?hapter I. The Concept of Fairy Tales……………………………………
1.1.Definitions and history of Fairy Tales……………………………………5
1.2. Characteristics of Fairy Tales ……………………………………………………………9 1.3. Functions and the peculiar properties of fairy tales ……………………..14
1.4. A benefit of fairy tales for children’s social development……………………
Summary on chapter I…………………………………………………..
Chapter II. Fairy Tales in Teaching English as a Foreign Language
2.1. Fairy Tales in Teaching English Language Skills……………………………….20
2.2. Fairy Tales in Teaching Grammar…………………………………………………….22
2.3. Fairy Tales in Teaching Vocabulary…………………………………………………..23
2.4. Using fairy tales in the language classroom with young learners…………..
2.5. Criteria for a selection of the suitable fairy tale…………………………….
Summary on chapter II……………………………………………………..
Chapter III.Practical part……………………………………………………….
3.1. Lesson plan for the fairy tale ‘Cinderella’ …………………………………
3.2. Lesson plan for the fairy tale ‘Hansel and Gretel’…………………………
3.3. Lesson plan for the fairy tale ‘Rapunzel’ …………………………………
When going through Gillian Lazar´s book Literature and Language Teaching, I came across the quotation as reads:
The texts traditionally prescribed for classroom use may generally be accorded high status, but often seem remote from and irrelevant to, the interests and concerns of our students. In fact, being made to read texts so alien to their own experience and background may only increase students´ sense of frustration, inferiority and even powerlessness (1993, 3).
The actuality of the work: I have chosen this theme as my qualification work, because it is very concrete problem in teaching English at the junior stage. While teaching as English teacher I will use fairy tales. Because to teach junior stage pupils in English is difficult. But with using fairy tales we make easier that difficulty. Because, pupils in this stage had very big desire to fantasy and imagination. It is not always possible to teach English in a way that all students will both learn and experience fun and enjoyment. However, the teacher should do his best in order to reach as much supportive learning environment in the classroom as possible. In my opinion, and as my qualification work will try to display and prove in many directions, a motivating and amusing work with fairy tales may contribute to such classroom atmosphere with a great deal. Lazar supports the inclusion of literature into foreign language teaching as well and says: “Literature provides wonderful source material for eliciting strong emotional responses from our students” and using it in classroom is “a fruitful way of involving the learner as a whole person” (1993, 3).
Literature plays an important role in our life. Fairy tales as a part of the children’s literature could be a valuable source for teaching English as a foreign language. Fairy tales might be considered one of the possible supplementary teaching materials for English language learners. It is not only the atmosphere of mystery, thrill and wonder which makes fairy tales so unique and valuable but they can bring the whole magic world to a young reader and learner. They can open the old wisdom and knowledge of humankind which we often forget about. Literature provides wonderful source material for eliciting strong emotional responses from students and using it in classroom is a fruitful way of involving the learner as a whole person (Lazar, 1993).
Hypothesis: Fairy tales may contribute to the enrichment of a young reader’s knowledge a number of ways. They teach moral and values highlighting the most universal norms and standards of language existence. In addition to that, fairy tales are a particular type of text which can be adapted to suit the child’s age, whereas their composition of sentences and plot is simple and understandable. I think, using of fairy tales for junior stage pupils it is the best way to teach them and to develop their interest or to motivate them for the lesson.
The aim of my qualification work is to show benefits of fairy tales for the development of young children not only within the “walls” of school classroom but in their lives as well. Hopefully, the usage of fairy tales in English lessons will help the students to appreciate the literature of target language and build up positive attitude towards literature in general.
The object of the qualification work is – to analyze the role of fairy tales in teaching English at the junior stage.
The subject of the qualification work is-Fairy tales have a great potential to be used as a valuable source in primary English lessons.
Our qualification work consists of the introduction, main three chapters, the conclusion, and list of references. In the first chapter we gave a theoretical background of the issue discussed and figured out that the scientific basis of tale is a special genre, there are different kinds of stories, and that they represent. Definitions and history of fairy tales, characteristics of fairy tale and functions and the peculiar properties of fairy tales were written in the first chapter. And there is information about a benefit of fairy tales for children’s social development. In the second chapter we gave the role and use of fairy tales in teaching English: language skills, vocabulary, grammar and criteria for a selection of the suitable fairy tale. And we wrote the answer for the question ‘how we can use fairy tales in the language classroom with young learners’.
Third chapter we have called practical part or experimental part. Because in this chapter we wrote about the work which is we done it in practice or expert it ourselves. Exactly I had several lessons in several forms at the junior stage at the school. My lessons’ themes were ‘Cinderella’ ‘Hansel and Gretel’ and ‘Rapunzel’.
Chapter I. The Concept of Fairy Tales
A fairy tale is a story which involves folkloric features such as fairies, goblins, princes and princesses. The fairy tales is a sub-class of the folk tale. The oldest fairy tales were told and retold from generations before they were written down. When these stories were studied thoroughly it turned to be that there were more than one, even more than 10 versions of Cinderella story. Each story appeared to have unique telling and cultural elements which depended on the place and time when the story was told. Nowadays different authors still like to invent and write down new versions of fairy tales
1.1 Definitions and history of Fairy Tale
There are a lot of definitions of the fairy tale. The Oxford Dictionary of English Folklore says that a fairy tale is the usual English term for a group of oral narratives cantered on magical tests, quests, and transformations. Illustrated Oxford Dictionary has two explanations: 1. a children’s tale about fairies; 2. an incredible story, a fabrication. Random online dictionary defines fairy tale as a story (as for children) involving fantastic forces and beings (as fairies, wizards, and goblins) – called also fairy story; a story in which improbable events lead to a happy ending (Merriam-Webster online dictionary). Teaching English as a foreign language through fairy tales .Originally the term fairy tale came from France. In 1697 Madame d’Aulony began publishing volumes of fantasy stories under the collective title Les contes des fees (Tales of Fairies) (Ashliman, 2004). French fairy tales were the first to be collected and written down. “Fairy tale is a narrative in prose about the fortunes and misfortunes of a hero or heroine who, having experienced various adventures of a more or less supernatural kind, lives happily ever after. Magic, charms, disguise and spells are some of the major ingredients of such stories (Cuddon,1998). Despite of the diversity of the definitions mentioned they all have common features which involve fairy creatures and magic.
A fairy tale is a type of short story that typically features folkloric fantasy characters, such as tales may be distinguished from other folk narratives such as legends (which generally involve belief in the veracity of the events described) and explicitly moral tales, including beast fables. The term is mainly used for stories with origins in European tradition and, at least in recent centuries, mostly relates to children’s literature. Fairy tales are found in oral and in literary form; the name “fairy tale” was first ascribed to them by Madame d’Aulnoy in the late 17th century. Many of today’s fairy tales have evolved from centuries-old stories that have appeared, with variations, in multiple cultures around the world. The history of the fairy tale is particularly difficult to trace because only the literary forms can survive. Still, according to researchers at universities in Durham and Lisbon, such stories may date back thousands of years, some to the Bronze Age more than 6,000 years ago. Fairy tales, and works derived from fairy tales, are still written today.
As Stitch Thompson points out, talking animals and the presence of magic seem to be more common to the fairy tale than fairies themselves. However, the mere presence of animals that talk does not make a tale a fairy tale, especially when the animal is clearly a mask on a human face, as in fables.
In his essay “On Fairy-Stories”, J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of “fairies” from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princes and princesses, dwarves, elves, and not only other magical species but many other marvels. However, the same essay excludes tales that are often considered fairy tales, citing as an example The Monkey’s Heart, which Andrew Lang included in The Lilac Fairy Book.
Steven Swann Jones identified the presence of magic as the feature by which fairy tales can be distinguished from other sorts of folktales. Davidson and Chaudri identify “transformation” as the key feature of the genre. From a psychological point of view, Jean Chirac argued for the necessity of the fantastic in these narratives.
What is a fairy tale? For some fairy tales are intricately linked with folklore and myth, while for others they conjure up memories of literary tales read as a child. To a modern audience fairy tales might be entangled with visual representations, from the theatrical Wicked (2003- ) to the hugely popular Frozen (2014). Deciding what constitutes a fairy tale only leads to more questions: Are they intended for children or for adults? Must a fairy tale be simple amusement or does it have greater depth of meaning? All of these questions and more are considered by Marina Warner in her short guide to fairy tale. By purposely omitting the article from the title – history of fairy tale, not of the fairy tale – she instantly captures the complexities and the deliberate vagueness of the genre. Faced with condensing this history into two hundred pages, Warner opens the guide by requesting that the reader imagine the text as a small but detailed map .She explains that the map will be dominated by two prominent landmarks, Charles Perrault’s HistoiresetContes du temps passé (1697) and Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm’s KinderundHausmärchen (1812-1857).
The fairy tale was the part of an oral tradition (Kready, 1916; Karven, 2008). Tales were narrated orally, rather than written down and they used to have sad endings instead of happy ones. The Grimms noted that the evolution of the tale was from a strongly marked, even ugly, but highly expressive form of its earlier stages, to that which possessed external beauty of mold (Kready, 1916).Andrew Lang is the one who said, “For the roots of stories, we must look, not in the clouds but upon the earth, not in the various aspects of nature but in the daily occurrences and surroundings, in the current opinions and ideas of savage life.” The nineteenth century was a golden age for folklore. Collectors all over the world began to gather ancient tales from oral sources and write them down (Kerven, 2008; Hallett&Karasek, 2009). One of these collectors was well known Joseph Jacobs with his much-loved English Fairy Tales (1890) and More English Fairy Tales (1894). The late nineteenth and twentieth century fairy tales became an integral part of the children’s literature. But, fairy tales cannot be classified as children’s stories; they have special quality of being able to entertain reader of all ages. Originally fairy tales main audience were adults as likely as children (Kerven, 2008).Later on fairy tales were about princes and princesses, combat and adventures. Fairies became to have the second role in the fairy tales. Moral lesson and happy endings became common features. In the modern era violence is usually removed from the fairy tales that they could be read for the children. The stories tend towards an optimistic moral structure, with justice fairy done, wickedness punished and goodness rewarded (Kerven, 2008, Hallett&Karasek, 2009). Teaching English as a foreign language through fairy tales. Originally, stories that would contemporarily be considered fairy tales were not marked out as a separate genre. The German term “Märchen” stems from the old German word “Mär”, which means story or tale. The word “Märchen” is the diminutive of the word “Mär”, therefore it means a “little story”. Together with the common beginning “once upon a time” it means a fairy tale or a märchen was originally a little story from a long time ago when the world was still magic. (Indeed, one less regular German opening is “In the old times when wishing was still effective”.)
