E-GOVERMENT SYSTEM DESIGN AND SERVICE DELIVERY

E-GOVERMENT SYSTEM DESIGN AND SERVICE DELIVERY: A
CASE STUDY OF IREMBO, RWANDA

EPHREM TUYISENGE
MIT/0063/13

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Research Proposal Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement of
the Award of Master of Science in Information Technology (MSCIT) of
Mount Kenya University

MAY 2018

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DECLARATION
This proposal is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any other
University or for any other award.
Student Names: Ephrem TUYISENGE
RegNo: MIT/0063/13
Sign……………………………Date………………………………………
We confirm that the work reported in this proposal was carried out by a candidate under my
supervision.

Supervisor 1:
Name: Prof. Raymond WAFULA ONGUS
Sign…………………………………Date………………………………….

Supervisor 2:
Name: Morris GITONGA
Sign…………………………………Date………………………………….

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DEDICATION
This research is dedicated to my lovely wife MUKANIYONGOMA Clotilde for her love, My
daughter ISIMBI Olga for their support and sacrifice that they underwent for me to complete
this work.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following individuals and organizations for their
contribution to the success of this work.
I express our sincere gratitude to Mr. Morris GITONGA and Prof. Raymond WAFULA
ONGUS for having accepted to supervise this project despite their enormous responsibilities.
Their guidance and a great number of counseling they provided me contributed to the
successful completion of this work.
I am also very grateful to my wife who deserves praise for the pain and sacrifices endured
during my education.
Our thanks are also expressed to the Government of Kenya, the Mount Kenya University,
especially the department of Information Technology that availed us skills for their support to
make this work success.
Finally, I express my gratitude to each one who directly and indirectly contributed to make this
research fruitful. MAY GOD BLESS YOU ALL!

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ABSTRACT
The Government of Rwanda has heavily i nvest ed much in the Information Communication
Technology and the arrival of e-government fostered digitalization in the service delivery of
most government services. The general objectives of this study will be on the relationship
between e-government system design and service delivery. It will thus help to understand the
effectiveness and importance of design of e-government systems on service delivery. The
objectives include; to investigate on the design features of Irembo; to investigate on the quality
of service delivery by Irembo, and to establish the relationship between e-government system
design and service delivery. This research being descriptive and analytical will use interviews
and questionnaires to collect data. The target population for this study is 488 managers and
users of Irembo and the sample size will be 220 using Slovin’s Formula. After collecting data,
the interpretation will be done using statistics such as graphs, frequency tables, weighted
means, standard deviation and percentage and this by the use of statistical package for social
sciences (SPSS V20).

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ii
DEDICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………………………………………………………………. iv
ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….v
TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………………………………………………… vi
LIST OF FIGURES …………………………………………………………………………………………………….x
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS …………………………………………………………………….. xi
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS ………………………………………………………………………………. xiii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………….1
1.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….1
1.1 Background of the study …………………………………………………………………………………1
1.2 Statement of the problem ………………………………………………………………………………..4
1.3 Objectives of the study ………………………………………………………………………………………..5
1.3.1 General objectives ………………………………………………………………………………………..5
1.3.2 Objectives ……………………………………………………………………………………………………5
1.4 Research Questions …………………………………………………………………………………………….5
1.5 Significance of the study ……………………………………………………………………………………..5
1.6 Limitations of the study……………………………………………………………………………………….6

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1.7 Scope of the study ………………………………………………………………………………………………6
1.7.1 Content scope ………………………………………………………………………………………………6
1.7.2 Geographical scope ……………………………………………………………………………………….6
1.7.3 Time scope …………………………………………………………………………………………………..7
1.8 Organization of the study …………………………………………………………………………………….7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ………………………………………………………………….7
2.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….7
2.1 Theoretical literature …………………………………………………………………………………………..8
2.2 Empirical literature review …………………………………………………………………………….27
2.3 Critical review and research gap identification ……………………………………………………..32
2.4Theoretical framework ……………………………………………………………………………………….33
2.5 Conceptual framework ………………………………………………………………………………………35
2.6 Summary …………………………………………………………………………………………………………37
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ………………………………………………….38
3.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..38
3.1 Research design ………………………………………………………………………………………………..38
3.2 Target Population ……………………………………………………………………………………………..38
3.3 Sample Design………………………………………………………………………………………………….39
3.5 Data Collection …………………………………………………………………………………………………40
3.5.1 Data Collection Procedures ………………………………………………………………………….40

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3.5.2 Reliability and Validity ……………………………………………………………………………….41
3.6 Data Analysis Procedure ……………………………………………………………………………………41
3.7 Method of Data Analysis of Each Objective …………………………………………………………41
3.8 Ethical Consideration ………………………………………………………………………………………..42
REFERENCES: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..43
APPENDICES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….46
APPENDIX I. Letter to the Respondents ……………………………………………………………………..46
SECTION I: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR IREMBO E-GOVERNMENT STAFF …………………47
APPENDIX III: RESEARCH TIMELINE/2017 ……………………………………………………………50
APPENDIX IV. RESEARCH BUDGET ……………………………………………………………………..52

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LISTOF TABLES
Table 3. 1Sample Size determination for strata ……………………………………………………………..39

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2. 1 Integral components of E-government …………………………………………………………..9
Figure 2. 2 Irembo Home page ……………………………………………………………………………………22
Figure 2. 3 Irembo Main menu ……………………………………………………………………………………23
Figure 2. 4 Local Government menu expanded ……………………………………………………………..23
Figure 2. 5 Conceptual Framework ……………………………………………………………………………..36

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ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
AML: Anti-Money Laundering
BNR: Bank Nationale du Rwanda
C2C: Customer toCustomer
CFT: Combating the Finance of Terrorism
EBM: Electronic Business Machine
ESW: Electronic Single Window
E-Tax: Electronic Tax
FMIS: Financial Management Information System
GPRS: General Packet Radio Service
GSM: Global System for Mobile Communication
ICT: Information Communication Technology
IFC: International Fund Corporation
ISIC: Internet Standard for Industrial Classification
ISP: Internet Service Provider
IT: Information Technology
KYC: Know Your Customer
MMS: Multimedia Messaging Service
MMS: Multimedia Messaging Service
MNO: Mobile Network Operator
M-payment: Mobile payment
M-Pesa: Mobile Pesa
MTN: Mobile Telephone Network
NISR: National Institute of Statistics

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OTA: Over-the-air programming
RDB: Rwanda Development Board
SIM: Subscriber Identity Module
SIM: Subscriber Identity Module
SMS: Short Message Service
TAM: Technology Acceptance Model
TIN: Taxpayer Identification Number
USD: United States Dollar
USSD: Unstructured Supplementary Services Delivery
VAT: Value Added Tax
WAP: Wireless Application Protocol
WWW: World Wide Web

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DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
Data: Individual facts collected together for analysis
Information: Data and fact acquired and learned through a study, experience or form of
someone.
Mobile payments: These are payments done through or using mobile or handheld devices
Service delivery: the manner in which services can be taken to the people or users
E-government: Electronic government (or e-government) essentially refers to “utilization of
Information Technology (IT), Information and Communication Technologies (ICT s), and
other web-based telecommunication technologies to improve and/or enhance on the efficiency
and effectiveness of service delivery in the public sector.”
Service Quality: An assessment of how well a delivered service conforms to the client’s
expectations.

