PGDBM INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT By

PGDBM
INFORMATION AND
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
ASSIGNMENT
By: MZIWETHU KUBONI
TABLE OF CONTENT
INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………………………3
1.1 Different types of Cloud computing ……………………………………………………………….3
1.2.1 Infrastructure as a Service(IaaS) …………………………………………………………………5
1.2.2 Deployment model: Community Cloud …………………………………………………………6
1.3.1 Platform as the Service(PaaS) ……………………………………………………………………6
1.3.2 Deployment model: Public cloud………………………………………………………………….6
1.4.1 Software as the Service(SaaS)……………………………………………………………………7
1.4.2 Deployment model: Hybrid Cloud, ……………………………………………………………….7
2.1. Primary considerations for Cloud computing …………………………………………………..8
3.1 Factors that show misalignment with organization ……………………………………..11
3.2 Business planning and IS planning…………………………………………………………………15
3.3 Rational adaptation in information systems planning………………………………………..15
3.4 IT managerial resources ……………………………………………………………………………..15
3.5 IT implementation success ……………………………….…………………………………..15
4.1 Agile system development………………………………………………………………………..15
5.1 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………….18
6.1 References…………………………………………………………………………………………….18
Introduction
Use of Information systems as a tool to achieve business objectives is now becoming widely explored by organizations. Information technology was used as just a support department that had no direct influence in achieving the organisation goals. Many different forms of information systems have emerged, but companies have not taken serious considerations to exploit the opportunities that comes with it. This was because organization did not know how to use information technology to position themselves in the industry and gain competitive advantage through IT. In the assignment we are looking at different ways in which the IT can be used for the total benefit of the organization. We are looking at what must be done by the organization to see such a benefit, basically how must the IT be aligned to the organizational objective for it to play a meaningful role. Looking at the current systems and see how they can be upgraded to give competitive advantage. We are looking at the considerations that we need to take before adopting any of these systems or software’s to make sure they bring the benefit as expected rather than throwing money away and no benefit is realized.
1.1 Different types of Cloud computing
Cloud computing is the Information technology model that enables ubiquitous access have pools of configurable system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet. With this unlimited access to application has made it easy for businesses to conduct their business without worrying about IT infrastructure too much. This has also taken away the burden of maintaining information systems from the businesses, maintenance is done by the cloud owner. The businesses now can solely concentrate on running their businesses and focusing on their customer’s needs.
Cloud computing has made life much easier for both businesses and customers. How emails work is the typical example of cloud computing. Below is the general overview of cloud computing its purpose and how it works.

Fig.1 Cloud Computing
Three types of cloud computing services are,
Infrastructure as a Service, deployment model: Community cloud
Platform as the service, deployment model: Public Cloud
Software as a Service, deployment model: Hybrid Cloud

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Fig.2 Types of Cloud Computing
1.2.1 Infrastructure as a Service(IaaS)
Infrastructure as a service refers to online services that provide high level of APIs used to dereference various low-level details of underlying network infrastructure like physical computing resources, location, data partitioning, scaling, security and backup.

This service can be used for processing, storage, networking and other cloud computing services without the business need of purchasing and managing the internet infrastructure themselves. Users of this service are using it for storing their customers data and as Elastic compute cloud (EC2) service where clients can use it to run their applications. The data owner does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over the operating systems, storage and deployed applications, and possibly limited controls on selecting networking components. Example of one the biggest players in the cloud computing market place is Amazon Web Services (AWS). This service has been made more affordable for small companies as there is no monthly or annual subscription that is needed but clients only pay for computing and storage capacity used. All that is needed to access this service is internet and some little bit money. This means small companies with less money can access the same services as the companies with big monies which make the playing ground level.

Another added advantage for this service is, maintenance and the upkeep of IT infrastructure is handled by the service provider and this helps the business to focus on higher-value work like growing the business. This helps the companies to reduce cost, improve the stability and security of applications and data. The service also eliminates the burden of managing IT infrastructure hardware.

