Citing

Citing & Referencing:
Har vard Style

5.10 Citing from multimedia works
5.11 Citing from an interview or personal communication
5.12 Tips on good quotation practice
6. How do I write a reference?
7. How do I write a reference list?
8. Example of a reference list
9. What is a bibliography?
10. How to write references for your reference list
and bibliography: Harvard style
11. Sources of further help

1.
What is referencing?
2. Why should I reference?
3. What should I reference?
4. What is a citation?
5. How do I write citations using the Harvard style?
5.1 Citing one author
5.2 Citing two or three authors
5.3 Citing four or more authors
5.4 Citing works by the same author written in the
same year
5.5 Citing from chapters written by different authors
5.6 Secondary referencing
5.7 Citing a direct quotation
5.8 Citing an image / illustration / table / diagram /
photograph / figure / picture
5.9 Citing from works with no obvious author
Contents
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04

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05
05 06
06
06

What is
referencing?
There are many styles that can be used for referencing. When you are given coursework
or dissertation guidelines, check which style of referencing your lecturer or department
asks you to use. If you don’t check, and you use a style that is not the one stated in
your guidelines, you could find you lose marks.
This guide introduces you to the Harvard referencing style, which uses an ‘author-date’
approach. If your lecturer or department does not ask you to use any particular style,
we would recommend using Harvard. It’s easy to learn, simple to use, and when you
get stuck, there is lots of advice available to help you out.
When you begin your research for any piece of work, it is important that you record the details
of all the information you find. You will need these details to provide accurate references, and
to enable you to locate the information again at a later date, should it be necessary to do so.
Section 6 of this guide will help you identify what information you need, regardless of which
referencing style you choose to use.
1. WHAT IS REFERENCING?
It is a method used to demonstrate to your readers that you have conducted a thorough
and appropriate literature search, and reading. Equally, referencing is an acknowledgement that
you have used the ideas and written material belonging to other authors in your own work.
As with all referencing styles, there are two parts: citing, and the reference list.
2. WHY SHOULD I REFERENCE?
Referencing is crucial to you to carry out successful research, and cruc
ial to your readers
so they can see how you did your research. Knowing why you need to reference means
you will understand why it is important that you know how to reference.
01

1. Accurate referencing is a key component of good academic practice and enhances
the presentation of your work: it shows that your writing is based on knowledge
and informed by appropriate academic reading.
2. You will ensure that anyone reading your work can trace the sources you have used in
the development of your work, and give you credit for your research efforts and quality.
3. If you do not acknowledge another person’s work or ideas, you could be accused
of plagiarism.
Plus your lecturers are very keen to see good reference lists. Impress them with the quality
of the information you use, and your references, and you will get even better marks.
3. WHAT SHOULD I REFERENCE?
You should include a reference for all the sources of information that you use when writing
or creating a piece of your own work.
4. WHAT IS A CITATION?
When you use another person’s work in your own work, either by referring to their ideas,
or by including a direct quotation, you must acknowledge this in the text of your work.
This acknowledgement is called a citation.
When you are using the Harvard style, your citation should include:
1. The author or editor of the cited work
2. The year of publication of the cited work
02
What is
referencing?

Using the
Harvard style
5. HOW DO I WRITE CITATIONS USING THE HARVARD STYLE?
There are a number of rules relating to citations depending on the number of authors of
a work, and if you are citing a quotation.
5.1 Citing one author
A recent study investigated the effectiveness of using Google Scholar to find medical
research (Henderson, 2005).
or
Henderson (2005) has investigated the effectiveness of Google Scholar in finding
medical research.
5.2 Citing two or three authors
If the work has two or three authors, include all names in your citation. For more than three
authors, see section 5.3.Recent research indicates that the number of duplicate papers being published is increasing
(Arrami & Garner, 2008).
Evidence shows that providing virtual laborator y exercises as well as practical laborator y
experience enhances the learning process (Barros, Read & Verdejo, 2008).
5.3 Citing four or more authors
If the work has four or more authors / editors the abbreviation ‘et al.’ should be used after
the first author’s name. It is also acceptable to use ‘et al.’ after the first author if the work
has three authors.
Social acceptance of carbon capture and storage is necessar y for
the introduction of technologies (van Alphen et al., 2007).
03

5.4 Citing works by the same author written in the same year
If you cite a new work which has the same author and was written in the same year as an earlier
citation, you must use a lower case letter after the date to differentiate between the works. Communication of science in the media has increasingly come under focus, particularly
where reporting of facts and research is inaccurate (Goldacre, 2008a; Goldacre, 2008b).
5.5 Citing from chapters written by different authors
Some books may contain chapters written by different authors. When citin
g work from such
a book, the author who wrote the chapter should be cited, not the edi
tor of the book.
5.6 Secondary referencing
Secondary references are when an author refers to another author’s work and the primary
source is not available. When citing such work the author of the primary source and the author
of the work it was cited in should be used.According to Colluzzi and Pappagallo (2005) as cited by Holding et al (2008) most
patients given opiates do not become addicted to such drugs.
You are advised that secondary referencing should be avoided wherever po
ssible and
you should always try to find the original work. If it is not poss
ible to obtain the original work
please note that you reference the secondary source not the primary reso
urce, only reference
the source that you have used.
5.7 Citing a direct quotation
If a direct quote from a book, article, etc., is used you must:
• Use single quotation marks (double quotation marks are usually used
for quoting direct speech).Using the
Harvard style
04

