[Document title] [Document subtitle] center850008549640 [Company name][Company address]1000000 [Company name][Company address] CONTENT OF PROJECT CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1

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1.1 Introduction & problem summary
1.2 Aims & objectives
1.3 Scope of work
1.4 Plan of work
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Literature review
2.3 Summary
3.1 Introduction of study area
3.2 General development control rules
4.1 Introduction of software
4.2 Alternative layout – 1
4.3 Alternative layout – 2
4.4 Alternative layout – 3
4.5 Alternative layout – 4
5.1 Result discussion
5.2 Conclusion
Add proper Index

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This report is based on the study of Planning of housing colony for low income group. The report describes all information regarding the planning of the colony.

I would like to express our gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this project and i am deeply indebted to my guide Prof.Bhavana Ajudiya for giving his almost attention and guidance for my project and special thanks to Er.Sanjay Sata. I am also thankful to Prof. Ankur Bhogayata, Head of the Department for giving me a positive support towards the project.

I am also thankful to all members of Civil Engineering Department for patiently listening all my problems and supporting me during this period.

Introduction problem summary
The main problem centers round the proper implementation of the program and its failure in reaching the poorest of the poor because of corruption and the design of the program.

The issue of land is a major problem. The majority of poor people do not possess their own land and live on land that belongs to others, for example, land of landlords or Government land etc.

Corruption has also taken a toll on the proper implementation of the program. This has resulted in many amongst the poor being left out from the program whereas people who are not in the BPL section are availing the benefits.

Slums are increased due to the high population growth. Rajkot became a million plus city in 2001. During the period 1991-2001, the city registered a growth rate of 79.12%; this can be attributed to the expansion of the city limits by merging three villages in June 1998. During the last decade, there has been a drop in the population growth rate to 28.31%.

Population according to RMC: –

Graph of population growth in Rajkot:-

Adequacy of Houses and Allocation Criteria
At the field level, the clamor for housing is a clear indication of the demand for housing being much greater than the supply. There is a need to address the gap between housing shortage and demand on one hand and the existing availability of houses
Adequacy of Unit Cost
50-90% of beneficiaries are not satisfied with the grant-in-aid provided under the scheme. in adequacy of case assistance for construction has resulted in poor quality of house, non fulfillment of requirement of the disaster-prone areas and debt trap on account of the beneficiaries having to borrow funds to complete the construction of pucca house.

Aims and objectives
“To improve living standard of low income group(LIG) people by provision of two rooms, kitchen, bathroom & water closet.”
The focus is on slum rehabilitation and providing housing units to people belonging to economically weaker section(EWS) and low-income group(LIG), along with middle income group
To reduce the housing storage, especially in EWS/LIG category.

To bringing down the cost of EWS and LIG houses to affordable limits through strategic land use planning.

To create rental transit housing accommodation for migrant laborers.

Adoption of innovative technologies in low cost housing sector.

To check further creation of slums.

To create healthy & environment friendly cities.

Redressing the failures of the formal system that lie behind the creation of slums.

Tackling the shortage of urban land and housing that keep shelter out of reach of the urban poor and force them to resort to extra-legal solution in a bid to retain their sources of livelihood and employment.

To provide slum free city and affordable housing for all

Scope of work

Drainage: –
Further colony can be designed for Drainage. Design of drainage includes designing of underground pipe network and inlets and outlets and cross connections of pipe lines.
Designing of Septic tank and man hole and other elements of drainage for colony. This element will design in such a way that no water logging occurs during heavy rain fall and water should drain properly from this component.

Cost estimation: –
For any project cost estimation is very important. We have to design the project in such a manner that the all over cost of the project should be as possible as minimum.
project should be properly schedule for each and every activity so that cost of labor minimize by this overall cost is reduced.

The material used in construction project should be economical and locally available. So cost is minimized.