1.2.2 Deployment model: Community Cloud,
The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a specific community of data owners from organisation that have shared concerns like mission, security concerns, policy and compliance considerations.it may be owned, managed and operated by one or more organisation in the community, a third party or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises.
1.3.1 Platform as the Service(PaaS)
The main function of the PaaS is to provide support when it comes to the development environment. This development environment includes application server technology and development language among others. This platform helps customers to build their own applications that suits their business needs using programming tools supported by the cloud service provider. There are different PaaS products that work with different development environments
The capability provided to the data owner is to deploy on to the cloud infra structure data owner-created or acquired applications created using program languages, libraries and tools supported by the service provider. Added benefit for this service is the automated backups, dynamic scalability for all developed applications as well as enjoying all other platform services. This allows the business to be able to meet the demand and change required as quickly as it is needed by using the tools provided. Some of these programming tools were only available to businesses with lot of money but now they are available for ever business through this platform.

The data owner does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including networks, servers, operating systems or storage but has control over deployed applications and possible configuration settings for the application hosting environment. Possibilities are now endless as all you need is made available and quicker, this is now done without a need of the office hardware which took longer and costs more money. No capital IT expenditure required as the companies are paying for only what they use. The example of the PaaS is Google and Microsoft Azure
1.3.2 Deployment model: Public cloud,
The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for open use by public or industry group. It may be owned and operated by the business academic or government organisation or some combination of them. It exists on the premises of the cloud provider. The location remains, thus, separate from the customer and he has no physical control over the infrastructure. As the public cloud use shared resources they do mostly excel on performance but are also most vulnerable to various attacks.
1.4.1Software as the Service(SaaS)
This type of cloud computing is regarded as the highest level of service cloud computing. The applications are available from various client devices through either a thin client interface such as web browser or program interface. Data and business logic for certain applications along this are line being run using a server forming part of the network.
This service allows customers to use software hosted by the vendor on the vendor’s cloud infrastructure. The capabilities provided to the data owner is to use providers applications running on the cloud infrastructure. The data owner does not manage the underlying cloud infrastructure including networks, servers, operating systems, storage or even individual operating capabilities, with the possible exception to limited user specific application configuration settings. The user needs to subscribe for the services to be available and pay on monthly basis or depending on the agreement between the provider and the user. The user can unsubscribe at any time when they do not need the service anymore. The example of SaaS is Gmail, Microsoft 365 and google docs.

1.4.2 Deployment model: Hybrid Cloud,
The cloud infrastructure is the composition of two or distinct cloud infrastructures. The hybrid cloud uses both private and public cloud and this offers a benefit of multi deployment. It allows the user to extend either the capacity or the capability of a cloud service by aggregation, integration or customization with another cloud service. This model is likely to be used by large firms where they use their own infrastructure for their most essential core activities and adopt public cloud for the less critical systems. They use public cloud for interaction with customers and use private cloud for important data storage. They remain unique entities, but they are bound together by a standardized technology that enables data and application portability.

Hybrid cloud adoption depends on number of factors such as data security and compliance requirements, level of control over data and the application the organization uses. An IT organisation may use public cloud resources to meet temporary capacity needs that cannot be met by private cloud. This feature helps the organisation to meet all the requirements as it can run on private cloud and when the capacity is not enough it can just change to public cloud to meet the requirements.

Fig.3 Cloud Services Types and Examples
2.1 Primary considerations for Cloud computing
The organisation will need to asses if they are ready to migrate cloud computing or not. There are a wide range of topics you should examine before finalizing of your approach. This range of considerations will – clearly – be specific to your environment, your opportunities and constraints. Few questions the organization must ask before considering, questions like what does cloud do? This will help to see if there is going to be any benefit for the clod adoption. How much does the service cost? Is the information safe enough? Cloud computing costs money and there is always risks, so as much as there are nice things about cloud computing there are also some serious considerations that need to be made as well. Organization must not only find out about these things only once they have signed the contract but must first get the whole information about this new way of doing things and make sure they understand before taking any decision. There are risks involved in cloud computing.

