Module Title: Business Communication
Programme: Degree Foundation
Student name: Omer Elzahawi
Student ID: 0063MWYMWY0418
Lecturer: Mr Silva Kumar
1.0 The effects of British and Japanese invasion of Malaya. 3
The British:- 3
The Japanese:- 3
2.0 Formation of Malaya and who opposed it. 4
The Formation of Malaya 4
Who opposed it ? 4
3.0 Effects of corruption. 4
4.0 The separation of Singapore from Malaysia. 5
5.0 References 5
1.0 The effects of British and Japanese invasion of Malaya.
The British invasion followed by the British rule of Malaya had effected the nation in many ways, starting with the policies which were imposed by the British rule ,such as taxes that were collected from the British colonies ,as well as the changes in the economical side of things as the economy of the country was growing due to trade and particularly the British promoted and encouraged the planting of pepper, tobacco,palm trees and most importantly rubber ,which also along side tin were the region’s main source of revenue, more over the British put a lot of effort in constructing a transportation system in which road networks and railways linked port facilities to the tin fields to the coast so as to make it easier to trade through the port as many used to travel through it.
The army of the Japanese empire invaded Malaya through Kota Bahru and it was done on the 8th of December of 1941 as world war two started, japan invaded Malaya for its resources ,and particularly rubber trees and its tin fields, but in the process managed to impact the social, political,and economical situation of the country which led to the distancing of relationships between the different races and it’s especially the case between the Malays who helped the Japanese and the Chinese Malaysians who were anti-Japanese due to their link to communism and mainland China.
Also economically, inflation has sky rocketed due the Japanese destruction of the tin mines and the burning of rubber tree plantations ,this by hand resulted in the lack of market which led to lack of food supplies which created a state of emergency and mass shortages grew by the day. Moreover the political effects on Malaya where huge as the the Japanese occupation has triggered the Malays to develop a spirit of patriotism and since they already were the people in administrative positions and they slowly pushed for independence from both British and Japanese occupiers, but never the less the tensions between the Malays and Chinese Malaysians caused complications as it was extremely hard if not impossible as both were blaming the other for the countries situation.
2.0 Formation of Malaya and who opposed it.
The Formation of Malaya
The concept of the unification of Malaya was proposed a lot of times, never the less in 1961 Tunku Abdul Rahman spoke about his aspiration to form a unified Malaya, it would be composed of the Malay states,Singapore,Brunei,Sabah and Sarawak ,but in order for Malaya to be unified some factors must be fulfilled such as the misunderstanding for development which translates to the creation of an understanding between the five countries to unite a one nation united, and one united people, also besides that ethnic balance and unity is a must as it ensures the stability of of the nation. Most importantly all the people in the newly formed nation would and must help in the common fight against communism as all the involved parties were concerned about the communist threat.
Who opposed it ?
At the official inauguration of Malaysia on September of 1963, it was met by a great response from the British as the wanted to see the out come of their investment but never the less there was also opposition by Indonesia and the Philippines, who later due to their own reasons cut ties or relations with Malaysia, meanwhile Indonesia was attacking Malaysia intensely along the borders of Sabah and Sarawak, in response Malaysia deployed it’s security forces which handled the attacks and pushed them back, moreover the Philippines which claimed sabah as its own territory by right ,later with drew from it’s claim and recognized the nation of Malaysia.
3.0 Effects of corruption.
From Congo to Zimbabwe, From Belarus to North Korea corruption keeps on going on it’s adverse effect on the lives of the population’s majority, whither it be economical or socio-political corruption it’s all negative to the nation which suffer it.
Corruption usually occurs due to the lack of a country’s development or ability to properly develop a functioning system and this creates a vacuum for offenses such as bribery and jail with out trail, and in addition to this health care would be affected due to a lack of a proper regulation as the whole system is corrupt, which makes a market for pharmacies to sell unavailable or rare medicine for sky high prices and this could create a defect on the country’s drug control and regulation.
The worst effect of corruption is the appearance of real priorities or in other words greed as every one will eventually give up on the system and this will drive them to become desperate and to seek their own advantage while not caring about the process or who is harmed in the process, it also create economic distortions in public sector by changing the public’s investment in to projects where it’s more people will need to be given bribes or compensated for otherwise public service and more over corruption quality of services by the government while increasing budgetary pressures on the government.