• State the page number
Simons, Menzies and Matthews (2001) state that the principle of effective stress
is ‘imperfectly known and understood by many practising engineers’ (p.4).
5.8 Citing an image / illustration / table / diagram / photograph / figure / picture
You should provide an in-text citation for any images, illustrations, photographs, diagrams, tables or
figures that you reproduce in your work, and provide a full reference as with any other type of work.
They should be treated as direct quotes in that the author(s) should be acknowledged
and page numbers shown; both in your text where the diagram is discussed or introduced,
and in the caption you write for it.
In-text citation:
Table illustrating checklist of information for common sources (Pears and Shields, 2008:p.22).
or
‘Geological map of the easternmost region of São Nicolau’ (Ramalho et al., 2010:p.532).
5.9 Citing from works with no obvious author
If you need to cite a piece of work which does not have an obvious author, you should use
what is called a ‘corporate’ author. For example, many online publications will not have
individually named authors, and in many cases the author will be an organisation or company.A national strateg y is creating a framework to drive improvements in dementia ser vices
(Department of Health, 2009).
If you are unable to find either a named or corporate author, you should use ‘Anon’ as the authorname.
Be careful: if you cannot find an author for online work, it is not a good idea to use this work as part of
your research. It is essential that you know where a piece of work has originated, because you need to
be sure of the quality and reliability of any information you use.
Using the
Harvard style
05

5.10 Citing from multimedia works
If you need to cite a multimedia work, you would usually use the title of the TV programme
(including online broadcasts) or video recording, or title of the film (whether on DVD or video) as
the author. If a video is posted on YouTube or other video-streaming services then you should
reference the person that uploaded the video (note this might be a username). Therefore, your
citation should use the title that you identify as the author.
5.11 Citing from an interview or personal communication
Always use the surname of the interviewee / practitioner as the author.
5.12 Tips on good quotation practice
Quotations longer than two lines should be inserted as a separate, indented paragraph.
Smith (2004) summarises the importance of mathematics to society and the knowledge
economy, stating that:’Mathematics provides a powerful universal language and intellectual toolkit for
abstraction, generalization and synthesis. It is the language of science and technolog y.
It enables us to probe the natural universe and to develop new technologies that have
helped us control and master our environment, and change societal expectations and
standards of living.’ (p.11)
or
A recent UK report summarised the importance of mathematics to society and the
knowledge economy, stating that: ‘Mathematics provides a powerful universal language and intellectual toolkit for
abstraction, generalization and synthesis. It is the language of science and technolog y.
It enables us to probe the natural universe and to develop new technologies that have
Using the
Harvard style
06

helped us control and master our environment, and change societal expectations and
standards of living.’ (Smith 2004: p.11)
If you want to insert a long quotation (over two lines) but do not to want include all of the
text, you can remove the unnecessary text and replace with ‘…’. As summarised by Smith (2004):’Mathematics provides a powerful universal language and intellectual toolkit for
abstraction, generalization and synthesis … It enables us to probe the natural
universe and to develop new technologies that have helped us control and master
our environment, and change societal expectations and standards of living.’ (p.11)
You should only do this when you use a quotation taken from one paragraph.
When you use quotations within your text, sometimes you may want to insert one or two
words in the quotation so that your complete sentence is grammatically correct. To indicate
that you have inserted words into a quotation, these have to be enclosed in s
quare brackets.
Smith (2004) provides a number of reasons as to why mathematics is important,
stating that it is:
‘a powerful universal language and intellectual toolkit for abstraction, generalization
and synthesis … and enables us to probe the natural universe and to develop new
technologies that have helped us control and master our environment, and change
societal expectations and standards of living.’ (p.11)
Writing skills: at your academic level you will be expected to develop your writing skills,
and this includes being able to discuss and demonstrate an understanding of other people’s
work and ideas in your own words. This is called paraphrasing. It is much better to paraphrase
than to use many quotations when you write.
Using the
Harvard style
07

How to
reference
6. HOW DO I WRITE A REFERENCE?
To write your own references you need different bits of information about each item that
you read when you are researching a piece of work. These bits of information are called
‘bibliographic’ information.
For all types of references the key bits of information you need to star
t with are:
1. Author or editor
2. Date of publication
/ broadcast / recording
3. Title of the item
This will form the basis of each reference you have to write. You may find that some items are not
as straightforward as others, so be aware of the following:
1. Author / editor: This means the primar y (main) person who produced the item you are
using. If you are using a website or web page, and there isn’t an author, you can use
what is called a ‘corporate author’. This will usually be the name of the organisation
or company to whom the website or web page belongs.
2. Date of publication / broadcast / recording: This means the date the item was produced.
It is usually a year, but if you are using a newspaper article, an email, or a television
recording, you will have to include a full date (day
/ month / year) in your reference.
3. Title of the item: This means the primar y (main) title of the item you are using. That sounds
ver y obvious, but have a look at a web page and tr y to work out what the main title is.
We would advise common sense in this situation – you have to identif y the key piece of
information that describes what you have used, and will allow the reader of your work to
identif y that information.
08