Elevation Development:-
Elevation development includes development of elevation from different software’s like AutoCAD, 3D max, Revit etc. Elevation should be aesthetic in appearance, but it should not affect the strength of the structure.
Plan of work
Plan of work includes sequence of procedure of project work followed. In this project we have visited Rajkot Municipal Corporation (RMC). Various sites have given to us and we have selected one site for our project.
The sequence of procedure followed by us as under:-
Selecting the proposed site for project from given alternatives from RMC.

Project site analysis
Surveying of project site
Planning different dwelling units
2 Flats per floor of 2 BHK,
4 Flats per floor of 2 BHK,
2 Flats per floor of 1BHK,
4 Flats per floor of 1BHK.

Planning of layout with different alternatives
Alternative No. 1 (Mix Development)
Alternative No. 2 (Mix Development)
Alternative No. 3 ( 2 Flats per floor only)
Alternative No. 4 (4 Flats per floor only)
Preparation of Submission drawing of all units including Community Center and common plot units.

2.1 Research paper-1
2.1.1 Abstract
This paper assessed urban residential housing and low-income earners in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria. The paper adopts survey research design to determine the challenges confronting low income earners in urban residential housing areas in Markurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria.
The paper utilized both primary and secondary data sources. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The paper found that 57.8% of the respondents earn less than N10,000.00 (US$62.50) a month which made it difficult for them to afford decent houses. The paper concluded that good urban government is necessary to promote increased access to land, credit and affordable housing that is environmentally friendly and conducive for the low income earners.
The paper recommended that there should be a carefully planned land for low income housing in Makurdi which should be allocated to the target group of low income earners.

2.1.2 Literature Review
Shelter is a structure, permanent or makeshift, designed basically to protect the occupant against unwanted elements and intruders. Housing is much more than mere shelter; it embraces the quality, comfort, social, and community amenities – all the social services and utilities that go to make a community or neighborhood a livable environment (National Housing Policy, 1991).
Housing is bound up with concepts such as shelter itself, privacy, location, environmental amenity and investment (Aribigbola, 2000). Housing which satisfies these concepts can be considered adequate. The Draft National Housing policy (2004) defined housing as “the process of providing a large number of residential buildings on permanent bases with adequate physical infrastructure and social services in planned, decent, safe and sanitary neighborhoods to meet the basic and special needs of the population”. The concept of housing can, therefore, be seen as a process and a product.
The product is the physical structure (shelter) while the process involves all the activities that lead to the production and operation of the structure.

Other characteristics of low-income people include low educational qualifications, predominance of very high-density areas of squatter and slum settlements. Such environments are usually of very low quality and largely without basic services. Due to these reasons, Turner (1980) identified seven hazardous health impairments that these people are exposed to. These are: (i) faucal related diseases, (ii) vector borne diseases, (iii) air borne diseases, (iv) contact diseases, (v) non-specific sickness, (vi) malnutrition and (vii) physical injuries at home due to defects in the construction of the houses they live in.

2.1.3 Conclusion
Evidence from the study revealed that there is a high degree of overcrowding in the study areas with the room occupancy ratio in Makurdi higher than both the international and national standard. Despite available large expanse of unused land in the area, access to land is very difficult.

Thus, good urban governance becomes necessary to promote increased access to land, credit and affordable housing that is well serviced and environmentally sound for the low-income people. There is also a need to carefully plan the land for low income housing in Makurdi and other towns and such should be allocated to target groups of low income people. The government should also make allocation procedures easier for the low-income earners.

2.1.4 References
Veronica Onu
Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
A. J. C. Onu, PhD
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Administration, Ahmadu Bello University, Zari
2.2 Research Paper -2
2.2.1 Abstract
This report describes practical ways to increase the supply of affordable-accessible housing, which refers to lower priced homes located in areas with convenient access to essential services and activities due to good transport options and accessible land use.
This typically consists of lower-priced apartments, townhouses, duplexes, small-lot single-family and accessory suites located in neighborhoods with shops, schools, healthcare and jobs that are easy to reach by walking, bicycling and public transit. This helps achieve numerous economic, social and environmental objectives. Demand for affordable-accessible housing is growing.
Some current transport and land use policies discourage such development, leading to a shortage in many communities, particularly in growing cities. Various policy and planning reforms described in this report can increase affordable-accessible housing development.