Key risks in cloud computing that need to be considered,
How sensitive is the data and what are necessary minimum-security controls?
How critical is the service to the organization, its partners and its customers?
Is data subject to regulation?
Do privacy restrictions apply?
For Cloud computing to work for your organization it depends many factors like the network environment and some basic elements that are required for cloud computing. Each organization planning to adopt cloud computing must first look at what exactly they want to achieve, examine where they are and where they want to go. This can be looked at in three aspects, your data, users and goals.
Cloud computing works in two dimensions that need to be considered and understood when organization is adopting cloud computing. The first is the type of services that are required and the delivery model the service must be delivered. Together the two-dimension, delivery model and service type establish a basic adoption framework for examining cloud implementation requirements. The cloud computing adoption frame work also identifies the major roles involved in cloud service consumption and the delivery and the competencies required for each role.
As much as cloud computing has become the tool organisation use to advance their business and is widely used. There are still some risks within the choice of service and the delivery model one chooses to use. There are primary considerations that one needs to make before adopting cloud solutions.

Contractual considerations
Data sovereignty and jurisdiction: Depending where the data is stored, the laws of the country where the data is stored will apply on your data in case of legal matters. It is important to know where the data is stored and what are the laws that govern data in that country.
Commercial considerations
Make sure that the cloud service you are acquiring has got standardized service features. The types of contracts it offers must also be standardized this will minimize surprises.

Privacy considerations
How is the data controlled to avoid data breaches? Once the breach happens the data may be stolen or lost.

Organizational readiness,
One must make sure that all the stakeholders understands the implications and must have plans in place to push through with relevant culture, technical and procedural changes. Technically the management must look at if the organization does have sufficient Internet bandwidth to support the service?  Users of the service must be well informed about the change and trained if necessary. The change must be managed very well to make sure it does not disturb the business operations. People must be made ready for the change and make sure they are accepting the change as they will need to play their part to achieve the goals. Does the cloud adoption really going to influence the achievement of business strategy and goals.

There is also cost involved when taking on cloud, most of the services are paid per use per month which is well and good, you only pay for what you used. Other hidden cost might be for training of the staff to you use for the service. This will depend on the complexity of the service and how well and easy the staff can learn the new thing.
Develop a cohesive and consistent approach,
As the organisation is more likely to implement many cloud services, it must have a clear and consistent approach in managing all the cloud services. The organisation must make sure implementation of different services is standardized.
Evaluate the data and service, one must identify which type of data will be stored or processed on the cloud and see if there are any regulatory or legislations requirements on the data or service concerned. The service provider must have backups and recover plans as part of the service. The accessibility of the information stored, how easy is for someone to access the information.
Evaluate the security and privacy policy of the cloud, identify the security controls that are needed to protect confidentiality, integrity and availability of the data and services. Identify which controls are mandatory and which ones may be waived. Check if security objectives for the cloud you are choosing are related to confidentiality and integrity. Must make sure that the vendors do assure and guarantee security of your information.

Evaluate the proposed cloud services, map the security controls on the proposed cloud services and identify if there are gaps in capabilities, or where the provider might offer different approach in securing the data or services.

Document responsibility splits, identify where responsibility sits for the delivery of the capabilities (technology and process) is the provider or data owner?
Evaluate the service provider, one must conduct a diligent activity with respect to the service provider in relation to its financial stability, examination of independence assurance and accreditation statements, ethical and independence checks. You must consider things like if the vendor goes bankrupt, what would happen then. Will you still have access to your data?
Evaluate the service term, review the service terms and conditions offered by the service provider and consider any additional clauses that may be available for relevance. Issues to consider involve regulatory and legislative compliance, data location and jurisdiction and exit, e.g. how long does the service provider makes the data available for extraction after termination.

Take the accountability test, ensure that the justifications for the decision taken with respect to cloud adoption can pass the accountability test- is the decision justifiable to your customers, the Board, the shareholders or the daily mail if the worst comes to pass and the cloud service is compromised? Could the organisation bear the reputational damage if it found to be storing sensitive data off shore or placing large contracts with providers that practice tax avoidance?
Make an informed decision, based on all the above considerations balancing of the residual risks and expected company benefits from the cloud services. Make a defensible choice on whether to proceed with the cloud-based solution.