The oral tradition of the fairy tale came long before the written page. Tales were told or enacted dramatically, rather than written down, and handed down from generation to generation.
Folk and literary
The fairy tale, told orally, is a sub-class of the folktale. Many writers have written in the form of the fairy tale. These are the literary fairy tales, or Kunstmärchen. The oldest forms, from Panchatantra to the Pentamerone, show considerable reworking from the oral form. The Brothers Grimm were among the first to try to preserve the features of oral tales. Yet the stories printed under the Grimm name have been considerably reworked to fit the written form.
Literary fairy tales and oral fairy tales freely exchanged plots, motifs, and elements with one another and with the tales of foreign lands. The literary fairy tale came into fashion during the 17th century, developed by aristocratic women as a parlor game. This, in turn, helped to maintain the oral tradition. According to Jack Zipes , “The subject matter of the conversations consisted of literature, mores, taste, and etiquette, whereby the speakers all endeavored to portray ideal situations in the most effective oratorical style that would gradually have a major effect on literary forms.” Many 18th-century folklorists attempted to recover the “pure” folktale, uncontaminated by literary versions. Yet while oral fairy tales likely existed for thousands of years before the literary forms, there is no pure folktale, and each literary fairy tale draws on folk traditions, if only in parody. This makes it impossible to trace forms of transmission of a fairy tale. Oral story-tellers have been known to read literary fairy tales to increase their own stock of stories and treatments.
Originally, adults were the audience of a fairy tale just as often as children. Literary fairy tales appeared in works intended for adults, but in the 19th and 20th centuries the fairy tale became associated with children’s literature.
The précieuses, including Madame d’Aulnoy, intended their works for adults, but regarded their source as the tales that servants, or other women of lower class, would tell to children. Indeed, a novel of that time, depicting a countess’s suitor offering to tell such a tale, has the countess exclaim that she loves fairy tales as if she were still a child. Among the late précieuses, Jeanne-Marie Le Prince de Beaumont redacted a version of Beauty and the Beast for children, and it is her tale that is best known today. The Brothers Grimm titled their collection Children’s and Household Talesand rewrote their tales after complaints that they were not suitable for children
Psychoanalysts such as, who regarded the cruelty of older fairy tales as indicative of psychological conflicts, strongly criticized this expurgation, because it weakened their usefulness to both children and adults as ways of symbolically resolving issues. Jungian Analyst and fairy tale scholar, Marie Louise Von Franz interprets fairy tales based on Jung’s view of fairy tales as a spontaneous and naive product of soul, which can only express what soul is. That means, she looks at fairy tales as images of different phases of experiencing the reality of the soul. They are the “purest and simplest expression of collective unconscious psychic processes” and “they represent the archetypes in their simplest, barest and most concise form” because they are less overlaid with conscious material than myths and legends. “In this pure form, the archetypal images afford us the best clues to the understanding of the processes going on in the collective psyche”. “The fairy tale itself is its own best explanation; that is, its meaning is contained in the totality of its motifs connected by the thread of the story. Every fairy tale is a relatively closed system compounding one essential psychological meaning which is expressed in a series of symbolical pictures and events and is discoverable in these”. “I have come to the conclusion that all fairy tales to describe one and the same psychic fact, but a fact so complex and far-reaching and so difficult for us to realize in all its different aspects that hundreds of tales and thousands of repetitions with a musician’s variation are needed until this unknown fact is delivered into consciousness; and even then the theme is not exhausted. This unknown fact is what Jung calls the Self, which is the psychic reality of the collective unconscious. Every archetype is in its essence only one aspect of the collective unconscious as well as always representing also the whole collective unconscious.
In contemporary literature, many authors have used the form of fairy tales for various reasons, such as examining the human condition from the simple framework a fairytale provides. Some authors seek to recreate a sense of the fantastic in a contemporary discourse. Some writers use fairy tale forms for modern issues; this can include using the psychological dramas implicit in the story, as when Robin McKinley retold Donkeyskin as the novel Deerskin, with emphasis on the abusive treatment the father of the tale dealt to his daughter. Sometimes, especially in children’s literature, fairy tales are retold with a twist simply for comic effect, such as The Stinky Cheese Man by Jon Scieszka and The ASBO Fairy Tales by Chris Pilbeam. A common comic motif is a world where all the fairy tales take place, and the characters are aware of their role in the story such as in the film series Shrek.
1.2. Characteristics of Fairy Tales
Fairy tales are considered to be a part of folklore. Main elements of fairy tales are (Ashliman, 2004; Hallett&Karasek, 2009; Kready 1916; Chinen, 1989):
• Fairy tales usually begin and end with “special” words like “Once upon a time…”, “In a far-far away land… “, “Like days long ago…”, “There once was…”, “Long, long time ago…”, “They lived happily ever after”, “They lived for many, many years ago”
• Place and time are unknown in fairy tales. Setting is often enchanted; castles, kingdoms, far-faraway lands and enchanted forests: the Grimm fairy tales have tendency to take place in the forests. The forest might be not enchanted but it contains enchantments and magical elements and, being outside normal human experience, acts as a place of transformation, for example Red Riding Hood and Hansel and Gretel.
• Princes and princesses, heroes and heroines are often included in fairy tales as well as poor farmers, youngest sons, wise old women, beggars and soldier, for example, Rapunzel, Hansel and Gretel, The Fisherman and his wife, The Frog Prince.
• The main character often wants to make life better. For example, in the fairy tale The Magic Porridge Pot poor little girl went to the forest to find some food for her and her mother. She wanted to help her mother and no longer be hungry.
• Fairy tales usually include clearly defined good characters and bad characters. Red Riding Hood and the big grey wolf are very good examples of sharp division between good and bad characters. Fairy tales involve magic elements. Magic may be both positive and negative. For example in magic porridge pot, when the little girl used it properly, the pot did not harm anyone, but when mother tried to use it and used it in the wrong way – the town was covered in porridge.
The plot of fairy tales focuses on a problem or a conflict which need to be solved. Fairy tales usually include moral or a lesson to be learnt. They have been used to transmit life’s lessons to countless people in a number of different cultures (VanGundy, 2005).According to Haase (2008) classification, fairy tales are literary narratives which include the episodic structure and constructed primarily on motifs; the genre is unabashedly fictional; the setting indefinite; the mode of reality in which the characters move is supernatural or fantastic; language is formulaic includes repetitions and bare-bones characterizations.
Fairy tales, gripping, magical and inspiring, are master narratives. Children subconsciously recall their messages as they grow older, and are forced to cope with real injustices and contradictions in their lives. Some fairy tales are based on legends that incorporated a spiritual belief of the culture in which they originated, and were meant to emulate truth.
Numerous fairy tales, and the legends behind them, are actually watered-down versions of uncomfortable historical events. These darker stories might be too terrifying for today’s little lambkins, as well as some adults! Their horrific origins, which often involve rape, incest, torture, cannibalism and other hideous occurrences, are brimming with sophisticated and brutal morality. Their images cannot be dispelled easily and their lessons are more powerful than the present-day, innocuous fables they resemble.
In the early 1800’s Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm collected stories that depicted the unpredictable and often unforgiving life experienced by central Europeans. These brothers, determined to preserve the Germanic oral story telling that was vanishing, poured over the folklore of the region. Their first collection of stories was based on actual, gruesome events. However, they had to provide lighter interpretations of these factual incidents in order to sell books. Consequently they paid attention to previously printed fairytales, particularly those of Charles Perrault. As early as the 17th century, this Frenchman who is thought to be the father of fairy tales, created some of the most imaginative and delightful stories ever told. His confabulations of a pumpkin carriage and Fairy Godmother in Cinderella, for example, are magnificently enchanting. His original Cinderella, based on a true story, contains violent elements as well, since the wicked stepsisters butcher their own feet while trying to get into the slipper that the Prince had found.
Fairy Tales Motivate Reading
It is a well known fact that before computers and television were invented reading was the primary free time activity. People could read hours and travel lands far-far their minds away. Stories offer the whole imaginary world, created by language that children can enter and enjoy, learning language as they read. Good stories provide a study of universal values and needs and capture students’ interest and challenge them to explore new roads of meaning (Cameron, 2001).
A lot of texts that can be found in the course books are often created for pedagogical reasons and lack the personal addressing to young learners. In comparison, the fairy tales spark children’s curiosity, increase interest and create wonder and in addition that they may elicit a powerful emotional response and personal involvement of students (Collie &Slater, 1987).
In the reading classes teachers’ concern should be to increase students’ motivation towards reading in the foreign language lesson by making reading interesting. The texts which teacher offers students to read should be: interesting for students, be at the right level of difficulty and authentic (Cameron, 2001). Young learners see reading as an entertainment. They typically prefer stories about animals, legends, folk tales and fairy tales (Verhoeven&Snow, 2008). Fairy tales are stories that illustrate our impulse toward a greater level of consciousness. They are fun, interesting, and appeal to the imagination of virtually all readers (Bagg, 1991). As children read them they “enter” into fairy tales and act out together with the characters (Tiberghein 2007). Fairy tales have a great potential to influence positively on children’s interest in books and their motivation to read. Collie and Slater (1987) suggest that literature is suitable with language learning students should. “Stimulate the kind of personal involvement by arousing the learners’ interest and provoking strong, positive reactions from them. If it is meaningful and enjoyable, reading is more likely to have a lasting and beneficial effect upon the learners’ linguistic and cultural knowledge. It is more important to choose books which are relevant to the life experiences, emotions or dreams of her learner.”