2.2.2 Literature Review
People need adequate housing to be healthy, happy and successful. Housing in affordability is a major problem, particularly in growing cities where affordable housing demand exceeds the existing stock of older, less expensive residences. Increasing housing affordability is both an act of generosity and a practical way to solve problems and achieve various planning objectives:
Reduced homelessness and associated problems.
Financial savings and flexibility to lower-income households.
Accommodating more lower-wage workers, students and retirees, thus supporting local economic development.

The term affordable housing sometimes refers to subsidized social housing for people with special needs (physical or mental disability, severe poverty, etc.), but that is actually a minor portion of total affordable housing demand. Most affordable housing is occupied by low-wage workers, students, and people living on pensions, who pay unsubsidized rents, sometimes called workforce housing. Various affordable housing needs, ranging from a small group that needs emergency shelter or subsidized housing, to a much larger group that needs affordable rental or owned housing.

2.2.3 Conclusion
Affordable-accessible housing refers to appropriate housing priced within lower-income household’s budgets, located in areas where essential services and activities are easily reached without an automobile.
For typical low-income households, the most practical affordable-accessible housing option is generally an inexpensive apartment, townhouse, small-lot single-family homes, or accessory suite located in an urban neighborhood or small town, where basic services (shops, schools, medical care and jobs) are easily accessible by walking, bicycling and public transit. This high level of accessibility is particularly important for people who for any reason cannot drive an automobile due to physical disability or legal constraints.

2.2.4 References
Todd Litman
Victoria Transport Policy Institute
2.3 Research paper-3
2.3.1. Abstract
Using tenant-level data from fifteen states that represent more than thirty percent of all Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) units, this paper examines tenant incomes, rental assistance and rent burdens to shed light on key questions about our largest federal supply-side affordable housing program. Specifically, what are the incomes of the tenants, and does this program reach those with extremely low incomes? What rent burdens are experienced, and is economic diversity within developments achieved? We find that more than forty percent of tenants have extremely low incomes, and the overwhelming majority of such tenants also receive some form of rental assistance.

Rent burdens are generally higher than for HUD housing programs, but vary greatly by income level and are lowered by the sizable share of owners who charge below maximum rents. Finally, we find evidence of both economically diverse developments and those with concentrations of households with extremely low incomes.

Literature review
The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit Program was established in 1987 and has since become the primary source of federal support for creating place-based, affordable rental housing in the United States. It was created as part of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA), which also removed a number of more general real estate and housing tax benefits.
At its start, each state received $1.25 per capita allocation, which has since been increased and is now adjusted for inflation.8 Developers competitively apply to their respective state for these credits and then use the credits to leverage private capital into acquisition, new construction or rehabilitation of affordable rental units. As a federally funded, state implemented housing program that is frequently combined with additional sources of subsidized funding, this is a complex program. Here we focus our attention on the programmatic details most relevant for shaping tenant composition and rents and which are at the core of current policy debates.9
We begin by considering the incomes of LIHTC tenants. Given that LIHTC income maximums target low and ‘very low’ income households (60 and 50 percent of AMI, respectively), we might expect incomes of most households to fall just below those cutoffs
To better assess the connection between rental assistance and extremely low income households, Table 4 breaks out the income distribution by receipt of rental assistance, for the ten states where such data are provided. Column 1 shows that compared to our full set of fifteen states, an even greater share of LIHTC tenants are extremely low income in those states with rental assistance data (53%), possibly those states most likely to pair tax credits with rental assistance.

Katherine O’Regan and Keren Horn
NYU Wagner School and Furman Center for Real Estate ; Urban Policy


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