Cloud adoption is fast becoming the default options for new services across all sectors. After many years of becoming an up and coming trend, cloud computing is now fully established as a tried and tested delivery option. Any organisation refusing to acknowledge the benefits on offer may find themselves being left behind by their users and their competitors.
More considerations still need to be made when adopting to cloud like software compatibility, this is to check if your software will be able to work with the software provided by the cloud owner. Also, your existing license of the software as it might prohibited to be used in cloud computing. Must check if you are able to verify the usage of the cloud as it is billed per usage. One must be able to verify that the amount paid is correct. What measurements determine acceptable delivery/service. Speed of service and recovery from outage are but two metrics that should be factored into any measurement criteria once a cloud service goes live.

Downtime compensation, does the cloud stipulate compensation when the downtime period of agreement is exceeded. Downtime may lead to loss of income hence the agreement must mention what happens if downtime is exceeded. Business continuity is very important, so one must make sure that there are mitigation in place for incase disaster truck. Recovery plans to make sure your information is not lost.
Cloud computing offer significant benefits for any organisation; however, the organization should thoroughly investigate the cloud solution against your organizational needs before adopting.
3.1 Factors that show misalignment with organization
Information systems has become a vital part of the organisation and when information system does not play their required role the organisation is likely to suffer in terms of the competitive advantage. Successful aligning and using information systems with the organisation goals and objectives will give the organisation an upper hand among their competitors as much as it is not sustainable. Strategic alignment can be defined as the art and science of formulating, integrating, and implementing decisions between the business and IT, which enables an organization to achieve its objectives. Strategic alignment process makes sure that business strategy, IT strategy, organizational infrastructure and processes, and IT infrastructure and processes are all in alignment. Strategic alignment of IT exists when a business organization’s goals and activities are in harmony with the information systems that support them.IT is meant to help the business to achieve the goals but if the two are not correctly aligned it will be difficult for the business to achieve such goals.

Strategic position is the company ‘relative position within its industry matters for performance. This talks to position that the company wants to see itself occupying in the customer mind as compared to its competitors. Strategic positioning should be the step towards achieving the business strategic goals. Positioning comes after a company has set its strategic goals and then it must position itself in such a way that it is able to achieve the goals. Strategic positioning should translate in one of the two things, being able to charge a higher price for your product and customers still buy it or being able to produce your product at a lower cost than any of your competitors and sell it at the same price.
The example will be like Woolworth food are expensive than ShopRite or Checkers. They all sell same brands, but woolies can sell their staff much more expensive than Checkers and people still prefers Woolies food and buy it. This is because of the strategic positioning that the people have in their minds about Woolies selling fresh and good quality staff. Another example for low cost will be Walmart, they are known of delivering the same value at a lower price, Walmart uses the cost advantage strategy by providing a very large selection and low prices via its retailer strength and size.  It can also be achieved by improving operational efficiency which makes the company to reduce costs. Some companies, like Nissan, have years of experience producing cars in a very cost-effective manner. Low cost airlines like Kulula.com, when they came to the market they offered low cost flights by cutting some of the services normally offered like food. This meant cutting operational costs to be able to lower their airfares which gave them advantage of being known as the low-cost airline. For the company to achieve strategic positioning it must be able to differentiate itself form its competitors either by quality of the product or the service is faster than others or by marketing better than others where you are able to reach many customers.
Information technology (IT) has become a vital and integral part of every business plan. From multi-national corporations who maintain mainframe systems and databases to small businesses that own a single computer, IT plays a role. Success of any large or medium size business depends on the work force, infra structure and technology the business use. Without the role of technology in business, many businesses simply could not survive. It allows businesses to improve both the performance and the effectiveness of products, services and systems. Companies worldwide are relying on emerging technology more than ever to help drive innovation, strategy, growth and increase competitive advantage. Technology can be the difference between the competitors and the one with the advanced technology will have advantage over the other one. Technology can increase your customers like in the case of banks, the first bank that introduced ATM immediately gained advantage over the others and was making more money through the ATM charges. Vodacom was the first network to introduce “Please call me” service and that made millions for the organisation and other networks had no choice but to follow. The company that sets trends in the market is the one that can have the advantage and trends can be depend on how the organisation can use IT to contribute to the bottom line. Technology can make your organization relevant or irrelevant in the market space. In the modern age, it is proved that digital marketing is a great tool which let you promote your products or services to the global market while sitting in the comfort of your remote office or home. And thanks to the cloud computing and modern communication which enable you to form a global organisation, manage and monitor its virtual offices all over the world.
Information technology helps the business in quicker decision making. Any important decision must be based on the careful scanning the entire environment. SWOT analysis can be done by comparing what you have against what is currently happening in the market. This can be possibly done through internet. This will help the organisation to make an informed decision based on what the SWOT analysis tells them. Organization must always keep in touch with what is happen in the market and the only way to know is through IT. Each business can now develop a program based on what they want the program to do for them. IT specialist can develop programs for the business just to watch the movement of shares for an organisation which in turn helps the organisation to either continue investing or take their investment elsewhere
Marketing and business growth can be best done through the internet. There is a lot platform in which the business can exploit to make sure the target market is reached. For each target market there is a platform that is relevant to them. Digital Marketing is a modern phenomenon which let you promote your products or services all over the world. Digital marketing is the fasted growing way of marketing, it enables even the new business a platform to market their products and it’s a good way of reaching all types of customers.