Types of reading
Intensive reading involves a lot of classroom work with course book, exercises and texts. This type of reading requires reading texts closely and carefully with intention of gaining an understanding of as much details as possible. This is often a stop/start kind of reading involving a lot of going backs and reading the same text over and over again in order to make sure that all word are interpreted (Scrivener, 2005). In everyday life people tend to use extensive reading. This kind of reading is fluent, faster, often of longer texts for pleasure, entertainment and general understanding without paying so much attention to the details; fairy tales are the good example of these kinds of texts (Cameron, 2001). Interesting and simplified texts may help initiate learners into extensive reading (Collie & Slater, 1987). There is a great deal of evidence that extensive reading has a powerful impact on language learning. The more students read, the more they pick up items of vocabulary and grammar from the text, often without realizing it and this widening language knowledge seems to increase their overall linguistic confidence (Scrivener, 2005). Fairy tales include colorful vocabulary and different grammatical aspects, for example the Past Simple, the Present Simple, irregular verbs, comparisons and etc. Extensive reading can be organized either as individualized reading, where all the students read different books, taken from library; or as a class reading, where the whole class reads the same book. For example a teacher can pick any well know or absolutely unknown fairy tale and ask students to read it at home, or teacher can ask students to pick any fairy tale which they like the most read it home and on the next lesson share some ideas about it in front of the class. Class reading allows teacher to give maximum help to students, by providing background information, vocabulary and by choosing adequate questioning type (Skopinskaya, 1996). But a teacher has to be sure that the text is not too long or too complicated so that students do not lose their interest in the text. Class reading can be organized in four ways. First, students can take texts at home and read them in a familiar peaceful atmosphere. Second, they may read silently in class, with the teacher going through Teaching English as a foreign language through fairy tales questions at the end.
Third, the teacher reads the text aloud, while the students listen and follow in their books. And finally, group reading can be used with dramatic scripts. The teacher reads first to produce a model, and then has students read round the class (Skopinskaya, 1996).
1.3. Functions and the peculiar properties of fairy tales
The nature, form and background of fairy tales reflect the place of their origin; however, it is their function that matters more. Let us now mention some of the valuable functions of this literary piece of work that support children’s development. Children’s knowledge of the world is often so small that „they cannot judge offhand and without help between fantastic, the strange, the nonsensical, and the merely ´grow up´”(Tolkien 1966, 62). They do not understand the world of adults yet because they are “less experienced and less educated” (Hunt 1994, 3). Children perceive the adult’s world differently and vice versa, and many situations of the mutual misunderstanding may arise between them. From ?ernoušek´s point of view, one of the basic functions of fairy tales is to bring sense and order to the incomprehensible almost chaotic world for children and says: „The fairy tales are here to serve as the bridges over the gab between the adult and child’s angle of thinking” (1990, 8). Frey adds that literature not only strengthens the understanding and relationship among people within the borders of one nation but he believes that literature is “one of the richest gifts of people’s culture that brings them together” (1929, 133).
Children keep asking questions, are curious and need to know answers for everything however; they are not expecting the complicated and logical explanations but the simple meaningful answers. In a book An Introduction to Children’s Literature Paton Walsh says: Not everything can be said for children, not everything can be explained to them. But once it is not clogged up by hesitation and pretension almost anything can be told to them as a story (Hunt 1994, 132). Fairy tales serve this purpose well and function as an explanatory tool here because from ?ernoušek´s point of view, they: speak the language children understand and show the complicated world before the children’s innocent eyes in a comprehensible manners by their simplicity, clear definition of good and evil, understandable incidents and beauty of their language (1990, 9).
Frey in book Psychologie?tená?e speaks about the educational function of fairy tales which widens children’s knowledge and give them a feel for the codes and preoccupations that shape the human life and society. He claims as follows: “Fairy tales are a rich ever-fresh stream for a child’s learning and show life in its entire width as well as depth. A child gets the lecture about its laws, flaws, about the behavior, obedience (1929, 134).
When talking about the influential impact fairy tales have on the development of children’s personality, Streit´s view might be considered as well. He believes that fairy tales are a rich source of moral principles and thus, contribute to „establish and strengthen the morality in a child’s life from his early age where hundreds of orders and warnings failed” (1992, 26). And ?ernoušek continues further and says that the fairy tales show the moral principles in a way easily understandable for a young reader and thus, teach him the basic code: action – consequences – punishment/reward by pointing out the benefits of unselfish behavior that is rewarded and the disadvantages of evil intentions that are always rightfully punished (1990, 30). The only to be said in close, is that children have very keen appetite and enthusiasm for all new however, since they have not got so much life experience yet, they need a support in order to get the things right. The fairy tale books are one of the possible means how to show the complicated world of adults to children from their perspective and moreover, how to positively contribute to their personal enrichment.
The peculiar properties of fairy tales
This subtheme will deals with the typical features of fairy tales and what profit they possibly bring for a child entering the fairy tale world as a young reader. Moreover, the question how to utilize these characteristics of fairy tales in the foreign language classroom for the development of students´ knowledge of English will be discussed.
According to Tolkien it is not possible to define strict borders of fairy tales: „The borders of fairy stories are dubious” (1966, 41). We can only talk about the peculiarities most fairy tales possess and make them an interchangeable and unique literary formation. Opening and closing phrases are one of the distinctive features of the fairy tales in any language. The most common opening phrase which can be read in English fairy tale books is: „Once upon a time…” (Havilland 1972, 7) . It serves like a magic gate through which the children enter another world, world of fancy and enchantment. The most frequent formula which closes a story from the realm of fairy tales is „…and they lived happily ever after”(Havilland 1972, 85). The latter phrase shows a world from the optimistic point of view and does not leave a young reader in doubts. Both phrases mean a kind of security and certainty for a reader and let him in and out from the magical world of fairy tales. When reading fairy tales we often come across the same clause structures that are repeated in a story: “Swallow, Swallow, little swallow …will you not stay with me for one night longer and be my messenger? ” (?a?ková 1997, 23) . The advantage of such repetitions, especially in a language class, is significant. According to Collie and Slater these repetitions can provide “valuable phonological practice in stress and intonation patterns” (1987, 29). However, not only pronunciation practice but also an acquisition of the particular grammar patterns may be done in an effortless way. In the book Once upon a time: Using stories in the language classroom Morgan and Rinvolucri say that the fairy tales „abound in powerful repeated phrases” and thus, they provide elementary students with “an almost subliminal grammar input” (1983, 2). Sometimes, a form of the repeated sentences may vary a little but a meaning remains the same. This difference makes students pay more attention and do not only memorize the phrases without thinking. In order to expand or revise students’ vocabulary a teacher can keep a same grammatical structure but bring in some new words, for example instead of a swallow students are asked to think of other kinds of animals. Another and very important feature of fairy tales is a clear distinction between the good and the bad. Meek in her book How Texts Teach What Readers Read says that not only while reading but also in a life children have „to confront truth/falsehood, trust/betrayal, heroism/cowardice, unselfishness/self-concern” (1992, 28). ?ernoušek claims that we cannot protect children by denying an existence of negative examples. On the contrary, we should allow them to see both sides and assist children in distinguishing between them. Children are pushed to take sides, make opinions and thus, they „develop their critical judgment of a life in the world”(1990, 70). Fairy tales provide the context where the relationships among people are very simple and depicted in a comprehensible manner for young readers. The children get easily the right and wrong poles clear and since evil is always punished, it serves as a distracting example for them. Almost every fairy tale carries the moral messages. It is a proof that fairy tales are not a mere entertainment but also educate. ?ernoušek says: „They (morals) intentionally instruct the reader and warn him what would happen if he deceives because every cheat is revealed and punished in the end.” And he adds: „He (the reader) learns that what is important is “pure modesty, wit and not the richness or social status” (1990, 166). The quotation shows that fairy tales have a big educational value and foster the right ethical attitudes in the young reader’s life.
When considering the usage of literature in the foreign language teaching, Lazar supports its inclusion for many reasons. One of them is the above mentioned “powerful function in raising moral and ethical concerns.” The tasks designed for exploring these concerns connect the students „with the struggle for a better society” (1993, 3). To conclude, this chapter showed some of the peculiarities of the fairy tales and the reasons why they are important for the child’s development as a reader but as a learner of English as well once the fairy tales are selected as a classroom teaching material.
1.4. A benefit of fairy tales for children’s social development.
The questions „Why is it important to foster children’s love towards literature in general?” and „What is the profound impact fairy tales have on children’s social development?” will be discussed further in this chapter. Moreover, the topic “Literature in Foreign Language Classroom” will be mentioned briefly. Meek in her book How Texts Teach What Readers Read says about the young readers following: They have innocent eyes, language in the making, fewer presuppositions about the predictable and less experience of established conventions of narrative. They can be counted on as allies by virtue of their curiosity and a huge desire to learn how the world works (1988, 14). Regarding the quotation above, children have to be provided with the suitable literature that would support them in their further development. According to Frey´s opinion, fairy tales „entirely correspond with a child’s mental scope of knowledge» and depict the real world to a child the way he understands (1929, 83). Children show their interest in fairy tales very soon, it is even before they can read. It is natural and important as well because as Frey in his book Psychologie?tená?e claims children have to go through the stage of reading the fairy tales in order to become “a mature reader with the well-balanced interests” (1929, 82). When trying to find a satisfactory answer to the first question asked in the introduction of this chapter, Frey´s suggestion could be considered: “The book contributes to expand the young reader’s vocabulary, to improve his ability to express and talk about his opinion … “to learn foreign words and recognize the beauty of a written and spoken word. By the intensive reading, he easily acquires the spelling of the words he has come across in a book several times” (1929, 126).
