Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites (IARC, 2002; M. Peraica et al., 1999; Bondy and Pestka, 2000; CAST, 2003; Zollner & Mayer-Hel, 2006; Marin et al., 2013) produced by a wide variety of filamentous fungi, including species from the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Alternaria and Claviceps that grow under different climatic conditions on agricultural commodities (Zollner & Mayer-Hel, 2006; Marin et al., 2013). Mycotoxins are ubiquitous (Gizachew et al., 2016) and it contaminates various feedstuffs and agricultural crops and induces a range of harmful effects (Gong et al., 2004; Turner et al., 2007; Jiang et al., 2008; Shuaib et al., 2010a; Jolly et al., 2011; Obuseh et al., 2011). This metabolites are produced and found in many feeds and foodstuffs of especially in plants during their pre-and post-harvest, transportation, processing and storage and are detected in cereal crops (Ezekiel et al., 2014; Juan et al., 2014; Warth et al., 2012; FAO, 1991) and in peanuts (Afolabi et al., 2015). Aflatoxin, ochratoxin, fumonisin, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone are all considered the major mycotoxins produced in food and feedstuffs (Wagacha, J. M. and Muthomi, J. W., 2008, FAO-WHO, 2001). Among the dangerous mycotoxins; aflatoxin, ochratoxin A and fumonisins (FB1 & FB2) represent the greatest health risk in tropical Africa (Manjula et al., 2009), Asia (Li et al., 2014) and the rest of the world (Alborch et al., 2012). Mycotoxins are capable of causing disease and death in both humans and livestock (Bennett, J. W. and Klich, M, 2003). The term ‘mycotoxin’ is usually reserved for the toxic chemical products produced by fungi that readily colonize crops (Turner NW et al., 2009). One mold species may produce many different mycotoxins, and several species may produce the same mycotoxin (Robbins CA et al., 2000). The spectrum of toxins produced in a commodity largely depends on one or more fungal species/strains contaminating the commodity, type and composition of commodity, environmental conditions, climatic factors, and also handling practices such as pre-harvest agricultural practices, harvesting, drying, storage, and processing (Ezekiel et al., 2012; Abia et al., 2013; Shephard et al., 2013; Adetunji et al., 2014; Chala et al., 2014; Ediage et al., 2014; Matumba et al., 2015a; Okeke et al., 2015; Chilaka et al., 2016; Hove et al., 2016; Ogara et al., 2017).

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