Information technology can and is widely used in customer support. Communicating with customers is essential, as every business needs to know what their customer’s needs. IT provides many channels to communicate with the customer without going out. Some of these channels are email, webinar, social media, member portals, online newsletters and text or multimedia messaging through the smart phone.
IT has also played a vital role in resource management. Before all things were done manually and there was a lot of paper work, IT has managed to introduce programs that are able to manage all these resources without paper. This helps more in financial and human resource management.
For all the benefits of IT to be realized in any organization there must be a correct integration of IT and business goals. Integration is the knitting together of different processes so to form one compact harmonious whole (Willoughby, 1901,). The processes of IT and business must work together to deliver on business goals. Integration is achieved by joint activities between organizational units, to unite their efforts and thus achieve a more efficient organisation. Its integration is a stepwise process involving both technical and human aspects including behavioral aspects. This integration must be done through various project the IT department and other department take. In all project that departments embark on, IT becomes one of the main pillar for any project to succeed. IT must be placed as a player in all these projects hence the relationship between the IT and different departments must always maintained. When each department undertakes to do any project, IT must be part of the meetings leading to the start of the project to bring their expertise early enough and their work to be properly included in the project scope. For any project team there must be an IT person from start of the project. The IT person will help to solve any issues related to systems and advise on best way to achieve some of them. IT must be used by organisation to achieve things rather than just being people you call when your computer is faulty. This means IT must be part of all the core projects, their existence is mainly for the advancement of business goals.
In my organisation we introduced laboratory sample tracking system. The aim of the system was to make sure all the samples are tracked from where they are taken, who took them, at what time they were taken, what time did the lab receive the sample, who received the sample up until what time the results are reported. In turn this was going to help the business make better decision in units’ optimization in case of units’ trips. Real time sampling was needed as operators sometimes wrote down incorrect tags. Project team was created to create the system. IT was the big part of the project from the start as software’s were installed to assist. This was the project for the lab but mostly IT systems were involved, that is why now the integration between the different departments is important it helps to achieve company goals easier and conflict free.
IT projects should derive its goals and objectives from the business strategic goals and objectives. Sometimes the organisation can have that competitive advantage by only upgrading their technology. The research on IT and business performance has found that the more successful the organisation can align information technology with its business goals the more profitable it will be and has found that only one-quarter of organizations achieve the alignment of IT with business goals. Most businesses spend a lot of money on IT investment hoping that will contribute significantly to the overall business objectives but some fail to get the return on their investment because of misalignment between IT and business goals. About half of the business profits depends on IT alignment with business. Unfortunately, some businesses do not take this alignment too seriously they tend to separate it from the main stream of running the business. This type of behavior in many instances companies loose big time because of this misalignment.
There are several factors that can influence the correct alignment with the organisation, these factors are:
Integration between business and information systems planning
Rational adaptation in information systems planning
IT managerial sources
IT implementation success
3.2 Business planning and IS planning, if the integration between the two is not done correctly there will be visible problems within the organisation but if the integration is done correctly IT will make a big contribution towards achieving business goals. The level of business planning – information system planning will positively influence the strategic alignment.

