In ancient criminal justice system of human civilization, if there was any occurrence of any wrong doings, personal revenge was the only way for punishing the offender and at that time laws were also outlined with the end goal to repay the victim not for punishing the accuse. The criminal laws of ancient societies were related to crimes (wrong doings) instead of wrongdoer in other words there were not law of violations law but rather it was the law of wrongs. The person harmed due to wrongdoings proceeds against the wrong-doer by an ordinary civil activity and he may recover equal amount of compensation in the form of money for his harm, if he succeeds.In the ancient Hindu Law, punishment for crimes occupied a more significant place rather than paying compensation for wrong doings.
In middle ages of history, when a person reoccur loss due to crime, he himself has to seek for justice and at that time the justice was achieved through retaliation and also the justice was based on principle of an eye for an eye. That time the offender was punished equal to harm caused to victim and he has to pay equal amount to harm against the victim, thus that time justice was based on compensatory grounds and criminals have to compensate victims the same property or harm caused to him in the same form. In simple words if a person is found to be guilty of stolen cow of someone, then he has to return cow to the same person. In early ages justice system revolved around the criminal not the state. Victims individually have to seek for justice and criminals or offenders if found guilty were responsible for harm and they have to pay for it and there was not role of state in restitution.