampling at 129 locations and 66 water streams automatic stations. Daigavane, et al. (2017) gave a design and development of low cost system for real time monitoring of water quality in IOT. Anvari, et al. (2009) examined the innovativeways to improve water quality monitoring in west and Rhode Rivers. A curve between available sensors and transmission Techniques was developed where preliminary results indicate a system will fit the river keepers needs and desired goals. Pappu, et al (2017) developed an Intelligent IOT based water quality monitoring system pertaining to storage tanks being used by residential areas. This system was implementation as a small prototype using low cost embedded devices like Raspherry Pi3 . Verma, et al (2012) was discussed about requirement and suitability of WSN (Wireless Sensors Network) for water quality surveillance. Current water quality monitoring procedures in India are manual, expansive and time consuming. Here in this paper we propose a new approach of WSN for water quality surveillance that is real time, remote, automatic, effective and efficient with high precision. Gouthami, et al (2017) detailed overview of recent works carried out in the field of smart quality monitoring. Also, a power efficient, simpler solution for in-pipe water quality monitoring based on Internet of Things technology is presented. The model developed is used for testing water samples and the data uploaded over the internet are analyzed. The system also provides an alert to a remote user, when there is a deviation of water quality parameters from the pre-defined set of standard values. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Water quality indicates physical, chemical characteristics that ensures, support and sustain the biological system in order to gain the wholesomeness of the water body under study. Water quality monitoring therefore consists of periodic and systematic observations to enable its assessment covering physical, chemical and biological parameters. Choice of appropriate method The technical aspects and methods for determining the parameters of water quality are compared to existing process and thereby pondering to resolve the problem encountered. This is shown in figure1. Development of water quality monitoring Final selection of parameters, development of sensor system and validating the automatic monitoring system. Fig. 1 Flow of Methodology PROPOSED SYSTEM The proposed block diagram (figure2) consists of several sensors (temperature, pH, turbidity, flow) which is connected to core controller. The core controller accesses the sensor values and process them to transfer the data through internet. Ardunio is used as a core controller here. The sensor data can be viewed on the internet Wi-Fi system . Fig. 2 Block Diagram. CONCLUSION Based on a study of existing water quality monitoring system and scenario of water that proposed system is more suitable to monitor water quality parameters in real time. The proposed system introduces wireless sensor networking using several sensors to measure Water quality, microcontroller and GSM module which make sensor network simple, low cost and more efficiently. Moreover, to make system user-friendly web browser application is there. Therefore, the system will be low cost, faster, more efficient, real time and user friendly. Thus, the proposed system fulfills aim and objective of the water quality monitoring. REFERENCES Svetomir Mijovic, Bojan Palmar (2012) water quality monitoring automation of river in Serbia. Working and Living Environmental Protection Vol. 9, No 1, 2012, pp. 1 10 S. Geetha and S. Gouthami (2017) Geetha and Gouthami smart water DOI10.1186/s40713-017-0005-y. Alex Anvari, Jenny Delos Reyes, Ehsan Esmael zadeh, Ali Jarvandi, Nicholas Langley, Keyssi Rivera Navia (April 24, 2009) Designing an Automated Water Quality Monitoring System for West and Rhode Rivers, Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE Systems and Information Engineering Design Symposium, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA. Vaishnavi V. Daigavane and Dr. M.A Gaikwad (2017) Advances in Wireless and Mobile Communications. ISSN 0973-6972 Volume 10, pp. 1107-1116 Dj. Djordjevic, D. Milicevic, B. Velickovic, G. Gruder, H. kainz, J. Londong, M. Kaub, J. Martens (2006) Architecture and Civil Engineering Vol. 4, No 2, 2006, pp. 91 100 Jayti Bhatt, Jignesh Patoliya (2016) International Journal of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, ISSN 2347-6982 Volume-4. Soundarya Pappu, Prathyusha Vudatha and Niharika A.V. (2017) Department of information Technology, SRM University, Kattankaluthur Campus, Chennai, India. International journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 volume 12. Seema Verma and Prachi (2012) Wireless sensor Network Application for water quality monitoring in India. Department of Electronics Banasthali,India,DO10.1109/NCCCS.2012.64 12990 The features of the components to be used in the work is described below in the Table1. Table1 Specifications of the components Sr. No. Item/Component Specification 1 Arduino MegaArduino is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328P. It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz quartz crystal, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a reset button. 2 Analog Turbidity sensorsTurbidity indicates the degree at which the water loses its transparency. It is considered as a good measure of the quality of water. 3 Analog pH sensorsThe pH scale is a logarithmic scale whose range is from 0-14 with a neutral point being 7.It operates on 5V power supply and it is easy to interface with arduino. The normal range of pH is 6 to 8.5. 4 Temperature sensorsWater Temperature indicates how water is hot or cold. The 5 WIFI moduleThe ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module is a self-contained SOC with integrated TCP/IP protocol stack that can give any microcontroller access to Wi-Fi network. The ESP8266 is capable of either hosting an application or offloading all Wi- Fi networking functions from another application processor.6DashboardDigital display for showing results 7 GSM moduleGSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communications. Its used as associate data transmission module. GSM Sim 300 Module This module will settle for any GSM network operator SIM card. D
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