3.3 Rational adaptation in information systems planning, rationality is characterized by a comprehensive, formalized process, with a top-down flow and focus on controls. Adaptation is evident where there is frequent planning cycles and broad participation profiles. Organizations that are rated high on both rationality and adaptation are found to be most successful in strategic information system planning and the measure is alignment. The level of rationality and adaptation in the strategic information system planning process positively influence the state of strategic alignment.
3.4 IT managerial resources, resources that need to available are top management support for IT initiatives and IT management that understand the business and shows leadership. The quality of IT managerial resources will positively influence the state of strategic alignment.

3.5 IT implementation success, when an organisation has been successful in implementing an IT project from both business and IT perspective, a positive mindset about IT is engendered. This enhances a mutual understanding and commitment amongst stakeholders, this contributes to the level of social alignment. Which means in the end that IT implementation success influence the strategic alignment.
When the business struggles with any of the above, that will indicate that there is misalignment between the IT department and business objectives. Once these factors are not realized and aligned, the company will struggle to increase operating margins, will also take too long to execute any strategy that the company embarks on and will also see high employee turnover. As much as the IT is the stand-alone department or sometimes it is outsourced, whatever problems they experience will affect the entire business in one or two of the ways listed above. Hence alignment and managing the risk that the IT department has is very important for the business as those risk ultimately become the risks of the business as the whole.
4.1 Agile system development
Agile software development is the umbrella term for several iterative and incremental software development methodologies. The agile methodologies include Extreme Programming (XP), Scrum, Crystal, Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM), Lean Development, and Feature-Driven Development (FDD). All the above method development is unique to each other’s approach but share a common vision and core values. Their main aim and what they do very well is the continuous feedback they provide throughout the system development to make sure a refine system is delivered. They all involve continuous planning, continuous testing, continuous integration, and other forms of continuous evolution of both the project and the software. The outstanding feature about the agile methodologies is that they focus on empowering people to collaborate and make decision together quickly and effectively. It is important to have a close and continuous communication between the customer and the developers. This communication is necessary to ensure that the developer can meet the requirements of the customer and their satisfaction of the product that is being developed.
Agile practices are the combination of new and old practices, some have been around for some time. The agile method development has found a way combining all these different processes to make one method system development that is able to provide the needs for today system development. Agile system development has proud themselves of being able to deliver high quality systems in much less time than your traditional software development like Waterfall. Most importantly the Agile is developed in such a way that it copes with unexpected surprises during the system development, this is done by the combination of all the best practices in system development.
Agile systems development describes an approach to system development in which requirements and solutions are done through collaboration and planning with all the stakeholders including the customers. Agile software development is all about adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery and continuous improvement and it encourages rapid and flexible response to change. Agile methodologies anticipate the need for flexibility and applies a level of pragmatism into the delivery of the finished product. It focuses on the clean delivery of individual parts of the software and not the entire application.
Agile systems development is based on four values,
Individuals and interactions over processes and tools, tools and processes are important but is better and more important to have people working together effectively.
Working software over comprehensive documentation, good documentation is useful in helping people to understand how the software is built and how to use it, but the main point of development is to create a software not documentation.
Customer collaboration over contract negotiations, a contract is important but is no substitute for working closely with customers to discover what they need
Responding to change more than following a plan, project plan is important, but it must not be too rigid to accommodate changes in environment or technology, stakeholder’s priorities and people understanding of the problem and its solution.
Agile methodology put emphasis on people and communication rather than processes and tools, it works directly with and satisfying the customers by breaking all work into small chunks, meeting daily to ensure that work is on track and being open to changes even at the very end of the process. Team members meet daily to discuss what they did the previous day and what they plan to do on the day and what could be the roadblocks they see towards the goal. Agile methodologies use collaboration and communication by involving everyone on board until the very end of the software development. Customer representative is important throughout the stages of software development to answer questions and make sure all the requirements are met and this ensure the alignment with customer needs and company goals. This interactive behavior helps to see any problems that might occur well in advance and then resources may be channeled towards the issues with the customer present to all the changes.