However, it is not only the development of children’s language knowledge the literature supports. From ?ernoušek point of view, some of the fairy tales support “the development and acquisition of memory functions”. There are certain things which are necessary to remember otherwise there is a threat of doom, for example, the hero is trapped in a rock because he forgot the magical spell.
Another benefit of the fairy tales that should be mentioned is that they foster a reader’s whole-life attitude towards problem-solving situations by showing the illustrating examples. „There are various types of complications appearing in fairy tales and the ways how they are solved can stimulate or on the contrary, hold up the child’s creative thinking”(?ernoušek 1990, 164). When going through Higgins’s book Beyond Words it could be read there that fairy tales touch on and demand upon the reader more than only passive reading and obtaining the information. Let us have a closer look at what the author says: They (fairy tales) will ask him to do more than read. They will ask him to grow angry and to be sad, to laugh and to cry, to remember and to project, to feel the softness and sometimes the harshness of the elements, to judge and to show compassion, to imagine and to wonder (1971, 1). ?ernoušek supports the above and adds that if there is something that would catch children’s attention, it must be not only new and unexpected but also distracting and emotional. The fairy tales provide children with”…entertainment and thrill but on the other hand they awake and encourage their curiosity and imagination”. Furthermore, besides contributing to the development of children’s intelligence and cognitive skills, fairy tales also affect positively their emotional awareness since they „bring certain order that calms down emotional storms, tension, anxieties or fear” (1990, 15).
According to Frey´s opinion, another benefit the fairy tales bring for the reader is that through the author’s depiction of the mental states of the characters, the reader learns to understand the fates of other people and feel “the compassion and social sentiment.” The young reader loses his prejudice and starts to be more open towards the human sufferings and poverty he would be blind otherwise (1929, 127). Moreover, fairy tales convey “the information about social values, traditions and basic human interactions, information of the ethical origin and information about a moral dimension of the human life” (?ernoušek 1990, 15). Based on the quotation, fairy tales represent a kind of educational source which assists children to understand the fundamental human issues and establish the right values in his life. It is worth mentioning that another positive influence of the books is that it encourages the child in his own literal production. “The child gets so excited about a book that he wants to become a writer and tries to write and create something himself” (Frey 1929, 13). Wendy Scott and LisbethYtreberg say that when the young children write something on their own it is very rewarding for them and explain further: “Writing is valuable in itself. There is a special feeling about seeing your work in print and enormous satisfaction in having written something which you want to say” (1990, 69).
Summary on Chapter I
*The fairy tales can be one of the suitable classroom materials how to influence positively the students´ attitude towards the literature of the target language. According to Collie and Slater´s opinion, young learners however, “may not as yet have developed a wish to read literature in the target language (English) on their own initiative”.
*Otherwise, it may result in their discouragement and building up negative attitude towards literature in general. To sum up, the facts above showed that reading of literature and especially of the fairy tales, is for children’s overall development beneficial in a number of ways. Furthermore, if trying to take fairy tales away from children, we „could disruptively affect their development and mental growth”(Frey 1929, 123). As far as concerned the language classrooms, it is a teacher who plays an important role in fostering students´ love towards literature of the target language
*A fairy tale is a story which involves folkloric features such as fairies, goblins, princes and princesses. Illustrated Oxford Dictionary has two explanations: 1. a children’s tale about fairies; 2. an incredible story, a fabrication.
*Fairy tales usually begin and end with “special” words like “Once upon a time…”, “In a far-far away land… “, “Like days long ago…”, “There once was…”, “Long, long time ago…”, “They lived happily ever after”, “They lived for many, many years ago”
*The nature, form and background of fairy tales reflect the place of their origin; however, it is their function that matters more. Let us now mention some of the valuable functions of this literary piece of work that support children’s development
*The questions „Why is it important to foster children’s love towards literature in general?” and „What is the profound impact fairy tales have on children’s social development?” will be discussed further in this chapter. Moreover, the topic “Literature in Foreign Language Classroom” will be mentioned briefly.
Chapter II. Fairy Tales in Teaching English as a Foreign Language
Fairy tales have a great potential to be used as a valuable source in English lessons. Children’s stories contain uses of language that are considered typical of poetic and literary texts. In appropriate adaptation these stories are suitable for all ages and levels. Fairy tales have universal values and plots which add familiarity to students (Hanlon, 1999). The child, limited in experience, loves to come in touch with the things he knows about ( Kready, 1916). Fairy tales are enjoyable but meaningful (Hanlon, 1999). They stress human experience, history and values. Fairy tales provide entertainment and further topics for discussion. They are fun and short, rich in terms of language yet less grammatically complex and syntactically speaking than many other forms of literature. There is a great opportunity to make fairy tales as complex and simplistic as possible depending on the class in which it is introduced. Fairy tales are also a great source of vocabulary, grammar structures and syntax. And in addition to that fairy tales are short enough, to keep students interested long enough to get to the happy end. (Bagg, 1991).
2.1. Fairy Tales in Teaching English Language Skills
In English lessons teachers tend to develop four skills: reading, writing, speaking and listening. These skills are often divided into two types. Receptive skills include reading and listening. Productive skills include speaking and writing (Harmer, 2007). It is very important to develop reading skills. Much language production work grows out of texts that students hear or see. The procedure for teaching receptive skills generally starts with a lead in (Harmer, 2007). It is very essential to start with pre-reading activity in order to set up a topic, to focus their attention in what they are going to read, activate students’ background knowledge of the topic (Reid, 2002; Harmer, 2007; Skopinskaya, 1996).Pre-reading activities involve students in reading a particular text short or long. The goals of this stage are to create a purpose for reading; and provide any language preparation that may be needed .Teacher could ask questions to the related topic or show a picture which illustrates story and ask students what they think according to this picture is going to happen in the text. Teaching English as a foreign language through fairy tales. The purpose of such guiding questions is not to check reading comprehension, but to lead the students towards most important points in the text (Skopinskaya, 1996). Checking for general comprehension is also very important. The purpose is more instructional than diagnostic. Sharing the answers will help readers make sense of story and encourage them to practice various levels of communication (Harmer, 2007; Reid, 2002; Skopinsaya, 1996). Reid (2002) claims that, teachers have to avoid overloading students with activities that may exhaust their energies or interest in a particular topic or book. Also, Reid (2002) in her book suggests some exercises for checking general comprehension. For example: together, sort events and characters of fiction as “good” or “bad”, “kind”, “unkind”; together, list appropriate adjectives or adverbs to describe events or characters. Teachers also could set up a True or False exercise. One of the most important question students could answer is do you like the text? Harmer (2007) claims that the question is important because if we only ever ask students technical questions about language, we are denying them any affective response to the content of the text. Letting them give voice is far more helpful for language learning, than if we just work through a series of exercises. Books open up other worlds to young children, and making reading an enjoyable activity is a very important part of the language learning experience. Wendy Scott and LisbethYtreberg say: “As pupils become better and better in the foreign language, the printed word becomes the main source of expanding and strengthening the language” (1990, 49). In the classroom teacher can use various reading techniques and one of them is „Reading aloud”(1990, 57). It is important for teacher to decide for what purpose he wants to use reading activities and what aims should be achieved. Reading a fairy tale aloud serves as “a means of training and checking rhythm and pronunciation” and moreover, lets the teacher “smooth out any language difficulties” the students may have immediately (1990, 58).
Collie and Slater suggests “Mini-reading aloud”. The class is divided into groups and each is given different section of the extract from the fairy tale. The task is to prepare the performance for the rest of the class. The teacher is available to give help where required however, it is more or less up to the students to discuss the pauses and special emphasis in the speech and negotiate the nature of the whole presentation. This activity aims to “develop student awareness of intonation, rhythm, stress and other features of spoken language” (1987, 68 – 69). Lazar offers continuation of this activity by making students to prepare questions for the class and piecing a whole fairy tale together afterwards (1993, 160).
Reading aloud is a separate skill and it is not the same as reading silently which aims in an understanding of the gist of the story. Wendy Scott and LisbethYtreberg say: “(…) reading for meaning should be encouraged as soon as possible” (1990, 51). Students should be taught to select what is important for overall comprehension of the story and ignore the irrelevant details.
Lazar suggests to accompany the choral reading by a “limited use of movements, gesture, facial expressions and the changing qualities of the voice” in order to make it more amusing (1993, 118). This classroom activity gives the feeling of security so that even weaker and shy pupils can get involved in reading without being worried and in addition, it may bring positive change into usual lessons. When a teacher decides to work with a fairy tale in the classroom, he should follow certain outline. There are three stages: pre – reading activities, reading itself and follow-up activities. Before actual reading the possible ways how to introduce and help the students with new vocabulary which will occur in the tale fairy tale have to be considered. Lots of ideas and inspiration can be found in Gillian Lazar´s book Literature and Language Teaching. One of them is “a glossary” (1993, 85). The student is given a piece of the fairy tale in advance and his task is to look up the unknown words in dictionary and prepare a glossary for his classmates within a group. Besides vocabulary expansion this activity also involves student’s creativity and imagination since it is up to him what a glossary will look like. Pre-reading activities or tasks are important not only to help students tackle language difficulties but can “be designed to set the mood, create interest, or spark curiosity” and moreover, “build motivation and foster a love of reading” (Collie and Slater 1987, 16 – 17).
