Gender equality is a fundamental human right. However, the human rights of people are often violated because of their gender identity or sexual orientation. Some of the main issues relate to participation, gender violence, armed conflict and poverty, and sexual and reproductive rights.
Discrimination based on gender, gender identity and sexual orientation is widespread throughout the world. This primarily limits the opportunities for women and people from the LGBT group to participate in society. There are significant obstacles to full and equal participation in education, employment and political and governmental decision-making.
Throughout the world, girls have more limited access to education than boys; in 60% of countries, girls receive less primary and secondary education than boys3. And while in most European countries there are an equal number of boys and girls in education – and higher education is often more often given to women – gender parity is only one step towards full gender equality. Often there are other barriers to the full participation of girls. They may be encouraged to study certain subjects (for example, art and humanitarian subjects, rather than scientific and engineering subjects), as this is considered more appropriate given the dominant gender stereotypes. It is likely, this can lead to differences in achievements in studies. For example, in Europe, girls have lower marks in science and technology,4 Sexual harassment and sexual harassment are widespread in schools.
And although great progress has been made in recent decades in the legislation to promote gender equality in employment, especially in Europe, in practice, we still have a long way to go to eliminate discrimination in the workplace. Women are often discriminated against with regard to the jobs they can get, with respect to their salary level, and also because of the opportunities for promotion in leadership positions. For example, in the European Union, men receive an average of 17.5% more than women for the same job 5. Women may also face sexual harassment and harassment in the workplace and are forced to put up with sexist jokes and attitudes from their colleagues. Many women do not receive promotion or are denied hiring because of pregnancy or because of the presence of children. Unequal distribution of family responsibilities between men and women, and as a result, women are more likely to terminate their careers and work part-time compared to men. This can affect their pension rights when they reach retirement age.