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction
This chapter presents the background of the study, problem statement, objectives, research
question, significance, scope, limitation and organization of the study.
1.1 Background of the study
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are pervasive across the globe and are
not only changing the daily lives of people but also affecting the characteristics of the
interaction between governments and their citizens (Akman, et al, 2005). These changes, in
turn, are rapidly being transformed into new forms of government, namely e-government. The
adoption of ICTs, e-commerce, and e-business in the commercial sectors, as well as the
diffusion of the internet among the general population have led to rising levels of comfort and
familiarity with the technologies in many contexts, for example, (communicating with people,
electronic marketing and academic activities). This increased expectations of citizens that the
public sector organization will provide services similar to those in the commercial sector with
the same level of agility, effectiveness and efficiency (Ebrahim & Iran, 2005).
The e-government represents more than a diffusion of some technology in the public sector,
but rather has emerged as a discipline concerned with the online provision of public services
and exchange of information and services, facilitating interactive, collaborative and
participatory engagement of citizens, businesses, employees and government agencies
(Almarabeh and AbuAli, 2010; Wu, 2007; The World Bank, 2003). This allows government
departments to network and integrate their services using information and communication
technologies (ICTs) and the aim is to provide efficient government management of

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information, better service delivery to citizens and empower people through participation in
public decision making (UN, 2005).
It is evident that e-government involves using ICTs to enhance service delivery to its
stakeholders with considerable improvements in efficiency and effectiveness of public service
(Bhatnagar, 2003; Weerakkody et al, 2007 Heeks, 2003). However, implementing e-
government in developing countries is still a novel phenomenon (Ebrahim & Irani, 2005)
where a number of countries are still developing ICT infrastructure platforms and with others
still at the initial phases of articulating e-government vision such as drawing ICT policies to
act as an e-government enabler (Bwalya, 2010; Abu Ali, 2010).
In support of the perception that e-government is still at preliminary phases in developing
countries (Sein, 2011) expounding on the literature (Heeks, 2000; Mukerji, 2008; UNCTAD,
2008), it is revealed that problems faced by developing countries are; access and use of e-
government services by citizens; low literacy, where even amongst the literate resources are
limiting; information access and information literacy is another constraint. Accordingly, higher
percentages of population reside in non urban areas and e-government is largely not accessible
to the majority of the people in developing countries (Ngulubane, 2007; Sein, 2011; Heeks,
2000). This picture suggests that the use of ICTs in providing public services is not a single
solution for developing countries. However, the fundamental aspect of e-government is that it
must deliver public information and services in ways that citizens want them using internet
and other ICTs as leverages. This should have direct impact on the effectiveness of public
services and governments’ continuous contacts with citizens, especially those living in remote
areas.

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It is posited that in the traditional government concept, a government exists to serve the interest
of the people (Kolsaker ; Lee-Kelley, 2006) similarly e-government exists to primarily benefit
the citizen-stakeholders. In order to successfully implement e-government in developing
countries, it is imperative to understand the role of government entities, citizens’ needs,
priorities, challenges and peculiarities.
The traditional model of government is increasingly becoming less efficient (Sharifi and Zarei,
2004), as the emerging vast networks in interacting public, private and voluntary organisations
could no longer be served effectively using the traditional setups of a single administration for
single services and specific functions. This has propelled the need for e-based technologies to
augment the traditional public sector administrations. It is against this background that e-
government as the new business and governance model in the public sector, has attracted the
attention of political leaders and statesmen around the world. The advent of technological
revolution of the late 1990s which enabled delivery of services over the internet caused a major
and rapid transformation of governments’ functioning around the globe (Wimmer, 2002;
Hwang et al, 1999).
In developed countries, the services are increasingly offered in a self-service mode through
internet portals that become a single point of interaction for the citizens to receive services
from a larger number of departments (Bhatnagar, 2003). For example, countries such as
Canada, Singapore and New Zealand are among the top twenty e-government leading countries
(UN, 2005). In Singapore, citizens can pay parking tickets, job seekers can search for
employment and public trustees can file an application for estate administration using
opportunities provided by e-government (Ngulubane, 2007). In Finland, the e-government
strategy raises Internet-based services and tools as an important vehicle for increasing

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democracy, validating the quality of decisions and for promoting acceptability of decisions,
regulations and political processes.
As for developing countries, they have peculiar issues different from developed countries and
these issues can have great impact on the success of e-government projects.
The government through Rwanda Development Board (RDB) developed a fee-based e-
government platform through which all government services are provided. The system titled
Irembo aims at transforming government service delivery, increase access to information and
foster transparency by use of internet and mobile devices (Republic of Rwanda, 2018). The
Irembo is the one-stop portal for e-Government services with a role as a platform for the
provision of Government services online with ease, efficiency and reliability (Bizimungu,
2015). It has its contents organized in such a way that content can be searched by topic, by
ministry, by name or popularity. The system ensures security in that the user has to login and
out meaning that they should have opened an account with Irembo to access and use it. The
Irembo can be used on both computers and mobile devices connected to internet to search a
list of services offered by the different government ministries in Rwanda in both Kinyarwanda
the local language, French and English.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Poor service delivery at the grassroots was found to affect good governance in Rwanda in RGB
report carried out in five districts of Gasabo, Gicumbi, Kamonyi, Nyagatare, and Rusizi (IPAR,
2010). As per EDPRS II, the level of satisfaction on service delivery was set at 85% by 2018.
Yet, researches indicate that the level of service delivery still scores low as compared with
other indicators (72.93% – RGS2016) and (67.7% – CRC2016) . Though ICT is a strategy for

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the achievement of vision 2020 and overall improvement in service delivery, the penetration
of ICT connectivity has remained a challenge. This makes manual services still to be preferred
by most government institutions which challenges the service delivery promises. The use of
mobile systems has proven significant in some countries and Rwanda in particular is a case in
study in Africa on how Irembo is impacting service delivery.
However there is no study that has empirically related irembo to improved service delivery or
at least gave recommendations on how it would be improved. This study aims at exploring the
design attributes of irembo that make it an ideal for improved service delivery.
1.3 Specific Objectives of the Study
1.3.1 General Objectives
The objective of the study is to investigate on the relationship between e-government system
design and service delivery. The case study will be irembo
1.3.2 Objectives
i. To investigate on the design features of e-government system
ii. To investigate on the quality of service delivery by e-government system
iii. To establish the relationship between e-government system design and service delivery
1.4 Research Questions
i. What are the design features of e-government system?
ii. What the quality of service delivered through e-government system?
iii. What is the relationship between e-government systems design and service delivery?
1.5 Significance of the Study

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This research project will be important to especially the RDB as it elaborates on the importance
of Irembo and its design features for service delivery. The users of Irembo will get an
opportunity to comment on the system and provide feedback that will affect the improvement
of service delivery initiates of the government especially through electronic media.
This researchers will also benefit other researchers as they will find it as a basis upon which to
conduct further studies in this area.
1.6 Limitations of the Study
This study may suffer from lack of honesty in provision of data especially with the fear that
the findings will criticize government. However to overcome this, the respondents will be
assured that the study is meant for academic purposes only and none of the information they
provide will have any negative consequences to anybody including the government. It is the
wish of the researcher to conduct a study on several e-government systems however Irembo is
found sufficient enough to provide for the needs of the study.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study will cover content scope, geographical scope and time scope.
1.7.1 Content Scope
This study will examine the impact of e-government systems design on service delivery.
1.7.2 Geographical Scope
The present study will be carried in one provinces of Rwanda. It will be conducted in RDB
headquarter in Kigali City in Rwanda and also within users in Kigali.