Agile software is very adaptive, it always leaves room for flexibility in its planning stages. Adaptive methods focus on adapting quickly to changing realities. Whenever the need to change is realized the team also changes. Working software is the primary measure of progress.

Quality is built in the project as it progresses, they use specific tools and techniques such as continuous integration, automated unit testing, paired programing, test driven development, design patterns, behavior driven development and other techniques to improve quality. Agile system focuses on developing quality in design instead of creating a product that focuses on quantity. The design of agile methods allows to create “complete” products during an ongoing basis, in a smaller part of a sum. In Agile software development quality testing is completed in the same iteration as programming and not done as a separate testing as in Waterfall. This helps the users to frequently use the small pieces of software and validate their value, this puts them in the position to make informed decision about the software future.

One of the most commonly used agile methods is the Scrum method that focuses on day to day project management. Scrum is another agile methodology that is widely used, and it focuses on bringing everyone on the team, including the business stakeholders together to agree on features. The team will then set specific goals for 30-day sprint, at which point the agreed upon software is delivered. The method is the most widely adopted agile project management method in the industry. Scrum is described as the method that is more flexible as compared to the traditional approach methods. Traditional system development projects often move sequentially from phase to phase concept development, feasibility testing, product design, development process, pilot production and final production. However, the development process of Scrum is since the delivery of the product is done on a continual basis after each sprint in the Scrum process. Scrum is a type of method where the development processes are done together with different stakeholders to highlight the challenges and issues from several different aspects. This is achieved by handpicking the development team called the Scrum team. The Scrum team will work in a close collaboration with the customer of the project to enhance the flexibility and ensure that the given requirement is fulfilled according to the customers’ expectations. The team model in Scrum is designed to emphasize the optimization of the development process to be flexible, creative and productive. In the Scrum Team there are three different kind of stakeholders. The first stakeholder is the product owner that must make sure that each requested feature exists within the product backlog of the product that will be used by the users. Basically, the product owner makes sure to steer the project into the right direction. The second stakeholder is the Scrum master that oversees making sure that the project is following the given timeframe and that each team member has the necessary resources and tools to get their work done (Björkholm ; Brattberg, 2008). The Scrum master manages this by setting up meetings, monitoring the work-progress and release-planning. The stakeholder’s role of the Scrum master resembles a lot like a traditional project manager, but the scrum master is more like a serving-leader rather than a commander. The third stakeholder is all the different actors with professional experience of building the product, basically the developers of the product.

Extreme programming is one the types of agile methodologies and it focuses on the idea that for successful development to happen quickly, testing must be done regularly.
5.1Conclusion
IT has proven itself to be important department with in the organization, when use correctly and effectively it can surely bring much success to the entire organisation. This can be done when the objectives of the IT department derived form the organizational objectives. Once the alignment of organizational goals and information systems is done then all it means all the IT projects must be aimed at fulfilling and achieving those goals. Internet has abled the organizations to a lot of range of things that helps the business using different platforms. There are different platforms for all the business requirements starting from advertising, marketing, customer interaction feedback and including sales can now be done on the internet. IT has made life much easier for both the supplier and the customer. These different platforms of marketing cab be difference between two competing organizations. Organization who have successfully implemented the alignment of organizational goals and IT goals are now leading their competition that has not implemented the strategy. Involvement of CIO in the high decision-making body is the added advantage to the organization. Information systems can also be used to monitor the environment the company is in. SWOT analysis helps to collect the data and gives the correct path to follow based on the data collected. All this helps the company to know where they are and where they want to go.
6.1 References
https://www.successfactors.com/en_us/lp/articles/corporate-goal-alignment.html, March 3, 2018
https://www.ibm.com/midmarket/it/it/att/pdf/it_IT_business_continuity_BCRSUW03027USEN.pdf, March 3, 2018
http://www.raumer.com/articles%20and%20presentations/AligningIT.pdf, March 3, 2018
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f49f/c4fabe0cd58101f8507d415a6f53d442fbd7.pdf, March 3, 2018
https://www.globaldots.com/cloud-computing-types-of-cloud/, March 31, 2018
https://www.uswired.com/2015/06/what-are-the-different-types-of-cloud-computing-services/, April 2, 2018
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