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Contents
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INTRODUCTION:
The network shown in the assignment has four different private network with the different IP configuration.

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#Equipment’s Connected in Network:
Devices Quantity
Router 3
Switch 3
Server 1
PC 3
#IP Addressing Table:
Devices Network Subnet Mask #No Of Host
HQR 172.16.0.0 255.255.255.252 4
BR1 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 256
BR2 10.10.10.0 255.255.255.0 256
DHCP 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0 256
The purpose of this report is to design a Local Area Network (LAN) for a small company and study all the implementation of network and test the system. To do so, I will deal with the physical and logical design of a LAN by building a network in a test laboratory, consisting of computers, routers, switch’s, and a server then configuring them for end-to-end connectivity.

Local Area Network:
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building, using network media.

LAN’s are easy to design and troubleshoot the issues in network.

Transfer of information and resources becomes easy because of LAN.

In LAN all machines are connected to a single cable.

It is usually a private owned network.

Wide Area Network:
A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area. Typically, a WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs). Computers connected to a wide-area network are often connected through public networks.

It is and more efficient to use the phone network for the link.

Most WAN networks are used to transport large blocks of data between ends users.

Other Network’s Features
PERSONAL AREA NETWORK It generally consists of a mobile computer, a cell
Phone or personal digital assistant. PAN enables communication among these devices.

METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK. A metropolitan Area network is between entire city, small region or college campus.

Network Switch:
A network switch is device which use to connect multiple pc in a network at same time. Switch works on OSI layer 2. It is a tool responsible for the connections between systems and other equipment’s that interact with and to share data amongst. The connections are generally created using cabling the links both ends of station and other device.

A switch uses mac address and works on Mac address of both ends. A switch learns about the mac address of source and destination port where it connected.

*Source: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-kODPrei31eM/UdwFrPFs9UI/AAAAAAAAAWA/hvnhCw2HakY/s1600/network_switch.jpgTypes of Switch’s:
Type’s Features
LAN Switch Also Known as Ethernet switch.

Unmanaged Network Switches Used for Home Networks, Small Companies.

Managed or Smart Switches Used for Enterprise , customizable
Router:
A router is device used to receive, analyse, and move data packets to other network. A router is lot more capabilities than other network equipment such hub or switch. The packet usually contains data sent though internet. Wireless allows multiple end devices to join the same network like phones, tablets, Wi-Fi laptops.

Network routers works with IP address, It checks source and destination of each data packet and lookup the IP of destination in routing table and and route It to another router switch or router and it keeps happing until found the destination IP and respond back

#Source: https://community.fs.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/How-routers-route-packets-from-the-source-to-the-destination.jpg#Types of routers:
Type’s Features
Broadband Routers Usually Used to connect to the internet at homes.

Wireless Routers Used to create a wireless signal for Home or office.

Edge Routers Placed at edge of ISP Network. Used for connection between two BGP (Border gateway protocols)
Core Router These router are backbone of the LAN network and usually interconnecting distribution routers from multiple building of a LAN or different enterprise location (WAN).

Cabling Category:
#Category 3: It is UTP (unshielded twisted pair cable used in telephone wiring.

#Category 4: It is used in telephone networks which ca transmit voice and data up to 16 Mbit/s.

#Category 5: A twisted Pair cable for carrying signals and data between end users.

#Category 6: It is a standardize cable for gigabyte Ethernet and other physical layer which is also compatible with cat 5/5e and cat 3 cables.

#Types of Network Cable:
Type’s Features
Coaxial Cable: Usually Used to connect home antenna to TV Set.

Twisted Pair Cable There is two types of TPC cable: Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted Pair (STP).

_Very Low in cost.
Fibre Optics: It transmits electric signals and made of glass.

_Useful for underground /Long distance and WAN Installations.

Some Other types Of cable – USB: Universal Serial cable.

– Crossover cable.

– Serial and parallel cables
Wireless Standard:
802.11 is a WLAN standard represent by IEEE in 1997. It is supported a maximum bandwidth of 2 Mbps quite slow for application. Ordinary 802.11 wireless products are no longer manufactured. Example: Most restaurants and coffee shop shot spot routers run on Wireless-G which is (54Mbps) or even Wireless-B which is (11Mbps).

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