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1.7.3 Time Scope
This research project will focus on a period of 5 years from 2012 to 2017.The year 2011 will
be considered as the time the system came to be used. This study will be carried out within the
approved timeframe as specified by Mount Kenya University, School of Postgraduates Studies
(January to April 2018).
1.8 Organization of the Study
This proposal is made of three chapters. Chapter one highlights the introduction, the back
ground of the study and the problem statement. In addition, objectives are defined; significance
of the study as well as scope is explained. Chapter two includes the review of related literature,
Chapter three includes research methodology.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction

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This chapter presents a review of literature pertinent to the study as presented by various
researchers, scholars, analysts and authors. It summarizes literature that has been reviewed for
the purpose of the study with regards to e-service system design and service delivery. The
literature covers an empirical literature review, critical review and research gap identification,
theoretical framework, conceptual framework and the summary.
2.1 Theoretical literature
2.1 Concept of E-government
The concept of e-government is widely believed to have emerged around 1990 following the
50 years of information technology (IT) use in the public sector environments (Flak et al, 2007;
Young-Jin ; Seang-Tae, 2007). While other literature for example (Spremic, et al, 2009)
believe that the e-government idea was raised by the United States of America vice president
(Al Gore) within his vision of linking the citizens to the various agencies of government by
getting all kinds of government services automated, this was coupled with government costs
reduction measures, performance improvement, speed and delivery, and also the effectiveness
of implementation. It has been observed that the term “e-government” is not universally used,
it encapsulates a wide variety of meanings ranging from policies that foster the development
of information infrastructures to efforts that address digital divide (Akman et al, 2005; Heeks,
1999: Cawkell, 2001).
Many studies have defined egovernment in different ways: For example, the e-government
hand book for developing countries (InfoDev, 2002) views e-government as a powerful tool to
help all types of economies (developed, developing and in transition) to bring the benefits of
the emerging global information society to the largest part of their respective societies

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including a greater transparency and accountability in public decisions, powerful ways to fight
corruption, the ability to stimulate the emergence of e-cultures and the strengthening of
democracy. Here, e-government is seen as a tool for achieving broader public sector reform
goals and objectives (Yildiz, 2007). On the other hand the (World Bank, 2008) conceptualizes
e-government as the use by government agencies of information technologies, Wide Area
Networks, the Internet, and mobile computing that have the ability to transform relations with
citizens, businesses, and other arms of government. These technologies can serve a variety of
different ends, such as better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions
with business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or more
efficient government management. The resulting benefits can be less corruption, increased
transparency, greater convenience, revenue growth, and/or cost reductions.
E-government categorized as e-services, e-administration and e-democracy as shown in Figure
2.1

Figure 2.1 Integral components of E-government

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Source: Finish Ministry of Finance, 2009.
E-administration refers to the internal processes, data and information storages, and
information systems of the public administration.
E-services refer to electronic services and patronization for citizens and businesses.
E-democracy means the use of ICT by governments in general used by elected officials, media,
political parties and interest groups, civil society organizations, international governmental
organizations, or citizens/voters within any of the political processes of states/regions, nations,
and local and global communities (Clift, 2003). In the Finnish concept, e-democracy is further
broken down into the domains of e-consultation, e-participation and e-empowerment (Finnish
Ministry of Finance, 2009). The goals of e-democracy (and e-consultation) are increasing
democracy, improving quality of decisions and promoting acceptability of decisions and
regulations. The concrete goals are to create and accomplish the methods and channels of
internet participation, which allow citizens to express their opinions about issues in the drafting
process, discuss deliberatively about the issues, express their own points of view in societal
discussion, preparation and decision-making and gain experiences of influencing and in the
end, making a difference (Finnish Ministry of Finance 2009).
E-consultation Consultation is a two-way relationship between citizens and government,
providing a feedback mechanism from government to citizens. Governments define the issues
for consultation, set the questions and manage the process, while citizens are invited to
contribute their views and opinions (OECD 2003).
E-consultation does not, in principle, differ from traditional or face-to-face consultation. The
key difference is the use of ICT as facilitating technology. By means of e-consultation, the
administration aims to improve the quality and efficiency of drafting new policies. Tools used

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in e-consultation include electronic consultation forms, online polls, following of Internet
discussion forums and other information sources (Finnish Ministry of Finance, 2009).
E-participation: Macintosh defines e-participation as “the use of information and
communication technologies to broaden and deepen political participation by enabling citizens
to connect with one another and with their elected representatives” (Macintosh 2006).
Typically e-participation is associated with some form of political deliberation or decision-
making and can take place within the formal political processes (e.g. voting), or outside it (e.g.
political activism) (Sæbø et al. 2008). With regard to e-participation, the government aims at
developing consultation and new participatory methods. As with e-consultation, the point of
view is to increase inclusion and thus promote acceptance of decisions. In addition, e-
participation tools and methods aim at increasing deliberation in the policy-making processes.
In addition to previously mentioned (e-consultation) tools, e-participation tools can also
include, e.g., wiki for drafting of documents, discussion forums, chats and blogs (Finnish
Ministry of Finance 2009).
E-Empowerment is a concept familiar in the fields of pedagogy, psychology, sociology and
economics. It refers to increasing the strength of individuals and communities, e.g., by
developing their confidence in their own skills. Mäkinen (2009) proposes the digital
empowerment process as a means to strengthen the awareness and capability of individuals
and communities to actively and critically participate in the information society, as
independent and cooperative actors. (Mäkinen 2009) Digital (or e-) empowerment is used to
describe the empowering process, which utilizes digital tools such as new information
technology to promote empowerment. E-empowerment also means the possibility to not just

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take part in the current policymaking processes, but also the capability to be involved in
shaping the societal agenda.
2.2 E-government Models
Gartner Maturity Model (Baum & Maio, 2000) the model focuses on back-end business
process integration and offers three stages of (1) web presence which provides a relatively
static website for information publishing; (2) Interaction stage which allows a two directional
communication where users are able to come in contact with different government entities
through downloading of forms and related documents and using emails; (3) The transaction
stage which enables users to transact online; and the (4) transformation stage affords the
government an opportunity to transform the operational processes in order to provide an
efficiently enhanced and integrated personal and unified service to users.
Hiller and Belanger (Hiller & Belanger, 2001), a five stage customer centric model offering;
(1) Information dissemination just like the above, information is posted in the static website
for general citizenry to access through a one way communication platform; (2) while a two
way communication offering is enhanced through dynamic websites functionalities for
government and citizens to interact. The next stage is (3) Service and financial transaction, an
advanced stage coupled with sophistication in technology, here government online services
include financial transactions with citizens as well as Bi-directional communication between
governments and individuals; (4) Vertical and horizontal integration stage, enabling
government to integrate various systems in its value chain, both from different levels and
departments; then (5) the political participation stage being the most advanced stage under this
model and enables ordinary citizens to participate politically through online voting and other
online means.

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Layne and Lee (Layne & Lee, 2001) this model puts emphasis on technological capability and
is a four staged model (1) Cataloguing of government information; (2) transactional
capabilities; (3) vertical integration where local systems are linked to a higher level system
within similar functionalities; and (4) horizontal integration offering a real one stop shop to
citizens.
The World Bank (World Bank, 2003), offers a three stages model focusing on efficient
provision of e-government services and the overall development of egovernment. The model
is concerned with (1) Publishing of important government information and ensuring such
information is posted on the website; (2) Interactivity, this involves enhancement of websites
capabilities to facilitate interaction; and (3) completing transactions, here citizens’ users are
enabled through the availability of secure ICTs to transact online.
2.1.3 Benefits of implementing E-government
Citizens are the primary stakeholders for e-government implementation and the egovernment
projects, if well implemented it has the potential to offer an increased citizens’ mindshare and
engagement in the political and administrative processes, through delivery of clear and useful
information online in a vibrant and interesting manner, as well as attract participation in online
public consultations and feedback (Infocomm, 2006). This facilitates and builds participatory
democracy (Cliff, 2004) which helps to build trust between government and citizens, thus
satisfying amongst others, the fundamental element to good governance, (OCED, 2003). ICTs
can help build trust by enabling citizens’ engagement in the policy process, promoting open
and accountable government. Therefore e-government enhances and strengthens democracy
and equality for all citizens stakeholders irrespective of their geographic locality, political,
social and economic classes, this is achieved through reach and equitable access, effective

