Domain Name System (DNS) is a typical identification resolution used across the Internet that is well-defined in RFCs 1034 and 1035, (Wikipedia, n.d.) it’s a networking protocol that allows the use of approachable names instead of IP addresses in matching host to computer resources across the network. This protocol works at the application layer of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. An example of this is the school website, it easier to remember “www.conestogac.on.ca” than the IP address “220.127.116.11” of the website.
There are only few computers involved when internet was first introduced. With the few computers that made up the ARPANET, it’s easier to match the IP addresses with each specific computer using the host.txt file (Harvard, n.d.) However, the increase in the number of computers in the early 80s makes the manual matching tedious as the task of updating and distributing the host.txt file became unmanageable which led to the birth of DNS.
Invention of DNS
In November 1983, Paul V. Mockapetris proposed a Domain Name System architecture in RFC 882 and RFC 883 to help in tackling the issue of large host.txt file which is difficult to manage. This proposed architecture is a distributed and dynamic DNS database (Wikipedia, n.d.)
Paul V. Mockapetris was born in 1948, Boston, Massachusetts, US. He is a computer scientist and Internet pioneer, the first SMTP email server was developed by him and in 1983, his first DNS implementation (called “Jeeves”) for the TOPS-20 was written. (Paul Mockapertris, 2015)
Also, the invention of DNS allows users to type host names such as “www.conestogac.on.ca” instead of IP addresses “18.104.22.168.” With his invention of DNS, his outstanding achievement is recognized on international scale having won different accolades for his numerous accomplishments.
How DNS Works
DNS primary function is matching hostnames to IP addresses, this is accomplished through the data stored as records in a zone file on the DNS server hosting the zone. (Baccala, n.d.) The main concept behind DNS, is its ability to function as distributed database between a client’s request and server’s DNS data. It all start with a query request from a client, trying to map a hostname to an IP address (client uses a resolver to request resolution of a host name to an IP address).
This query is then forwarded to the root server which in turn through the Domain Name Server match the hostname to an IP address and sends response back to the client. Resolving a host name to an IP address is called forward lookup while resolving an IP address to a host name is called reverse lookup.