Practiced since the earliest human trade, marketing research however have its roots since the late XIX/early XX century with the evolvement of mass market in United States (Baker and Saren 2010 p.4; Ludicke 2006 p.3; O’Shaughnessy 1990 p. 3). As academics began to understand the relation and impact of marketing to society (Ludicke 2006 p.), and economy () marketing has become since then, a subject of undergoing intense study, reexamined and revised over the course of time coinciding with economic growth and development (Baker and Saren 2010 p.4). Due to its evolvement and extension, marketing however became further complex, bringing debates and confusion of what marketing really is and what marketing is not.
The essence and central core concept of marketing helps to understand the complex and vast meaning that marketing envelopes.
As it origins indicated, marketing was first referred as a stickily business and profit-oriented activity with central core to be a market transaction of “exchange process” (Kotler and Zaltman 1971 p.4; Newman 1993 p.8) of goods and/or services practiced between a producer/seller and consumer/buyer.
Over time, marketing had been recognized to be an activity practiced and beneficial as well for non-business/non-profit oriented organizations (Kotler and Levy 1969 in Hunt 2010 p.8) where marketing essence lies on “general idea of exchange” (Kotler and Levy 1969 in Hunt 2010 p.9) and then on “transaction” (Kotler 1972 in Hunt 2010 p.9) that should not only involve on activities such as transportation, buying and selling (Lavidge 1970 in Hunt 2010 p.8) but rather focus on “how transactions are created, stimulated, facilitated, and valued” – Kotler (1972 in Hunt 2010 p.9-10).