In order to foster students´ understanding and appreciation of words and expressions in the fairy tale Collie and Slater suggest “a five-point star diagram”. Each group is given an empty star shape on a paper and their task is to group descriptive words into five categories which are decided by the teacher. One of the categories may be the words indicating feelings of the fairy tale character. It’s an interesting kind of visual exercise, which helps the students understand the text more deeply and enrich their vocabulary (1987, 101).
After reading, follow –up activities should be done in order to check the comprehension of the fairy tale or practise and consolidate new vocabulary. Collie and Slater believe that working with ten words from the fairy tale and then in individualized sentences, will “reinforce students´ ability to use them (ten words) in different contexts”. Firstly, the students search for ten new words in a puzzle and then use each word in a sentence of their own or in pairs write one sentence including as many words as possible. Afterwards, the students present the sentences in front of the class and are evaluated for example, according to the imaginative or amusing use of the words. For variety, students can be given definitions with which they must match particular ten words. In order to make it more challenging the students may get one definition extra(1987, 135 – 137).
According Wendy Scott and LisbethYtreberg´s opinion speaking is perhaps “the most demanding skill for teachers to teach”. And they explain further that with beginners it is important to find “the balance between providing language through controlled and guided activities and at the same time letting them (beginners) enjoy natural talk (1990, 33). Fairy tales provides a rich source of the language texts on which both types of activities can be based.
When going through the book Teaching English to Children it can be read there that one of the most successful ways of presenting language to young children is through “a class mascot”. It may be a character from the fairy tale and the teacher can encourage students to ask „him” simple questions or practise the dialogues. In authors´ view it is an amusing and effective way of promoting speaking skills of young children (Scott and Ytreberg 1990, 34). Penny Ur in her book A Course in Language Teaching offers an inspiration for another activity which besides developing children’s confidence in producing English before an audience also supports their creativity. The students are asked to look through the fairy tale and pick up the part they particularly like. Afterwards, they are supposed to prepare their own oral presentation including the poster for the whole class (1996, 204).
The students in pair are provided with two pictures from the fairy tale which differ in a few aspects. Their task is to figure out the differences by asking each other the simple questions. The idea of a group work activity which concentrates on an oral practice and involves fun as well is “Putting pictures in order”. Each member of the group is given a picture illustrating the crucial part of the fairy tale. Without showing it to the rest of the group he tries to depict what is on the picture. When all students finish their descriptions, the group decides on the correct order of the fairy tale (Scott and Ytreberg1990, 45).
To conclude, there are many other possible ways how to improve speaking skills. The above mentioned books may serve as an inspiration for more intensive practice focusing on this students´ weakness. The last to be said before moving on to the next subchapter is that during the discussion activities in groups or pairs, young children may switch and start speaking mother tongue. However, the teacher should not get upset because as Collie and Slater suggest it usually “indicates that the learners are enjoying the task and are engrossed in it” and in addition, the students “are bringing their knowledge and experience to bear on the new language, thus identifying with it and personalising it” (1987, 10).
Writing skills can also be thought through fairy tales. Inspired by the text, teacher could set up some kind of creative writing tasks. For example, students may write their own fairy tale or an alternative ending, answer the question what if… (Skopinskaya, 1996; Bagg, Teaching English as a foreign language through fairy tales 131991). Students can write a modernized version of a well known fairy tale, for example A New Cinderella Story, or summarize familiar tales. During the writing task students will practice traditional fairy tale beginning and ending (e.g. Once upon a time…), stock characters (e.g. witches, princes, princesses, fairies, trolls and etc…) comparatives and superlatives (e.g. the youngest, the smartest…)(Bagg, 1991).
Wendy Scott and LisbethYtreberg say about writing that it is an exciting and rewarding activity which is the most visible of all particular skills and they add further: Becoming a writer in a foreign language is magic – pupils can take writing home; their writing can be displayed; they can look back in their folders and see how much better they can do things now”(1990, 82). However, writing is rather difficult for children. It requires many demands on pupils and they often do not like practising it. Wendy Scott and LisbethYtreberg agree and say: “Many children take a long time to master the skill of writing”. Regardless of the fact that writing brings many difficulties, „it is still a useful, essential “and integral” part of the foreign language. Moreover, it can become highly motivating and enjoyable for pupils if the tasks are well-designed (1990, 68 – 69). According to Collie and Slater´s opinion, literature is a suitable teaching material for practising writing skills because it provides a rich context in which individual lexical and syntactical items are made more memorable… Students gain familiarity with many features of the written language – the formation and function of sentences, the variety of possible structures, the different ways of connecting ideas – which broaden and enrich their own writing skills (1987, 5). It is useful for students to keep a “copying book” where they can copy new vocabulary, dialogues, quotations or the moral message from the fairy tale. By rewriting the text the students develop their awareness of spelling and improve their mastery in the written language (Scott and Ytreberg 1990, 72).
Another classroom activity which in addition to writing practice, stimulates students´ creative thinking and involves their imagination is to challenge them to write down what they think will happen next in the fairy tale or allow them finish the fairy tale at their pleasure. Afterwards, the students can share their predictions with the whole class and discuss the different opinions. This kind of procedure is very motivating and “provides an unintimidating way of bridging the gab between language study and the development of more literary – based skills (Lazar 1993, 28). Moreover, it contributes to the students´ overall development because as Nunan suggests by making the students do their guesses and predictions they “draw on their general knowledge and personal experience, use their imagination and test their powers of logical reasoning”(1989, 68).
To sum up, this subchapter about writing shows only a limited choice of the possible activities which might be done with young children in order to consolidate their writing skills and in addition, to give them as many words and ideas as possible before they start on the actual writing task. All above mentioned books are valuable sources of inspiration for a number of further challenging writing activities.
When students start learning a foreign language, it is going in mainly through their ears and what the students hear is „their main source of the language”. Of course, the teacher tries to give them „as much visual back-up as possible through facial expression, through movement, through mime and through pictures» in order to facilitate the language acquisition and make the listening exercises more amusing and motivating (Scott and Ytreberg 1990, 21).Children are very vivid and become anxious if they are forced to stay on one place for a long time. Movement therefore, should be an important aspect of teaching young children. Wendy Scott and LisbethYtreberg suggest “listen and do” activities.
Besides practicing students´ listening skills this activity aims in vocabulary revision of colors (1990, 22 – 26). Listening can be still enriching and interesting, even if some students are already familiar with the fairy tale selected for classroom work or the class has read it before. Collie and Slater in the book Literature in the Language Classroom say: “The experience of hearing the section always brings some new detail to the fore” (1987, 5). The teachers should sometimes allow the students to listen for the pleasure because it “does help them create their fantasy response to the text and become involved in it” (1987, 66). In the next lesson the listening can be done again but accompanied by the concrete tasks this time. The usage of “Grids” in addition to furthering listening skills may serve as a reliable feedback for the teacher to check the students´ comprehension of the fairy tale read. The headings of a grid can be following: characters of the fairy tale, their appearance or magical powers occurred in the fairy tale (Collie and Slater 1987, 67).
2.2. Fairy Tales in Teaching Grammar
Grammar can be introduced in a number of ways. There is a great opportunity of using a “real texts” to understand and experiment with a “real language”. Children have an innate sense of interest in stories that portray heroes, personify animals and actions, take place in castles and enchanted forests. Fairy tales will interest pupils and bring them into a natural rhythm, flow and picturesque language of the text (Jones ; Allen, 1996).
In fairy tales two main uses of language can be distinguished: for a narrative and for a dialogue. A narrative text concerns the series of events: Hans started to pull out his finger; little brother ran for help. A dialogue is type of language as if it is spoken by the characters: “Run! Go to the town and tell the men there’s a hole in the dike!”(Cameron, 2001). The teacher can point out the use of the Past Simple in narratives and the Present Simple in dialogues.
Fairy tales help children to notice language areas such as past tenses, adjectives, comparatives and etc. Teachers could use passages from the fairy tale to point out grammatical features. For example, to ask students to find irregular verbs, to write down all adjectives or to locate the words and phrases that indicates position in place or time. Text swith continuous meanings are more authentic than the connected sentences which are often used as examples in grammar books. Story books often contain extended examples of dialogue that use a wide variety of punctuation marks, in more natural context than is possible in grammar exercise books. Word-order can be taught through reading fairy tales as well. When working in groups, students can ask and answer content-related questions and learn the word-order of questions and affirmative sentences (Reid, 2002).
2.3. Fairy Tales in Teaching Vocabulary
One of the purposes of fairy tales is to entertain, so writers and tellers choose and use words with particular care to keep the audience interested. Fairy tales include unusual words, or words that have a strong phonological content, with interesting rhymes or sound that are onomatopoetic. In fairy tales there is used evocative vocabulary, the language of the fairy Teaching English as a foreign language through fairy tales world, memorable language such as metaphors, alliteration, rhymes, and the spoken language of the common people. The built-up repetition of the words and phrases is one of the features of fairy tales that is very helpful for language learning. The context created by the story, its predictable pattern of events and language, pictures, all act to support the reader’s understanding of unfamiliar words. Children will pick up the words that they enjoy and in this way stories offer space for growth in vocabulary (Cameron, 2001).With the help of fairy tales specific vocabulary could be taught: different old words, beginnings and endings (e.g. Once upon a time; Far-far away; They lived happily ever after…) names of the characters and things which are connected to the characters (e.g. fairy, witch, king, queen, prince, princess, magic stick, throne, and etc…), names of the setting, places (e.g. forest, kingdom, far-far away land, etc…), gems and precious metals (e.g. silver, copper, gold, steel…) (Bagg, 1991; Cameron, 2001).
