intelligence. By the end of the module you
should be able to define intelligence and
discuss some common strategies for
measuring intelligence. In addition, we will
tackle the politically thorny issue of
whether there are differences in intelligence
between groups such as men and women.
When you think of “smart people” you likely have an intuitive sense of the qualities that make
them intelligent. Maybe you think they have a good memory, or that they can think quickly,
or that they simply know a whole lot of information. Indeed, people who exhibit such qualities
appear very intelligent. That said, it seems that intelligence must be more than simply knowing
facts and being able to remember them. One point in favor of this argument is the idea of
animal intelligence. It will come as no surprise to you that a dog, which can learn commands
and tricks seems smarter than a snake that cannot. In fact, researchers and lay people
generally agree with one another that primates—monkeys and apes (including humans)—are
among the most intelligent animals. Apes such as chimpanzees are capable of complex
problem solving and sophisticated communication (Kohler, 1924).
Scientists point to the social nature of primates as one evolutionary source of their intelligence.
Primates live together in troops or family groups and are, therefore, highly social creatures.
As such, primates tend to have brains that are better developed for communication and long
term thinking than most other animals. For instance, the complex social environment has led
primates to develop deception, altruism, numerical concepts, and “theory of mind” (a sense
of the self as a unique individual separate from others in the group; Gallup, 1982; Hauser,
MacNeilage & Ware, 1996).Also see Noba module Theory of Mind http://noba.to/a8wpytg3