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representation in decision making process, transparency, interaction and engagement.
Examples are; e-voting, e-participation and e-consultation. Increasingly e-government
enhances capacity and synergy of the employee stakeholders in governance process and
enables public sector competency development. Here, synergies are created through shared
data, processes and systems; enrichment of public officers work experience through innovative
use of existing e-government structures and technology platforms, which foster innovative
exploitation of ICTs and internet in the public service (Infocomm, 2006). Through e-
government there is a substantial development of strategic connections between public sector
organisations and their departments, resulting in effective communication between
government levels, i.e. central, city and local. These connections and communication improve
cooperation; facilitate the provision and implementation of government strategies, transactions
and policies. Further this will impact on the improved use and running of government
processes, information and resources, (Ebrahim & Irani, 2005; Cabinet Office, 2000; Heeks,
2001).
1.2.4 Design of e-government system
E-government is operated on various platforms however in this study the study adopts the web-
based e-government systems. The design features of a good and useable website is therefore
relevant for the type of system adopted in this study.
1.2.4.1 The website design
According to Niederst Robbins (2007), web design is a process which includes a variety of
different disciplines such as graphic design, information design, interface design, document
production, scripting and programming, and multimedia. Allsop wrote in his article that the
control which designers are used to having in the print medium is actually creating an

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unnecessary limitation for web design. He encourages designers to accept the lack of
limitations and design for flexibility and aim for pages which are accessible for everyone
(Allsop, 2000).
The web displays visual information and it is the graphic designer who decides on which type,
colour, layouts, or graphics are used. The industry’s standard tool for design is Adobe
Photoshop (Niederts, 2007). Brannan (2010) also mentions that a good method for beginning
the design process is creating mock-ups with an image editing program, such as Adobe
Photoshop. Multimedia content commonly seen on websites includes audio, video, animations,
and Flash movies (Visocky O’Grady & Visocky O’Grady, 2008, 8).
The document creation process may be defined as the process of creating and troubleshooting
documents needed in a website, which requires knowledge of HTML. For designing the visual
aspects it is not necessary to know how HTML works but it may help to understand what
possibilities and challenges it brings. Web programmers produce forms, dynamic content, and
interactivity for web pages. These advanced web functionalities are produced by scripting and
programming. While they may be important parts of a web page, they do not play a vital part
in the design of the visual elements (Niederst Robbins, 2007, 7-8.)
Web pages are created with HTML text files, which contain only letters, numbers and symbols.
These files are known as the source documents. HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup
Language and it is a language created for making websites. XHTML (the X stands for
eXtensible) is basically an updated version of HTML with stricter rules; both are used to
describe content of a web page and they may be referred to together as (X)HTML. (Niederst
Robbins, 2007, 9-10.) Allsop (2000, cited 9.9.2014) points out that HTML should not be used
as the main tool for visual presentation and suggests using classes as well as style sheets. In

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XHTML designers may create various different types of documents which is declared with
DOCTYPE (short for document type and always written in capital letters) at the beginning of
the file. The chosen DOCTYPE informs the browser which version of HTML or XHTML the
author is using, which informs them how to handle the file (Zeldman, 2007).
PHP (which stands for PHP: Hypertext Processor) is a useful tool for creating dynamic sites
as well as web applications, it is an open source scripting language which can be embedded
into XHTML. The language is free as it was developed by the Apache Software Foundation
and it is supported by Windows, UNIX, and Apache (Zeldman, 2007). PHP is used for creating,
managing, displaying, and deleting information and it is essential for dynamic website
management (Freeman, 2012). If there are images on a site, there must be image files, which
are linked to the HTML file. Stock photos and illustrations are available for free on some
websites, if the web designer does not want to produce new ones. There are three image formats
used on the web: GIF, JPEG, and PNG. The GIF format is used for flat coloured, hard edged,
animated, or transparent images, the JPEG format is used when the image is a photograph, or
has otherwise smooth colour blends, and the PNG format is used with all image types as it is
versatile. The three image types, GIF, JPEG, and PNG, are all bitmapped images, which means
that they are constructed of pixels. Resolution in images refers to the amount of pixels per inch.
Large image sizes mean unnecessary amounts of downloaded data for the user. Images can be
resized with image editing software to minimise the amount of data (Niederst Robbins).
Brannan recommends using JPEG’s for photographs and PNG files for everything else. The
author also points out that images are often used to convey information as well as adding an
entertaining aspect to a website (Brannan, 2010)

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When it comes to the text content, the inverted pyramid model is a commonly used model in
journalism as well as web design. The idea is that the most important aspects of the story are
presented first and rest of the information is in order of relative importance. In short, the
beginning answers the questions of who, what, where, why, when, and how. In second place
will be the supporting information, and details will be left for the last part. (Visocky O’Grady
& Visocky O’Grady, 2008) The inverted pyramid allows readers to stop at any time, knowing
that they got the most important information (Watrall & Siarto, 2008). Designers should
present information in small sections with informative headings to produce material which
makes an easy read. There is a “three click rule”, saying that any information should not be
further than three clicks away for the users (Brannan, 2010). The text contents can be made
scannable (easy to skim through) by having clear headers, brief introductions, emphasis on the
important parts, short paragraphs, and bullet points. One part of the division is the navigation
bar and important things to consider are that the navigation bar ought to be where users expect
it (top of the page or along the sides) so it is easy to find, the links need to be easily recognised
and clearly identified separate from each other (Watrall & Siarto, 2008)
1.2.4.2 Responsiveness
The three main elements of web design are a grid based layout, images and media, and media
queries. The basic idea is to make a design which adapts, or in other words responds to the
constraints which the browser windows or devices set (Marcotte, 2011). Adaptability regarding
to web design means that the web pages need to be accessible with any browser, platform, or
screen. Responsive web design was first defined by Ethan Marcotte as a design which responds
to users needs; the layout changes so that for example on mobile phones the user would only
see one column, while a tablet will show two (LePage 2014). With formulas the page’s layouts

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can be made into proportionally functioning grids; combinations of rows and columns, which
are expressed as proportions of their element instead of pixels. Instead of writing pixel values
in the CSS files, the designer may express the widths in relative terms, and as a result the grid
will adjust itself according to the user’s screen. (Marcotte, 2011). Another perspective is that
grids are used for organizing content and creating hierarchy by grouping information and
elements (Visocky O’Grady & Visocky O’Grady, 2008). Images can also be flexible. Modern
browsers resize images proportionally which keeps the image ratio as it should be. As the
browser window sizes change, the image may change size so that it is limited by the container
in which it is placed in the grid’s layout (Marcotte, 2011). The W3C (The World Wide Web
Consortium) defined a list of different media types in CSS which are tailored to answer the
problems of different browsing tools.
Media queries identify a device’s and browsers’ physical characteristics as well as their media
types. The first criteria in the CSS will specify a media type. The second part defines the query,
which is commonly the name of a feature with a related value, such as the minimum width of
the device’s screen. Most browsers support media queries, and JavaScript offers solutions for
the older ones which do not comply (Marcotte, 2011). CSS media queries may be used for
assigning different style sheets for different browser window sizes, and not only according to
the screen width but also the orientation of the device (landscape or portrait) (Coyier, 2010).
1.2.4.3 Graphic Design
Layout: There are various ways to create layouts but in general they are made with CSS. There
are three main ways to create a layout; liquid (adjusting size according to the browser window
size), fixed (the content is a specific size and does not alter), and elastic (some areas change in
size when the text size is altered). Using any option may work, the choice may vary according