All children are poets and fairy tales are poetic recording of the facts of life (Kready, 1916). Fairy tales feed children’s imagination. They use an indirect way of presenting model situations to children and therefore appeal to children’s imagination. The motif of three unsuccessful attempts is often found in fairy tales. This model situation points out an important message to children, that success does not come in the first attempt but if we are Teaching English as a foreign language through fairy tales patient and do not give up, it will come in the end. It gives children hope and comfort as well as happy endings (Bettelheim2010). Characters in fairy tales are either good or bad. The sharp division between good and evil help children understands the difference. And for children it is easy to pick a right side because a good character is always rewarded whereas a bad character is always punished. Moreover, children tend to identify with the good characters more easily, which awakens in them the desire to behave in the same positive way and therefore fairy tales can contribute greatly to their social education. The child likes the fairy tale to tell him of someone who succeeds (Kready, 1916; Jones, 2002). The fairy tale teaches most often the basic values of life such as trust, hope, honesty, kindness and belief in high power which could be interpreted as a root of faith (Jones, 2002). Fairy tales implant motivations to adhere to the significant values of the civilized society. Striving for these values is motivated and modeled in these tales, and the ground is set for success in achievement a meaningful life. Stories as well as fairy tales help children feel positive about other countries and cultures, and can broaden their knowledge of the world. (Cameron, 2001).
2.4. Using fairy tales in the language classroom with young learners
When children start learning English they have years and years of foreign language study ahead. In order to ensure that learning English in the early years is a motivating and valuable part of children’s education, it is essential to capture children’s enthusiasm right from the beginning and keep it by presenting the subject matter in the way which takes children’s special characteristic, needs and development level into consideration. Carol Read says: The teachers not only enhance and make children’s experience of learning English more successful now, but also help to lay secure foundations for all those years in the future when they will continue to study and need to use English (2003, 47).
Fairy tales as many times mentioned above meet requirements for the development of not only students´ language knowledge but also their whole personalities and therefore, the usage of them in the language classrooms might be the first step towards the students´ life-long interest in English and moreover, in literature and culture of the target language.
This subchapter will deal with a question “Whom do we mean by young learners?” and inevitably, a question „How to teach them?” will arise. Therefore, let us discuss both these questions and pinpoint some facts that are important to take into consideration when working with young children. Young learners are meant here children of the primary school from ten to twelve years of age. However, it is not so much the children’s age that counts but as Sarah Phillips suggests “how mature they are”. And she continues further and says: (…) the approach and type of activity that the teacher decides to use with the class should be influenced by his knowledge of their (children’s) circumstances, attitudes, and interests rather than simply by the children’s physical age (1993, 5).
Wendy Scott and LisbethYtreberg in their book Teaching English to Children say about young learners that they have the definite views about what they like and do not like doing and are relatively “mature children with an adult side and a childish side”. Moreover, they are able „to make some decisions about their own learning” (1990, 4). Regarding the last quotation, the teacher should involve young children in the learning process and let them participate in the nature of English lessons, for example by giving them the choice what they want to read or allow them to bring the materials they want to work with in the classroom. Another point to be made about teaching young children is that teacher should make room for the shared classroom experiences because they are “an invaluable source of language work and create an atmosphere of involvement and togetherness” (Scott and Ytreberg 1990, 6). Most of us enjoy the feeling of belonging and this is particularly true of young children. Therefore, the students are not supposed to solve the classroom tasks only individually but pair work and group work should be included into English lessons as well. The students discover “the value of group cooperation”and learn how „to work as a team … or even in competition with the others” (Baudains 1990, 15) . Students learn from each other better and so, if they do not understand the first time, they will still be able to do the activity by watching the others (Scott and Ytreberg 1990, 23). Moreover, Collie and Slater see pair and group work as a means „of increasing learners´ confidence within the foreign language and also of personalising their contact with it”(1987, 9).
The foreign language cannot be taught as an isolated subject, it has to be thought of in terms of a whole child and his individual educational needs and interests. Without knowledge of a child’s various stages of cognitive, emotional, physical, social and language development and an ability to recognize these changes, it is difficult for a teacher to plan an effective program. When going through Jean Piaget´s book Psychologieinteligence one of the conclusions is that a teacher working with young children has to be flexible and adjust lesson plans in favour of children´ s development. For further information this book might be suggested as a helpful resource. Vygotský adds that it is through interaction in a social environment that learning and cognitive development of students take place. A sense of community in the classroom is one of the essentials. This means that children are encouraged by the teacher to cooperate, help and respect each other and are given the opportunities to respond in personal and divergent ways (Read 2003, 49). Teachers often complain that young children have difficulty in sitting still. Therefore, most activities for younger learners should “include movement and involve the senses”. Appealing to the pupils´ senses, for example when the activities are accompanied by jumping, clapping, moving hands, moving from one place to another will always help the pupils to learn more (Scott andYtreberg 1990, 5). For deeper studies of the physical development of a child and even more the book Psychologie pro u?itele by Jan ?áp would be useful to mention and recommend.
The length of time children can concentrate on doing one activity varies from child to child. Wendy Scott and LisbethYtreberg suggest that since concentration and attention spans of young children are short, “variety is a must – variety of activity, variety of pace, variety of organization, variety of voice” (1990, 5-6). Once children have lost interest in an activity, little or no more learning takes place. When preparing individual tasks not only variety and length are important but also the fact whether the tasks are challenging enough has to be considered. Carol Read says that the teacher has to “get the level of challenge right for children”. If the task is too easy, children will simply get bored and it will result in a restless classroom or discipline problems on the contrary, if it is too difficult children may become anxious and probably also disruptive (2003, 48). To conclude this subchapter, let us briefly summarize what to bear in mind when working with and preparing activities for young children. The tasks should be simple enough for the students to understand what is expected of them and should correspond with their abilities in order to be achievable. However, at the same time it should be sufficiently stimulating for them to feel satisfied with their work.
2.5. Criteria for a selection of the suitable fairy tale
The teacher’s choice concerning whether or not to use such literary text/fairy tale to be worked with has to be based on a judicious decision. Lazar suggests that if the classroom materials are thoughtfully chosen, the students “will feel that what they do in the classroom is relevant and meaningful to their lives” (1993, 15). It is essential to take students´ intellectual maturity, life experiences, emotions and interests into account. Collie and Slater agree with above and add that when reading a literary work the students have both “a linguistic and a cultural gap to bridge”. Therefore, in order to make the students understand and enjoy the text, it must not be too much above their normal reading proficiency (1987, 6). By linguistic difficulty we mean for example unfamiliar vocabulary. The text/fairy tale should include a reasonable number of new words in order not to make the students look up every other word in a dictionary which might discourage them as a consequence.
However, not only language features of the text are necessary to be taken into account. Collie and Slater claim that “interest, appeal and relevance” of the text are far more important and can lead students “to overcome enthusiastically linguistic obstacles” (1987, 6 – 7). Ur, Penny in the book A Course in Language Teaching says about the difficulties with the literary texts in the classroom following: “The problems of length, difficulty and alien content are very real ones” and she offers solution “by using only part of a long text or simplified and abbreviated versions” (1996, 202). Collie and Slater support the idea of simplified versions and say: “At earlier levels of proficiency, simplified texts may help initiate learners into extensive reading” and moreover it “may stimulate interest in literature as well as contributing to language improvement” (1987, 14). However, Brumfit and Carter arise a strong argument against these shortened fairy tales and say that they are „pale imitations of original writing, in thin, stilted language, lacking all the linguistic, emotional, and aesthetic qualities that characterize real literature” (1987, 212). Obviously, this may be true but when using fairy tales with young children the main focus is not on the appreciation of literature but it is the development of language that matters. And Ur, Penny adds: “I think that enough of the literary value of the original is preserved and that my students will get worthwhile learning from them (simplified or abbreviated versions)” (1996, 202). Another point to be made is whether or not the work with the text/fairy tale fit with syllabus. There should be coherence and continuity of the issues dealt with in the previous lessons „thematically” as well as from the language point of view in order to make the students feel that what they do in the classroom does make sense (Lazar 1993, 55). Similarly, the fact whether the chosen text provides a good potential for a variety of classroom activities such as dialogues or illustrations should be kept in mind. Children like all other people are individuals and have different tastes. It might be valuable for the teacher to find out pupils´ interests and preferences and let them participate in choosing literary text/fairy tale for the classroom work. Lazar suggest providing students with „a questionnaire designed to find out what … they would like to read in English…” (1993, 41).To conclude, regardless of the fact whether or not teacher is supposed to take all above mentioned criteria into account when selecting the suitable literary work, a support of students´ confidence has to be considered as well. If fairy tale is not beyond students´ abilities they experience the feeling of success which in turn motivates and helps to “build up self-esteem and also often positively influence both behavior and performance”in lessons (Read 2003, 48).
Inspiration for work with fairy tales
The aim of this subtheme is to show that the challenging classroom atmosphere and the creative teacher’s approach are also essential in order to support the students´ personal and language development. The responsibility for students´ success is, to a large extent, in hands of a teacher. Therefore, the teacher’s enthusiasm, commitment and interest in student’s needs as well as his creative approach are the aspects of teaching-learning process that matter as well. Teacher should keep searching for the ideas which may facilitate students´ learning.
Wendy Scott and LisbethYtreberg suggest that when the students are reading a fairy tale it is good to establish a routine which sets the mood. As a result the children will get the maximum benefit out of the reading experience. Rearrangement of the classroom setting or allowing the pupils to sit on the floor can make them feel more comfortable and relaxed and be “more open to what they are about to hear” (1990, 28).
Once children feel secure and content in the classroom, they can become “independent and adventurous in the learning of the language” (1990, 10). There are the concrete examples how to make supportive classroom environment and moreover, how to foster students´ love and appreciation of the target language literature. It is beneficial to build up a book corner in the classroom in order to strengthen students´ reading skills. The students can read the books on their own whenever they have time and find their favourite book there because young children “do not usually get tired of good simple stories” (1990, 55). The teacher can also challenge students to write their own fairy tales which may become an essential part of the class reading corner in a form of “pupil-made books” (1990, 63). Furthermore, to get the students excited and look forward to the next lesson teacher may leave the clues indicating what will happen next in the fairy tale on the notice board and encourage the students to write their guesses. Having print everywhere in the classroom whets children’s curiosity motivates them to more intensive reading and contributes to students´ enjoyment of the literature of the target language (Scott and Ytreberg 1990, 60).
