From this experiment, we will learn about mitosis in the root tip of onion cell. Cell division is a process parent cell divides to form two daughter nuclei and extremely important for reproduction, growth and tissue renewal. Next, cyclins, a special protein, act as a signal like switches to inform cell when division start and end. There are three types of cell divisions which are binary fission, mitosis and meiosis.
Binary fission is a simple form of division occur in prokaryotic cells and will produce two genetically identical cells. Prokaryotic cells, an unicellular organisms with simple internal structure, no nucleus, no nuclear membrane and no membrane- bounded organelles but have DNA which dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. During the DNA replication, a double-stranded DNA will divides into two and moves rapidly toward the opposite poles of the cell . After the replication is finished, the plasma membrane will grow inward at the centre of the cell and causes the cytoplasm to split apart, the two new and identical daughter cells are formed.
Mitosis is a type of cell division occur in eukaryotic cells and somatic cells only to form two diploid identical daughter cells. Moreover, divisions of nucleus, known as karyokinesis occur in mitosis. Eukaryotic cells, an unicellular or multicellular organisms, have nucleus, more complex than prokaryotic cells and DNA is situated in the nucleoplasm. Animal cell and plant cell are eukaryotic cell. Owing to the complex structure of an eukaryotic cell, the cell need to go through various stage for a complete cell division. The four phase in mitosis are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.
Furthermore, meiosis is a cell division that occurs in eukaryotic cells to produce four haploid daughter cells which are genetically diverse from their parent cells. The four phases need to go through in meiosis are similar with mitosis. In meiosis, it has two sets of divisions which are meiosis 1 and meiosis 2. The number of chromosome is reduced in meiosis 1, whereas the 4 haploid daughter cell is genetically diverse in meiosis 2. Owing to the crossing over, the chromosome exchange their genetic material and creates variation. This is why we don’t have totally same appearance with our parents.
The differences between mitosis and meiosis are mitosis has one cell division, whereas meiosis has two cell divisions. The number of chromosomes in mitosis is same as parent cells , whereas the number of chromosomes in meiosis is half of their parent cells. No variation is created in mitosis, whereas variation is created in meiosis. In addition to, mitosis occur in somatic cell, whereas meiosis occur in gamete cell. The similarities between mitosis and meiosis are both involved prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase and both are nuclear divisions.
Finally, the purpose of binary fission take place is for the asexual reproduction, whereas the meiosis is for the sexual reproduction. The purpose for mitosis to take place is replacing dead or damaged cell in an entire life of an eukaryotic organnisms.