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to the type of content on the web page (Niederst, 2007). A design grid helps to organize a
website, it builds up a system of columns, borders, and sections into which content can be
placed (Layout & Page Design Fundamentals, 2014).
Typography: Typography can be defined as “Design or selection of letter forms to be
organized into words and sentences and printed or displayed electronically”. The three main
type families in the Western printing are roman, italic, and gothic. There are around 10 000
typefaces, which are designed sets of letter forms. These typefaces may be categorized into
three categories; old, transitional, and modern.
Types can convey emotion and thus send a message to the reader on what kind of message the
content will include. When the intention is to offer a clear message to a designated viewer,
accessibility is important. A versatile type will have a balanced weight and proportion and a
minimal amount of extra forms and decorations. Type size in web design in measured in ems,
which is an international standard of measurement. The em units are dynamic in a sense that
when a viewer chooses their preferences for the screen, the type is displayed proportionally.
(Visocky O’Grady & Visocky O’Grady, 2008). A standard size for fonts was declared in 1999
by the makers of Netscape, Microsoft browsers, and Mozilla. They made default font sizes of
16px/96ppi for all platforms to avoid the problems of cross-platform size differences which
could make a text illegible in some platforms while it looks perfectly alright in the one it was
designed for (Zeldman, 2007). Font sizes may also be set by percentages or absolute key words
(xx-small, x-small, small, medium, large, x-large, xx-large), where medium is often the deafult
size (Niederst, 2007).
Column width has an effect on readability as well; in an excessively narrow column words
become hyphenated, which slows word recognition, whereas a very wide column makes it

20

challenging to find the location of the next row. A study in print has declared that a 10 cm
column is the most readable, while a more recent study in online texts would say that a column
of 18 cm width makes the easiest read. (Visocky O’Grady & Visocky O’Grady, 2008). In fact
some researches have found that shorter line lengths are preferred for online reading as it
appears more organized and easier to comprehend and it has also been researched that short
line lenghts really are easier to understand. This means that there would be a lot of space for
other content and it might not be practical for all websites. One solution is to gain the readers
interest by having the first few lines shorter; once the reader is interested, they may continue
regardless of the width of the column (Halpern, 2014).
Spacing between letters and lines of type can affect the readability as well. The latter is called
leading, and altering the leading in paragraphs may also give a sense of hierarchy. With a very
small leading the rows of type may collide and complicate recognising the words, as with a
very large leading locating the next line may hinder the reader. Thus it is advisable to have a
medium measure for the leader. Commonly web pages have a leading of 120 per cent of the
type point size as a standard. The horizontal space between letters may also be adjusted; it is
referred to as “kerning” and tracking means the adjustment of the space in a word, line,
paragraph, or text. (Visocky O’Grady & Visocky O’Grady, 2008).
Paragraphs of type can be arranged to align to the left, right, or centre. For western culture the
left alignment is common as we read from left to right; the left side will remain straight and
the starting point of the next row of type will be easy to find. The paragraph may be aligned or
justified; the first option may leave an uneven side but the latter may distort the words with
uneven spacing to even the paragraph into straight lines on the sides. (Visocky O’Grady &
Visocky O’Grady, 2008).

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Colours: Colours have an effect on human emotions so in design work it is important to
consider what emotions the site creates in viewers; strong colours result in strong reactions.
Related to colours, saturation of a colour indicates its brightness or darkness and using dark
colours in a web site may appear heavy. (Watrall & Siarto, 2008) Colours may present visual
identity and have functional attributes such as drawing attention, relying only on colour to
bring across a message may not be a good idea (Allsop, 2000). However, colours can be a more
subtle way to convey information than graphic images (Watrall & Siarto, 2008).
Accessibility issues may arise with designing colours; one option for avoiding them would be
to use style sheets instead of HTML elements when possible. In CSS colours are indicated with
hexadecimal values to inform the browser how much red, green, and blue to display. These
values can be found on several sites on the internet (Watrall & Siarto, 2008). Computers
display colours using RGB (red, green, and blue), the codes and names by which colours may
be used in HTML and CSS can easily be found listed on various websites with search engines.
It may be worth pointing out that the colours will not always appear the same on different
devices and monitors, and accepting the fact may be all a designer can do (Brannan, 2010). In
addition to physical (colour blindness) and environmental characteristics, the viewer may have
a different cultural perspective affecting the way colours are seen or interpreted (Visocky
O’Grady & Visocky O’Grady, 2008).
1.2.5 Design Features of Irembo
The Irembo is the one-stop portal for e-Government services with a role as a platform for the
provision of Government services online with ease, efficiency and reliability (Bizimungu,
2015). It has its contents organized in such a way that content can be searched by topic, by
ministry, by name or popularity. The system ensures security in that the user has to login and

22

out meaning that they should have opened an account with Irembo to access and use it. The
Irembo can be used on both computers and mobile devices connected to internet to search a
list of services offered by the different government ministries in Rwanda in both Kinyarwanda
the local language, French and English. Figure 2.2 shows the home page of Irembo when
logged in.

Figure 2. 2Irembo Home page
When logged in, the system displays as shown in Figure 2.2. It request the guest to sign in or
sign up if a new user. A large search box appears right in the middle of the welcome page and
right below it are the classes of popular services though by clicking on view all more services
appear. The user can select to display the page either in English, Kinyarwanda or French.

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Figure 2. 3Irembo Main menu
Figure 2.3 shows the menus of of the services by different ministries. The services range from
immigration and emigration services to ubudehe and Mutuelle services. The user only needs
to click on one of the service providers and view a page like one shown in Figure 2.4.

Figure 2. 4Local Government menu expanded

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As seen in Figure 2.4 when the menu is expanded, it opens several services that are provided
by the specific service provider. In the Figure 2.4 it is the local government menu and shows a
list of all services provided by the local government. All these are viewed from the guest access
however when the guest makes up their mind, then they login and are able to fill in the
information for the particular service. A receipt is generated that directs the applicant to pay at
the nearest bank and access the service requested for.
Quality of Service Delivery
According to Omachonu et al (2008), quality has a long term impact on the satisfaction of
customers. Customer satisfaction and service quality are certainly interlinked and these create
value for the customer or client and help him to make decisions as to whether the service
justifies the cost. Five specific dimensions of service quality have been identified – tangibles,
reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy (Parasuraman et al, 1988). Cavana et al
(2007), agreed that the dimensions of service quality are five but different in that they
introduced a different dimension and dropped “tangibles”. According to them service quality
dimensions are – assurance, responsiveness, empathy, reliability and convenience.
2.1.2 Service Quality Dimensions
Lai (2004), reported that there is a positive relationship between service quality dimensions
such as tangibles, empathy and assurance on one hand and customer satisfaction on the other.
In services marketing literature, service quality has been reported as a second order construct
being composed of first order variables (Sachdev & Verma, 2004). Various authors have
provided different conceptualizations over time.
They include Groonroos’ (1984) three-component structure (technical quality, functional
quality and reputational quality); Lehtinen and Lehtinen’s (1982) three component
conceptualization (interactive, physical and corporate quality); Hedvall and Paltschik’s (1989)

25

two dimension model (willingness and ability to serve; and physical and psychological access);
Garvin’s (1988) nine dimensional approach (performance, features, conformance, reliability,
durability, serviceability, response, aesthetics and reputation); Oliver and Rust’s (1994)
functional quality, technical quality and environmental quality construct; Parasuraman,
Zeithaml and Berry (PZB) (1988) conceptualization of five dimensions (tangibles (T),
reliability (R), responsiveness (R), assurance (A) and empathy (E) which eventually led to the
development of the SERVQUAL instrument.
However, the five dimensional construct of PZB (1988) happens to be the most universally
accepted and most extensively used. Assurance has been defined as the “employees”
knowledge and courtesy and the service provider’s ability to inspire trust and confidence”
(Zeithaml et al 2006). According to Har (2008), this dimension may differ from one industry
to the other. In some it may be very important, in others it may not.
Assurance
Andaleeb and Conway (2006) observed that assurance may not be so important relative to
other industries where the risk is higher and the outcome of using the service is uncertain. They
concluded that in the health sector, for example, assurance is a very much important dimension
to clients assessing a hospital or a surgeon for an operation. Health is wealth” no one can afford
to risk it. Patients/customers with uncertainty about the service quality have little or no
confidence in the healthcare provider. This seeps into the feelings of doubt about the diagnosis
or even the treatment. Health care providers should endeavor to courteously convey constant
trust to the customers (Lam, 2006)
Empathy
Empathy has been found to be more suitable and important in enhancing service quality in
industries where building relationships with customers and clients ensures the firm’s survival

