i. The source (S) who is the sender is the one from whom the thought come from. He sees the need to pass information. He is tasked with encoding his though and use a medium of his choice to reach the receiver. However the source’s is affected by the following factors in the communication process:

Communication Skills – The sources ability to communicate effectively and make impact on the receiver will depend on his communication skills. The source must take into consideration pronunciation of words, articulation of sentences and other speech delivery skills as this might affect delivery of his message to audience either positively or negatively.
Attitude -The speaker’s attitude towards the audience, subject and towards him will determine the efficiency of the communication or even its failure. For instance, in a classroom setting – the teacher must have a positive attitude towards his or her class. In addition, he or she should like the subject matter so as to deliver it effectively to the learners.
Knowledge – The knowledge about the topic one is going to communicate. For instance, in case of speech delivery, the speaker must have the knowledge of the subject matter he or she is going to talk about.
Social System – The social system includes the various aspects in the society like values, beliefs, culture, religion and general understanding of the society. Therefore the source needs to understand society system in order to communicate effectively. For example, delivering a speech in a conservative Muslim country will require one to dress in a way they consider decent and choose the topic wisely and also to know how to relate to their women, for instance, shaking of hands with them is not acceptable if you are from a different culture or religion.
Cultural differences make messages different. A person from one culture might find something offensive which is very much accepted in another culture.

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ii. The Message (M) is the idea, opinion, emotion or information conveyed by the speaker. The message the sender gives can be affected by the following factors:

Content – This is what is contained in the idea the sender is expressing. For it to be effective, it must have appropriate and relevant purpose to the audience.

Elements – Elements of a message include language used, that is, formal, informal or semi-formal. Other elements are gestures, body language, facial expression etc. The message therefore has to be encoded using appropriate elements to accomplish it communicative goal.


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