4.0 The separation of Singapore from Malaysia.
Ideological differences Initially all appeared well. However, both nations developed different ideological lines on racial issues, especially concerning the Chinese race and the Malay race, mainly marked by UMNO’s belief in the bumiputera policy of helping Malays as the original settlers of Malaya that were mostly poor during post independence and it was thought by PAP as a positive racial discrimination. UMNO saw this as much needed affirmative action for Malays, who had supposedly been put at a disadvantage due to the heavy presence of immigrants mainly Chinese, that had entered the Malay Archipelago during colonial rule where many of them had the opportunities to be a businessman while living in the city but Malays were left as coolies by the British at rural areas. The PAP staunchly opposed this as unjustified and racist. The PAP, along with several other Malaysian minority parties, epitomised this view with the cry of a “Malaysian Malaysia !” , a policy to serve the entire Malaysian nationality , which Singapore at that time was included in, as opposed to just the Malay race . This was driven by the fact that Singaporean Chinese were facing increasing political, legal, and economic discrimination. One of the initial solutions proposed was to have the PAP join UMNO and later on participate in the federal government, but the Malayan Chinese Association (MCA) feared that the PAP would replace them, and opposed the PAP, seeing it as a radical socialist movement. The MCA urged the UMNO to prevent the PAP from being too influential in the federal government. From this point on the relationship between the UMNO and the PAP became increasingly cold, falling little short of hostile. Conflict between the parties During this period, racial tensions grew between the Chinese and the Malays, allegedly partially incited earlier by the MCP, such as during the Hock Lee bus riots, but with growing blame put on UMNO by the PAP. This was not an unfounded allegation, as many Malay newspapers, such as the partisan newspaper Utusan Melayu, continued to allege that the PAP had been mistreating the Malay race, citing the relocation of Malays from the kampungs for redevelopment. An increasingly heated debate on both sides sprung up, inciting racial tensions to such an extent that race riots occurred, culminating with two riots on and after Prophet Muhammad’s birthday in 1964. Both parties continued to escalate the tension with scathing verbal attacks on each other, accusing each other of being the cause of the riots. Earlier, in what was seen by the PAP as a violation of previous agreements, UMNO backed and formed the Singapore Alliance Party, which ran for the 1963 state elections in Singapore on 21 September 1963, but failed to win any seats, even in Malay constituencies. Despite this failure, it was seen as an attack on the PAP’s power base. Eventually, the PAP decided to challenge the policies of the Central Government directly, both as a retaliatory measure and to further its ideological grounds. It ran in the April 1964 Malaysian federal elections in coalition with other parties under the Malaysian Solidarity Council. The PAP was now a legitimate opposition party in the federal elections, and campaigned on a platform of eliminating racialism and a Malaysian Malaysia. Their rallies attracted large crowds. They decided to contest a minority of the seats however, to avoid any perception that they were trying to undermine the ruling party or being seen as agents of instability. The PAP only won one seat and 7% of the vote. UMNO saw this as spite, and felt threatened by the fact that the PAP had even contested any seats at all, and was alarmed by the seat the PAP managed to win. Dr. Tan Siew Sin, the finance minister at this time, demeaningly commented, “How can these kachang puteh parties pose a threat?” The sharp highlight of the degenerating situation was a vow by UMNO to oust the PAP from the Singapore government when the next set of state elections occurred, perhaps before the PAP could do likewise at the next federal election. In addition to racial unrest, thorny issues concerning Singapore’s rights as an autonomous state further put a dent in relations, such as the failure of a common market to be set up between the Federation and Singapore, and the heavy tax burden placed on Singapore, which was seen as unfair. Such issues catalyzed the impending secession: On 7 August 1965, Tunku Abdul Rahman announced to the Malaysian Parliament in Kuala Lumpur that the Parliament should vote yes on the resolution to have Singapore to leave the Federation, choosing to “sever all ties with a State Government that showed no measure of loyalty to its Central Government” as opposed to the undesirable method of suppressing the PAP for its actions. Singapore’s secession and independence became official on 9 August 1965. De jure , Singapore withdrew of its own accord. De facto , however, the PAP had no true authority to influence whether Singapore should leave or not, despite having pressured Tunku Abdul Rahman not to take such a course of action. The separation agreement was signed to maintain friendly relations, trade agreements, and mutual defence ties. These were left intact, although federal ties to Singapore as a state were cut off.