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as opposed to transaction marketing. (Andaleeb & Conway, 2006). Thus Har has argued that
in quick service restaurant setting, the customer look for quick service and whether the queues
at the counters are long and in that context empathy may not be so important. He however
indicated that in fine dining restaurant, empathy may be important to ensure customer loyalty
as the server knows how the customer likes his or her food prepared (Har, 2008). Empathy,
according to Har (2008), is treating the customer as if he is unique and special. It is defined as
the caring, individualized attention the firm provides its customers (Zeithaml et al, 2006). Like
the other dimensions, the importance of this factor differs from industry to industry.
This is the ability to provide individualized care and attention to customers. Generally, a good
customer/employee relationship can be established when the employee understands the
personal needs and values of the customer. The attention paid to the customer and the
uniqueness in the manner in which this is addressed can build trust, empathy, and satisfaction
between the customer and the service provider (Carmam et al, 2006)
Reliability
Reliability is about the organization keeping its word. It is defined as the ability to perform the
promised service dependably and accurately” or delivering on its promises (Zeithaml et al,
2006). This dimension is very significant to hospitals that need to evaluate their overall service
quality level. For instance, when hospital schedules are reliable, especially in problem solving,
time, date, recording data, and the fulfillment of an agreement, customers tend to trust the
health provider (Sheikh, 2006).
Responsiveness
Responsiveness is the willingness to help customers and provide prompt services. This
dimension is concerned with dealing with customer’s requests, questions and complaints
promptly and attentively. A firm is known to be responsive if it takes time to communicate to

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its clients how long it would take to get answers or have their problems dealt with (Har, 2008).
Many patients are dissatisfied when they have to wait hours for treatment or consultation.
Hospitals should place more emphasis on promptness and communicate important treatment
plans ahead of time in order to satisfy customers. Dealing with client complaints and requests
is another issue, and hospital personnel should be trained to tackle them easily and readily
(Carmam et.al, 2006)
Tangibility
Tangibles is defined as the physical appearance of facilities, equipment, and staff and written
materials. It also refers to the physical appearance of the personnel, equipment and facilities.
Hospitals or clinics with good infrastructures, neat personnel and equipment visually appeals
and attracts lots of customers. This simply creates a positive impact and signals quality to
patients, thus encourages them to visit such hospital environments for treatment (Carmam,
Lam, & sheikh, 2006). Tangibles are used to convey images and to signal quality (Zeithaml et
al 2006). Hayes (1997), states that some quality dimensions are generalized across many
services, but some will apply only to specific type of services and it is necessary to understand
quality dimensions to be able to develop measures to assess them.
2.2 Empirical literature review
The present study reviews the various global, regional, and local studies on effects of mobile
payment systems on service delivery.

2.2.1 Design of e-government services

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Kim and Lee (2004) attempted to identify the underlying dimensions of web service quality
and compared the magnitude of web service quality dimensions between online travel agencies
and online travel suppliers in explaining the overall level of customer satisfaction. Five
dimensions of website quality were identified by online travel agencies as structure and ease
of use, information content, responsiveness and personalization, reputation and security, and
usefulness. Four dimensions were identified by online travel suppliers as dimensions affecting
web service quality that were information content, structure and ease of use, reputation and
security, and usefulness (Kim & Lee, 2004). It was found that information content was
uniquely identified by online travel agencies and considered as the dimension that most
significantly affected overall customer satisfaction. However, the dimension of structure and
ease of use was identified as the most important dimension by online travel suppliers.
In an attempt to compare users’ web acceptance and usage between a goal-directed user group
and an experiential user group, Sanchez-Franco and Roldan (2005) studied relationships
among usefulness, ease of use and flow dimensions. Initially they used two major dimensions
of usefulness and ease of use in the model. Researchers (Sanchez-Franco ; Roldan, 2005)
found that experiential and goal-directed behaviors moderate the key relationships in the
model, in which they found experiential and goal-directed users weighed extrinsic and intrinsic
motivation differently on the web. However, it was found that goal-directed users were more
driven by instrumental factors and focused on their decision-making process while experiential
users were more motivated by process. Later, they included the flow dimension, which was
defined as enjoyment and concentration constructs, to investigate users’ acceptance and usage
to see whether or not they were goal driven. However, operationalizing the flow construct
might be questioned due to its vagueness in conceptualization and failure of including relevant
variables (Sanchez-Franco & Roldan, 2005).

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In an exploratory study comparing the Internet purchaser group to the non-purchaser group,
Yang and Jun (2002) discovered differences in dimensions of perceived website service quality
between the two groups. The Internet purchaser group considered reliability the most important
dimension of website service quality among five other dimensions; access, ease of use,
personalization, security, and credibility. It was also found that the non-purchaser group
perceived security as the most critical factor of website service quality among other six factors
including responsiveness, ease of use, reliability, availability, personalization, and access. The
researchers (Yang & Jun, 2002) investigated the key underlying dimensions to better
understand customers’ assessment of online service quality from both Internet purchasers and
non-purchasers’ perspectives. It was identified that both groups perceived that reliability,
personalization, ease of use and access dimensions significantly affected website service
quality. While credibility was considered as the significant dimension by Internet purchasers,
availability was perceived as the unique dimension by non-purchasers.
2.2.2 Quality of service delivery
E-service provides customers with a different experience with the interactive flow of
information. Much of research work in e-service quality takes a combination of
traditional service quality dimensions and web interface quality dimensions as its point
of departure. Field et al. (2004) argued that e-service can play a critical role in improving
the services quality delivered to its customers as it can achieve survival, increase satisfaction
and trust and then generate the competitive success for organizations.
Yang (2001) argues that customers reach satisfaction decision by comparing the performance
a product or service with their prior expectations. If performance exceeds the expectation
positive disconfirmation occurs and increases in satisfaction can be expected to take place.

30

Saha and Zoha (2005) state providing a good service quality is a major issue for all business.
Online quality service is a key issue to maintain customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction
is collective outcome of perception, evaluation and psychological relations to the consumption
experience with a product or service.
Kalsi et al. (2009) has addressed the e-government initiatives has a direct impact on the citizens
and in which the citizens derive benefits through direct transactions with the governmental
services. Al-Tarawneh (2012) is studied on e-service quality and customer perception, the
study indicates that responsiveness, ease of use, personalization, security; and website design
have influence on customer’s perception of e- service quality.
2.2.3 Effect of e-government system design on Service delivery
A study by Kamana (2016) examined the effects of e-filing and e-payment on revenue
collection by Rwanda Revenue Authority. The study found that before electronic tax
management system was introduced especially from 2003 to 2010, tax collection was reduced
from 119.1 to 385.2 but the trend changed drastically in 2012 and 2013 by 48.1% and 42.9%
respectively after introduction of e-payment methods.
Otieno et al. (2013) study found that there is a relationship between Information Systems (IS)
and both efficiency and effectiveness in revenue collection, there is a strong positive
relationship between Internal Control Systems and revenue collection. However, resistance to
change by the council staff was derailing the full implementation of IS. The study is useful to
the present study for full integration of IS, and more specifically e-payment system, in revenue
collection. A study by Wahab (2012) established that the adoption and use of the e-payment
system was found to be low mainly due to the inadequate availability of point of sale terminals
at shopping points among others. These are affecting the perceived ease of use even though