When the students finish reading fairy tale the creation of „a collage” is one of the thought-provoking activities that besides checking students´ comprehension also stimulates their creativity and imagination. The poster may include pupils´ illustrations, interesting quotations from the fairy tales, the final moral or short reviews on what students think about the fairy tale. It works as a summary for students and valuable feedback for teacher (Scott and Ytreberg 1990, 80). Another inspiration for a teacher to make students more successful in learning
English is to encourage them to keep their own picture fairy – tale dictionary. Wendy Scott and LisbethYtreberg say: “Simple drawings or pictures with vocabulary collections are fun, easy to make and always useful reminders of the words”(1990, 76). In order to guide students in their reading Lazar in his book Literature and Language Teaching suggests to design language worksheets (1993, 186). See below an example of a worksheet the teacher can prepare for his pupils. However, the students have to be motivated because without their interest it would be useless. The notes about the fairy tale need not be long or too complicated. It is also a good idea to encourage students to compile their reading diary from the worksheets.
Summary on Chapter II
*In English lessons teachers tend to develop four skills: reading, writing, speaking and listening. These skills are often divided into two types. Receptive skills include reading and listening. It is very essential to start with pre-reading activity in order to set up a topic, to focus their attention in what they are going to read, activate students’ background knowledge of the topic (Reid, 2002; Harmer, 2007; Skopinskaya, 1996).Pre-reading activities involve students in reading a particular text short or long.
*Grammar can be introduced in a number of ways. There is a great opportunity of using a “real texts” to understand and experiment with a “real language”. Children have an innate sense of interest in stories that portray heroes, personify animals and actions, take place in castles and enchanted forests.
*One of the purposes of fairy tales is to entertain, so writers and tellers choose and use words with particular care to keep the audience interested. Fairy tales include unusual words, or words that have a strong phonological content, with interesting rhymes or sound that are onomatopoetic
*When children start learning English they have years and years of foreign language study ahead. In order to ensure that learning English in the early years is a motivating and valuable part of children’s education, it is essential to capture children’s enthusiasm right from the beginning and keep it by presenting the subject matter in the way which takes children’s special characteristic, needs and development level into consideration.
*The teacher’s choice concerning whether or not to use such literary text/fairy tale to be worked with has to be based on a judicious decision. Lazar suggests that if the classroom materials are thoughtfully chosen, the students “will feel that what they do in the classroom is relevant and meaningful to their lives” (1993, 15). It is essential to take students´ intellectual maturity, life experiences, emotions and interests into account. Collie and Slater agree with above and add that when reading a literary work the students have both “a linguistic and a cultural gap to bridge”.
Chapter III. Practical part
Pre Experimental Part
In order to do experiment over our qualification work I was at school and taught pupils. My goal was to compare pupil’s knowledge which I taught them without using fairy tales, with which I taught with using fairy tales. With this way I would prove effectiveness of teaching fairy tales in English lessons. I have chosen two classes, 5a and 5b. One of this class was my experimental group another is control. 5a was my experimental group. Firstly in order to check their ability and their knowledge I took them such kinds of tasks:
1. My mother’s sister is my……….
2. Parents of my father are my…….
3. Select the correct personal pronoun.
Helena gave a schedule of the club’s meetings.
4. Which of the following is a count noun?
5. Read the sentence:
Aron said, “i’m studying french, so i will be able to talk to my relatives from france.”
Which words need to be capitalized?
a. Aaron, I’m, French, I, France
b. Aaron, I, France
c. Aaron, I’m, I, France
d. Aaron, I’m, France, French
6. Which of the following sentences is correct?
a. “Does the music start at 4:00 or 4:30?” inquired Ms. Clark.
b. Does the music start at 4:00 or 4:30″ inquired Ms. Clark?
c. “Does the music start at 400 or 430?” inquired Ms. Clark.
d. “Does the music start at 4:00 or 4:30”? inquired Ms. Clark.
7. Which sentence uses commas correctly?
a. John Keats the great, English Romantic, poet said that “a thing of beauty is a joy forever.”
b. John Keats, the great English Romantic, poet said that “a thing of beauty is a joy forever.”
c. John Keats the great English Romantic poet, said that “a thing of beauty is a joy forever.”
d. John Keats, the great English Romantic poet, said that “a thing of beauty is a joy forever.”
8. What does the suffix “ing” mean?
a. past tense
b. action or process
c. full of
9. Which of the following sentences is correct?
a. Kelsey said I want to go to Aunt Joy’s for Thanksgiving.
b. Kelsey said, “i want to go to Aunt Joys for Thanksgiving.”
c. Kelsey said, “I want to go to Aunt Joy’s for Thanksgiving.”
d. Kelsey said “I want to go to Aunt Joys for Thanksgiving.”
10. What does the suffix “est” mean?
a. past tense
b. action or process
c. to compare
d. having a lot of something
11. Identify the adjective in the following sentence.
The rain was steady throughout the afternoon.
12. Which sentence uses capital letters correctly?
a. This afternoon, you and I will play basketball with Kathleen in pixley.
b. This afternoon, you and I will play basketball with Kathleen in Pixley.
c. This afternoon, you and i will play basketball with Kathleen in pixley.
d. This afternoon, you and I will play basketball with kathleen in pixley.
13. What does the prefix dis- mean?
a. not or opposite of
c. too much
d. earlier or before
14. What type of sentence is this?
The modern circus, developed in England, soon came to America.
15. What does “mis” mean in the words misplace and misread?
c. wrong or incorrect
After working this task it gave me such kind of result:
Class Questions Right answer Wrong answer
During Experimental part
While my teaching I taught pupils of 5a class with using interesting fairy tales. Initially my lessons were some uninteresting and little unintelligible for them, because until, they never learned fairy tales at the lesson that is why they couldn’t pass inside of my lesson. But, after the next lessons they ongoing very active. It was clearly seemed that they were thirst for knowledge. And I noticed their great interest and accepting new theme. Since I taught them with fairy tales I noticed that their speech, writing and reading skills in English and ability of listening were developed.
My control group which was 5b, I taught them simple, without using fairy tales and I noticed that they had low interest for the lesson. I have wanted to show you my several lesson plans which are I have used them during experimental work.
Date: The 23rd of October
Teacher: Maksatbek kyzy Aijarkyn
Time: 45 minute
The objective of the lesson:
By the end of the lesson pupils should be able to:
Educational aim: know about fairy tale Cinderella;
Practical aim: develop their language skills;
Cultural aim: educate pupils with advantages of Cinderella;
The outline of the lesson
Org. moment Time:
Warming up: 5min
1. class work- to get the gold with answering the questions
Checking up: 3min
1. individual work
Pre activity: 7min
1. class work- new words from the text Cinderella with transcription
1. class work- Teacher’s presentation. The video of Cinderella with subtitle
Post activity: 15min
1. individual work- to write own opinion in cards
2. class work- discussion over the video
3. group work- role play
Homework: to write own fairy tale 2min
The development of the lesson.
-How are you?
-How is your mood?
-Who is on duty today?
-Who is absent today?
What is the day today?
-What is the season is it now?
Class work- to get the gold with answering the questions
Do you like gold? If you want to get gold, you should answer the following questions. There are a lot of questions in the way of gold. If you can answer the question you can continue your way.
Feed me and I live yet, give me a drink and I die.
What am I?
What is the king of sport?
Take of my skin- I won’t cry, but you will, what am I?
I look at you, you look at me I raise my right, you raise your left. What is this object?
Class work- new words with transcription.
Step-mother- ???? ???
1. class work- teacher’ presentation
Look at the board all of you. Now I will show you a video of Cinderella with subtitle.
1. Individual work-to write own opinion in cards. I will distribute cards, and you should write it what you have understood from the video. What about this video?
2. Class work- discussion over the video. How do you think, was it interesting for you? Did you like the fairy tale? Which character did you like most than other?
3. Group work- role play. You should divide into two groups. And you will show us a role play after the question “what will you do if you were Cinderella”.
You should write your own fairy tale at home.
“5”, “4”, “3”.
Theme: Hansel and Gretel
Teacher: Maksatbek kyzy Aijarkyn
The objectives of the lesson:
By the end of the lesson pupils should be able to:
-educational aim: know about fairy tale ‘Hansel and Gretel’;
– practical aim: develop their language and speaking;
– cultural aim: reinforce their language;
Visual aids: wall paper, cards, pictures, slides.
The outline of the lesson
Org. moment. Time:
Warming up: 5m
1. class work: sing a song ‘weather song’ with slide.
Checking up: 5m
1. individual work:
1. class work: new words with riddles.
1. class work: read and translate the fairy tale. Discuss it.
To watch the video of ‘Hansel and Gretel’
1. group work: to write about good and bad sides of fairy tale;
2. individual work: answer the question which are in cards;
Home work: to make KWL chart 1m
Evaluation: ‘3’ ‘4’ ‘5’ 1m
The development of the lesson
– Good morning children?
– How are you, how is your mood?
– What is the day today?
– What is the date today?
– What is the season is it now?
– What is the weather like today?
– What is your favorite season?
– Who is on duty today?
– Who is absent today?
1. class work: ‘weather song’
As you say, you know more things about weather. Let sing a nice song about four season’s weather. You may sing it with watching slide, there is the text of song.
Checking up home work:
1. individual work:
1. class work: new words with riddles.
Poor p??- He has not much money, big house and nothing to eat. He is…?
Woodcutter w?dk?t?(r)- Tom’s father lived in the forest, he cuts woods in forest. Who is he?
Crumb kr?m- It is very little pieces of bread.