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the perceived usefulness of e-payment systems is strongly present among individuals and
businesses. The study recommended customer education and wide spread deployment of e-
payment point of sale terminals to merchants.
Kayaga (2010) study showed that new technology alone is not sufficient if the government
does not recognize the need for skilled tax officials. The scholar further avers that, effective
tax administration requires qualified tax personnel with requisite skills to maintain these
systems and operate them to their fullest potential. Simiyu’s ( 2010) study indicated established
that, tax officers accepted bribes when offered to reduce tax liability and demand for bribes
when they visited, a situation that hugely affected revenue collection in Nairobi County,
Kenya. Gikandi and Bloor (2010) study found that some factors tended to inhibit the adoption
of e-commerce in Kenya. These include; lack of resources, constant change in technology, time
available to develop systems, the lack of spread of accessibility and use of Internet by the
general population, especially in the rural areas. Organizational, governmental and
developmental issues were also identified as constraints to the adoption of e- commerce in the
banking sector in Kenya. The study observed that e-banking introduced new risks requiring
new risk management strategies, including Internet security, customer and legal related issues.
The study concluded by emphasizing the role of Kenya Government in achieving a secure
environment for e-banking activities by; putting in place clear laws, rules and regulations and
providing relevant technical training to the regulatory authority to empower them to enforce
the laws effectively.
The study by Rocheleau and Wu (2005) found that some of the most challenging e- government
applications involve allowing citizens and other customers to conduct financially related
transactions electronically with governments on a 24-hour, 7-day a week basis. Generally,

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usage rates are low, demonstrating that there is a gap between the potential and reality of this
form of e-government. Statistical tests showed that convenience fees have a negative effect on
usage rates. The governments can affect usage rates by providing incentives to employ online
transactions and/or penalties for making payment by manual methods. Governments may also
improve their usage rates by making their websites and applications accessible and easy-to-use
as well as by extensively marketing these applications.
A study by Moulder (2005) showed that most county governments had plans to offer online
payment of utility bills, fees and fines. Norris & Moon (2005) point out that the percent of
governments adopting e-payments financial transactions should have jumped by 32 per cent
between 2000 and 2002 but the actual increase was only 6.5 percent. There are significant
obstacles to offering online services which included; lack of IT staff and financial resources;
issues of security and convenience. This finding could reflect their interest in developing online
transaction systems. The study by Kaburia (2004) found out that lack of suitable e-Payment
alternatives was a critical challenge to the growth of e-commerce in Kenya. An e-Payment
model suitable for individuals in Kenya was proposed. Perlman (2001) established that the use
of third party vendors has allowed counties without large ICT resources to implement an online
ticket-paying system. This shows that small and moderately-sized cities can experience success
through use of vendors and cooperative efforts of pooling resources.
2.3 Critical review and research gap identification
In contrast to traditional government processes, e-Government is characterized by (1)
extensive use of communication technology (2) the impersonal nature of the online
environment (3) the ease of information can be collected (data-mining), processed and used by

33

multiple parties (Warkentin, Gefen, Pavlou & Rose, 2002). However, e-Government has the
implicit uncertainty of using an open technological infrastructure for transaction via the
newness of the communication medium – interact with a government website. This would
indirectly increase the spatial and temporal separation between citizens and government; more
uncertainty and concern about the reliability of the underlying Internet and related government
infrastructure interfaces. As overall these unique differences increase uncertainty and reduce
perception of citizen control, imposing a barrier to e-Government adoption (Geetha & Sekar,
2012).
The study by Rocheleau and Wu (2005) did not examine e-government system design on
service delivery rather it was concerned with the factors that affect e-government usage. That
of Moulder (2005) was also concerned with how e-government is used for service delivery but
did not address design factors of e-government services.
These gaps are addressed in this study and particularly the design aspects of e-government
system will be the independent variable and its effect on service delivery used as the dependent
variable. Moreover none of the studies was conducted in Rwanda but rather majority are
studies of developed countries with few based in low developed countries such as Rwanda.

2.4 Theoretical framework
2.4.1 Systems Theory
The main theoretical framework underlying this study is the use of the system theory of
management, regarded as one of the total quality management approaches espoused by quality
management writer such Dobbins and Crawford-Mason, 1998. The system theory views

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organizations as a unified and purposeful system of interrelated parts. This approach expects
management to look at the organizations as whole and as part of a larger, external environment.
As Ludwig von Bertalantly et al 1956 pointed out; the system theory tells us that the activity
of any part or segment of the organization affects, in varying degrees, the activity of every
other segment. This pre-supposes that every part of the system including the work force must
work to support each other. When the sub-systems of an organization do not support each
other, then the organization cannot focus on quality management. The theory therefore
emphasized that every organization interacts with the internal and external system by taking
resources from the environment and providing output. According to the system theory, every
organization has two major inputs
2.4.2 Disconfirmation Theory.
A discussion on customer satisfaction and customer expectations cannot be complete without
discussing the disconfirmation theory. The disconfirmation theory stands out as the primary
foundation for satisfaction models in marketing literature (Churchill and Surprenant, 1982;
Oliver, 1980). According to this theory, satisfaction is determined or measured by the
discrepancy between perceived performance and cognitive standards such as expectations and
desires (Khalifa & Liu, 2003). Customers or clients expectations can be defined as customer’s
partrial beliefs about a product or service (Mckinney et al, 2002). According to Zeithaml and
Berry (1988), expectations can be viewed as predictions made by consumers about what is
likely to happen during impending transaction or exchange.
Perceived performance on the other hand is customers’ perception of how product or service
performance fulfills their needs, wants and desire (Cadotte et al, 1987). Perceived quality is
the customer’s judgment about an entity’s overall excellence or superiority (Zeithaml, 1988).

35

Disconfirmation is therefore defined as the customer’s subjective judgments resulting from
comparing their expectations and their perceptions of performance received (Mckinney et al,
2002; Spreng et al, 1996). The disconfirmation theory states that satisfaction is affected by the
intensity (or size) and direction (positive or negative) of the gap (disconfirmation) between
expectations and perceived performance.
2.5 Conceptual framework
The conceptual framework here is used to represent the relationship between the independent
and dependent variables of this study.

E-government systems Design Service Delivery

•Content Organization
•Graphic design
•Responsiveness

•Timeliness
•Usability
•Accessible
•Ease of use

Dependent variable Independent

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Sources: Researcher (2017)
Figure 2. 5 Conceptual Framework
The independent variable of this study will be e-government system design and the components
to measure it are the organization of content, graphic design and responsiveness. These
elements have been found to influence how the system is used in service delivery. With poor
graphic design the user may find it difficult to recognize services provided while if the system
cannot respond in different media, then it will only be limited to particular media hence lower
the access to services. The dependent variable is service delivery which include Timeliness
which deals with the ability of the system to provide timely services, usability which is the
quality of the information provided. The information provided must be usable for the needs of
the user. Ease of use which implies that the website should be ease to use while accessibility
means that the site can be accessible when needed.
Other factors that may affect the relationship in this study include hardware technology,
personal training, other technological factors such as internet connection and availability of
electricity.

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2.6 Summary
The review of literature focused on introduction, the review of past studies where an emphasis
was on e-government system design its effect on service in Rwanda. This chapter also covered
theoretical framework, e-government system design concepts, research models, empirical
literature review, Critical review and research gap identification and Conceptual framework.
The aim of the literature review was to look at examine the relationship between e-government
system design and service delivery.