Candy k?ndi- We can eat it, it is very delicious and childs like it.
Cottage k?tid?- It is place of where we live inside of it. It will situated far from town.
1. class work: read and translate the fairy tale.
Now I will distribute you papers. There is one interesting story in paper. You should read it and translate. Is it interesting, have you understood? Of course, now you have question ‘where is at the end of the story?’. Yes, there is not at the end of story because you should finish it yourself.
Ok, well done, now look at the board and watch the full story.
1. group work: to write about good and bad sides of fairy tale.
Now, you should divide into two groups, that’s why you should say right and left. Who said ‘right’ will come right side of board, who said ‘left’ will come left side of board. There is wall paper on the board and you should write it advantages and disadvantages of story. How good and bad characters did you find from the story.
2. individual work: answer the questions.
I will give you cards. I wrote some questions from the text in cards. You should read it and answer.
You should make a KWL chart for the fairy tale ‘Hansel and Gretel’.
Everyone was active, thank you for your attention. It was pleasant for me, to work with you.
Theme: fairy tale ‘Rapunzel’
Teacher: Maksatbek kyzy Aijarkyn
The objectives of the lesson:
By the end of the lesson pupils should be able to:
educational aim: know about fairy tale ‘Rapunzel’;
practical aim: develop their knowledge and speaking skills;
cultural aim: treat yourself in good with fairy tale;
Visual aids: wall paper, cards, pictures, slides.
The outline of the lesson
Greeting: 2 min
Warming up: 5 min
class work: ‘time is money’
Checking up: 5 min
Pre-Activity: 7 min
1. class work: new words with pictures.
Activity: 10 min
1. class work: to draw picture of fairy tale with imagination. To watch the video of fairy tale.
Post-Activity: 15 min
1. group work: Venn diagram.
2. class work: game ‘throw the ball’.
Home work: Make up sentences using new words. 1 min
Evaluation: ‘3”4’ ‘5’. 1 min
– Good afternoon children?
– How are you, how is your mood?
– Who is on duty today?
– Who is absent today?
– What was your homework for today?
1. class work: ‘time is money’.
Pupils, now I want to check your logical and play game ‘time is money’. I think all of you like money. There are a lot of money on the board. There are logical questions in every money. Now you should choose one of number and take of that number, and answer the questions. Who collect much money.
1. class work.
1. class work: new words with pictures.
– witchwit?- ?????????
– herbh?:b- ???????
– towerta??(r)- ??????
– ladderl?d?(r)- ??????
– desertdez?t- ???
1. class work: to draw picture of fairy tale with imagination. To watch the video of fairy tale.
Now, I will tell you about fairy tale ‘Rapunzel’. Then you will divide into two groups and draw the picture of story of ‘Rapunzel’ with your imagination. After finish your picture you will watch the video of ‘ Rapunzel’.
There once lived a man and a woman who always wished for a child, but could not have one. These people had a little window at the back of their house from which a splendid garden could be seen. The garden was full of the most beautiful flowers and herbs. It was, however, surrounded by a high wall, and no one dared to go into it because it belonged to witch, who had great power and was feared by all the world.
One day the woman was standing by the window and looking down into the garden, when she saw a bed which was planted with the tastiest rapunzel. It looked so fresh and green that she longed for it and had the greatest desire to eat some. This desire increased every day. The woman knew that she could not get any of it and grew more pale and miserable each day.
Her husband was worried about her and asked “What is wrong my dear?”
“Ah,” she replied, “if I can’t eat some of the rapunzel from the garden behind our house I think I shall die.”
The man, who loved her, thought, “Sooner than let my lovely wife die, I will bring her some of the rapunzel myself, no matter what the cost.”
In the twilight of the evening, he climbed over the wall into the garden of the witch, hastily grabbed a handful of rapunzel and took it to his wife. She at once made herself a salad and ate it happily. She, however, liked it so much — so very much, that the next day she longed for it three times as much as before. If he was to have any rest, her husband must once more descend into the garden. In the gloom of evening, therefore, he set out again; but when he had climbed over the wall he was terribly afraid, for he saw the witch standing before him.
“How dare you,” she said with angry look, “sneak into my garden and steal my rapunzel like a thief? You shall suffer for this!”
“Ah,” the frightened husband answered, “please have mercy, I had to have the rapunzel. My wife saw it from the window and felt such a longing for it that she would have died if she had not got some to eat.”
Then the witch allowed her anger to be softened, and said to him, “If this is true, I will allow you to take as much as you like, only I make one condition. You must give me the baby daughter your wife will bring into the world; she shall be well treated, and I will care for it like a mother.” The man in his fear consented and when the baby was born the witch appeared at once, gave the child the name of Rapunzel and took the baby away with her.
1. group work: Venn diagram.
Now, two groups should make Venn diagram. You should compare fairy tale which is in your imagination with which is you watch from the video.
3. class work: game ‘throw the ball’
I have ball in my hand. And I will throw question to you with throwing the ball. You should throw it back to me with answering the question. Question are taken from the story.
Home work: At home you should learn by heart new words and make up sentences for them.
Evaluation: ‘4’ ‘5’.
After doing my experiment I supposed that fairy tales in really can help to develop pupil’s knowledge, they can help for appearance of their interest, they can made them sorcerer and sorceress, they can made them brave, wit, mental and beautiful. Because, when they learned fairy tale they accepted inside of fairy tale and involved with fairies, with characters who are in fairy tale. Then they wanted to be that, which they like that character and they tried.
“Soul of children is like a white paper, what we will write in paper it will leave there” that is why I think with teaching fairy tales I wrote children’s white paper only an excellent things. So with teaching fairy tales we can develop not only pupil’s knowledge but we can have an influence on their behavior, upbringing, nature, community and soul. Fairy tales allow pupils freedom and control to create new identities and interact with both the environment and other people in novel and surprising ways.
If we come back to role of fairy tales in teaching pupils, it is great and invaluable. After my experiment there was the big modification in education of my class: they could spoke in English better than ever without grammatical mistakes, they could accept new theme well. Then I decided in order to check their level of knowledge once more after my experiment, I took them such kind of tasks like in pre experiment:
1. ….. you at school last week?
a. Was b. Were c. Are
2. Give the book to….
a. her b. she c. hers
3. Flying is …. than driving.
a. the quicker b. quicker c. the quickest
4. They work …. night.
a. on b. at c. in
5. She was born twenty-five years … in a small village.
a. since b. before c. ago
6. If you are hot, you can take…. Your jacket.
a. off b. on c. away
7. Her hair …. lovely!
a. are b. is c. it’s
8. I have lost … pen, may I take ….?
a. mine/your b. your/your c. my/yours
9. Our large family consists … 8 people.
a. at b. on c. of
10. Give … the pen, please.
a. I b. she c. me
11. …. pupils are there in your class?
a. How many b. How much c. When
12. He usually gets up … half past seven.
a. in b. at c. on
13. My working day … 6 hours.
a. begins b. starts c. lasts
14. …. that man? – He is a doctor.
a. Who b. What c. Which
15. They can do it ….. .
a. ourselves b. myself c. themselves
And it gives me following result:
Class Questions Right answer Wrong answer
Wright answers wrong answers
Summary on the chapter III
*It was so interesting, so useful and so difficult for me to write experimental part of my qualification work. It was so interesting, because I worked together with children at school. It is interesting and unusual to communicate with every pupils in its own way.
*It was so useful, because in this chapter I learned to use the knowledge which I took it from theory (first and second chapters) in practice.
*It was so difficult, because it was difficult for me to appreciate soul of every pupil. But I won these difficulties. First day when I began my experimental work I put goal, and at the end of experiment can come to my goal.
* “Soul of children is like a white paper, what we will write in paper it will leave there” that is why I think with teaching fairy tales I wrote children’s white paper only an excellent things. After my experiment there was the big modification in education of my class: they could spoke in English better than ever without grammatical mistakes, they could accept new theme well.
As the conclusion of my work I can say that fairy tales are the best and an effective way in teaching English at the junior stage. Because to teach junior stage pupils in English is difficult. But with using fairy tales we make easier that difficulty. Because pupils, in this stage had very big desire to fantasy and imagination.
Reading fairy tales, always we plunge in their fantastic, magic and simultaneously such live and real world. Each fantastic image revives in imagination more brightly, than cinema or television shots. After all the fairy tale – perfect product of national spirit, is perfected centuries or even in the millennia. Any internal movement of a fairy tale, its any hero, any word in the offer set of times were weighed and verified before to become such with what we them see now. In a fairy tale there is nothing superfluous. All on the necessary, precisely driven place. And consequently the fairy tale is eternal. A fairy tale understands resolutely all. It free passes all language borders, from one people to another, and remains in a live kind in the millennia.
Fairy tales may contribute to the enrichment of a young reader’s knowledge a number of ways. They teach moral and values highlighting the most universal norms and standards of language existence. In addition to that, fairy tales are a particular type of text which can be adapted to suit the child’s age, whereas their composition of sentences and plot is simple and understand
While we are writing our qualification work we took a lot of information about fairy tales and teaching it in English language. Because we explored it ourselves. We explored definitions of fairy tales, by whom they were suggested, and we explored the history of fairy tales: the origin of fairy tales. And we knew the characteristics of fairy tales, it means that what rules consists fairy tale.
And the main point or the climax of my work, it is – fairy tales in teaching English or how we can use fairy tales in teaching English at the junior stage. We explored fairy tales in Teaching English Language Skills; fairy tales in Teaching Grammar; fairy tales in Teaching Vocabulary. To approve my first and second chapters, in third chapter I went school for experiment. At the result of experimental work to teach junior pupils with using fairy tales was effective way.
At the end as the conclusion I can say, I have learned that, if, how we can use or in which part we will use fairy tales, our teaching will be more effectively for learners. Also I want suggest for all teachers to use fairy tales while their teaching.
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