38

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
Methodology embraces the research design, population, instruments used to collect data,
ethical considerations, data analysis and its interpretation. Methodology therefore helps the
researcher and the reader to understand the process of the research thus giving it scientific
merit (Cohen, Manion ; Morrison, 2000). The design of the study, target population, sample
size and data collection will be covered in this chapter. Lastly validity and reliability issues as
well as data analysis strategy will be discussed.
3.1 Research design
The study will adopt descriptive research design since it describes the state of affairs as it is.
Descriptive design is used when collecting information about people’s attitudes, opinions,
habits and other possible behavior (Orodho and Kombo, 2005). The study aims at describing
the state of affairs of e-government system design and therefore descriptive research design is
considered as the most appropriate for this study. The research will be both quantitative and
qualitative. Quantitative data will be obtained using structured questionnaires and qualitative
data and through secondary sources of information and observation.
3.2 Target Population
The target population will be the 488 managers and users of Irembo at Rwanda Development
Board (RDB) and surrounding Irembo service providers which is categorized as 65 irembo
managers and 423 users (Rwanda Development Board RDB, 2015)

39

3.3 Sample Design
A sample is “a smaller (but hopefully representative) collection of units from a population used
to determine truths about that population” (Field, 2005).
Given that this research is descriptive, the sample size will be calculated using the following
Slovin’s formula:
;#55349;;#56463;=;#55349;;#56437;
(;#3627409359;+;#55349;;#56333;;#55349;;#56350;;#3627409360;) Where n=sample size, N=population size, e=Margin error. A confidence level of
95% (0.95) was assumed which resulted e=1-0.95=0.05. Thus,
;#55349;;#56411;=488
1+(488?0.052)=219.8
The sample size will be determined as shown in Table 3.1
Table 3. 1Sample Size determination for strata
Department Total Sample Sampling Technique
managers 65 29 Simple random
Tax Payers 423 191 Simple random
Total 488 220
Source: Primary data
3.4 Sampling procedure
Sampling is a process or technique of choosing a sub-group from a population to participate in
the study; it is the process of selecting a number of individuals for a study in such a way that
the individuals selected represent the large group from which they were selected (Ogula, 2005).
In this research a sample of 220 persons will be used. The selection of the sample will be based
on simple random sampling by using a table of random numbers. The names of the population

40

identified will be requested for from the RDB person in charge. The names will be shuffled in
MS Excel and the first numbers described by Table 3.1 included respectively.
3.5 Data Collection
The first instrument to apply in this study is a questionnaire and will be distributed to the
respondents. The second instrument to apply in this study will be an interview, which will be
conducted with mobile money service providers. A questionnaire is a set of related questions
to which respondents answer by giving written information. An interview is a conversation in
which one or more persons consult and elicit facts and information from respondents.
In this study, the questionnaire will be composed of open and closed questions to find the
opinion and the view of respondents. Questions will be used in this study and prepared
according to objectives of the research. Questions were chosen because they are used to gather
data from many respondents within the shortest space of time compared to other data collection
methods. The instrument that will help to obtain main data that essentially gave reliable data
in relation to mobile payments and its impact to taxes revenue collection.
3.5.1 Data Collection Procedures
On an appointed date the researcher will visit the data collection site. With the letter of
introduction sent and approved prior to the collection data, the tools will be administered
according to sample identified in Table 3.1. The questionnaires will be distributed to the
respondents and those unable to fill it due to time constraints will be given and requested to
state a time when the researcher would go back and collect the filled tools.

41

3.5.2 Reliability and Validity
Reliability is the degree to which a questionnaire or any other measurement method produces
the same results on repeated experiments in different studies. Reliability of the study ensures
errors in the study are minimized .Validity is the precision of the results that can be acquired
from data gathered using the research instruments (Miller, 2000).Reliability requires the
process of research to be consistent allowing any later researcher to follow the exact same
procedures and get the same result (Salhuddin, 2011).
Firstly to ensure that the content of the questionnaire were valid and reliable. First professionals
who have knowledge in the area of study will be consulted. Their evaluations will be included
in order to have reliable instruments. Secondly a pilot study was conducted in order to test the
questionnaire before collecting the real data. In order to test the internal validity of the different
constructs a Cronbach’s alpha test was performed on the questionnaire.
3.6 Data Analysis Procedure
Data analysis is the process of examining, categorizing, transforming data with the purpose of
determining useful information, suggesting conclusions and supporting decision making based
on the processed data. After collecting data, the explanation of all the processing operations
was followed including editing, coding, classification and tabulation as listed. Data will be
summarized using descriptive statistics such as graphs, tables, frequency tables, weighted
averages and percentages to enable to describe the relationships established. This will be
achieved by the use of Statistical Package for the social sciences version 20.0(SPSS
V.20.0).Interview guide using content analysis.
3.7 Method of Data Analysis of Each Objective

42

For the objective 1: The primary data and descriptive statistics will help to determine the usage
of mobile payments system in tax revenue collection.
For the objective 2 : Primary data collected using questionnaires will be analyzed using SPSS
v20 and the resulting indicators will be presented to show the extent of service delivery at
Irembo e-government using graphs and tables then,
For the objective 3: the correlation method and Anova test will be used to depict the
relationship between e-government system design and service delivery.
3.8 Ethical Consideration
The data collected will be given on voluntary basis and respondents will respond based on their
willingness. The researcher will include assurance to the respondents in writing that
information given will be treated with high confidentiality and that the results will be used for
academic purpose only.

43

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APPENDICES
APPENDIX I. LETTER TO THE RESPONDENTS

Dear Respondent,

47

I am a graduate student of Mount Kenya University carrying out a research on “E-Government
system design and service delivery, A Case Study of Irembo” as a partial fulfillment for the
requirement of an award of a degree of Master of Science in Information Technology (MSCIT).
You are humbly requested to spend approximately 20 minutes or less of your time completing
the attached questionnaire. The information you provide will be kept strictly confidential and
used only for the purpose of this study. Kindly submit the completed questionnaire to the
researcher with all requested details.

Yours sincerely,

…………………….

Mr. Ephrem TUYISENGE
Researcher

SECTION I: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR IREMBO E-GOVERNMENT
STAFF

Part One: General information about the respondent

1. Kindly tick in the proposed box () against the appropriate for you.

EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
(Tick one option only)
a)Secondary school
AGE (Tick one option only)
a)18-25
b)25-35

48

1. Work experience
How many years have you worked?

a) Below 5 years
b) 5 to 10 years
c) 10 to 15 years
d) 14 years and above

Please indicate how you agree with each of the following statements when using the Irembo.
Using a 5-point scale with 1 being “Strongly disagree” and 5 being “Strongly agree,” please
click the appropriate number for your rating based on your experience with the website that
you mentioned above.

Content Organization
Useful information
1. Information of the website was helpful and met my needs.
2. The website described complete information about the services.
3. The website provided a wide range of information of the services.

1 2 3 4 5

GENDER (Tick one
option only)
a)Male
b)Female
LANGUAGE SPOKEN (You
may tick more than one
option)
a)Kinyarwanda

49

Ease of use
1. It was easy for me to navigate the website.
2. Information search functions on the website were easy to use.
3. Service are easy to locate

Accessible
1. The website is pulled out in no time.
2. I can access to this website quickly every time whenever I try.
3. Website address is easy to remember

Aesthetics/design
1. This website used good color coordination.
2. The website showed quality pictures of the hotel.
3. The website is comfortable to look at.
4. Hyperlinks are valid
5. Navigation is easy
6. Web pages load fast
7. Website has adequate search facilities
8. Websites has many interactive service features

Responsiveness
1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

50

1. Webpage can be personalized customized
2. Questions are quickly responded
3. Relevant FAQ help customers to solve problems
4. Feedback is customized exactly to my question
5. Customers are notified for new offers automatically

Sn
Statements
Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly agree

Timeliness
7. I receive requested services within a
reasonable timeframe
1 2 3 4 5
I receive my service request right on time
the first time

Am informed about exactly when the
request can be completed

Am informed regularly about the status of
your requests

8. I receive prompt services without delays 1 2 3 4 5

APPENDIX III: RESEARCH TIMELINE/2018
Activity (Work/week) April May June
1 2 3 4 5

51

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Preparation and
submission of the
Research Proposal

Presentation of research
proposal

Data collection and Data
entry

Data analysis and
process

Drafting report
Final report

52

APPENDIX IV. RESEARCH BUDGET
For efficiency and effectiveness of the study the researcher will need the following resources:
No Description Cost Rwf
1 Communication 60,000
2 Transport 170,000
3 Materials 220,000
4 Report 210,000
Total= 660,000

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