How to
reference
09
1. Primary author / editor2. Date of publication 3. Primary title of item
EmailName of the person who
wrote the email The full date the email
was sent: day
/ month / year Subject of the email. This
may include RE: or FWD:
Journal articleName of the person or persons
who wrote the article The year the journal issue was
published Title of the article (not the
title of the journal)
Newspaper articleName of the journalist, or
if there is no journalist name,
the name of the newspaperThe full date on which the
article was published:
day
/ month / year Title of the article (not the
title of the newspaper)
Website
This can be tricky. Use an
individual name if you can
find one, or the name of the
organisation or company to
whom the website belongs Usually the current year, the
year when the website was
last updated, or the latest
date next to the copyright
statement
/ symbol Title of the website
Web page
This can be tricky. Use an
individual name if you can
find one, or the name of the
organisation or company to
whom the website belongs Usually the current year, but
if the web page has a full date
of publication, you may also
need that: day / month / year
Title of the web page. You will
need to use the title of the
website if the web page doesn’t
have an individual title
TV broadcast
Title of the programme, or if 
the
programme is part of a  series,
use the series title The year the programme
was broadcast
Title of the programme
(it does not need to be written
twice if you used it as the
author information)
Personal interviewName of the person being
interviewedThe full date on which
the interview took place:
day
/ month / year No title needed
Book chapterName of the author of
the chapter
The year the book was
published Title of the book chapter
(not the title of the book)
The following table tells you about some of the variations you should look for when you are
collecting your reference information.

Depending on the type of material you want to reference you will also need other bits
of information, such as:
• Name of publisher
• Place of publication
• Page numbers
• Volume number
• Issue number
• URL (website or web page address)
• DOI (link for journal articles)
• Title of conference proceedings
• Report number
• Book or conference editor (if not your primar y author)
• Book or conference title (if not your primar y title)
• Journal title (the journal article title will be your primar y title)
• Date of access (for online material)
The more references you have to write, the more familiar you will be with what you need
to know. If you are unsure, check our guides, ask us, or check with your lecturers.
How to
reference
10

Writing a
reference list
7. HOW DO I WRITE A REFERENCE LIST?
This is your list of all the sources that have been cited in the assignment. The list is inclusive
showing books, journals, etc., listed in one list, not in separate lists according to source type.
• The list should be in alphabetical order by author / editor.
• Books, paper or electronic journal articles, etc., are written in a particular format
that must be followed.
• Your reference list contains all the items you have cited or directly quoted from.
• When you have used more than one piece of work by the same author, in your
reference list you should list the works in date order, beginning with the most
recently published work.
8. EXAMPLE OF A REFERENCE LIST
Arrami, M. ; Garner, H. (2008) A tale of two citations. Nature. 451 (7177), 397–399.
Barros, B., Read, T. ; Verdejo, M. F. (2008) Virtual collaborative experimentation: an approach
combining remote and local labs. IEEE Transactions on Education. 51 (2), 242–250. Available
from: doi:10.1109/TE.2007.908071 Accessed 29th June 2015.
Department of Health. (2009) Living well with dementia: a national dementia strategy. Available
from: www.gov.uk/government/publications/living-well-with-dementia-a-national-dementia-
strategy Accessed 4th June 2015.
Goldacre, B. (2008a) Dore – the media’s miracle cure for dyslexia. Bad Science. Weblog.
Available from: http://www.badscience.net/2008/05/dore-the-medias-miracle-cure-for-
dyslexia/#more-705 Accessed 19th June 2015.
11

Goldacre, B. (2008b) Trivial Disputes. Bad Science. Weblog. Available from:
http://www.badscience.net/2008/02/trivial-disputes-2/ Accessed 19th Jun
e 2015.
Henderson, J. (2005) Google Scholar: A source for clinicians? Canadian Medical Association
Journal. 172 (12), 1549–1550.
Holding, M. Y., Saulino, M. F., Overton, E. A., Kornbluth, I. D. & Freed
man, M. K. (2008)
Interventions in Chronic Pain Management. 1. Update on Important Definit
ions in Pain
Management. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89 (3, Supplement 1), S38–S40.
Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2008) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 3rd ed.
Durham, Pear Tree Books.
Ramalho, R., Helffrich, G., Schmidt, D.N. & Vance, D. (2010) Tracers o
f uplift and subsidence in
the Cape Verde archipelago. Journal of the Geological Society. 167 (3), 519–538. Available from:
doi:10.1144/0016-76492009-056 Accessed: 14th June 2015.
Simons, N. E., Menzies, B. & Matthews, M. (2001) A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope
Engineering. London, Thomas Telford Publishing. Available from: http://www.myilibra
ry.
com?ID=93941 Accessed 18th June 2015.
Smith, A. (2004) Making mathematics count: the report of Professor Adrian Smith’s inqu
iry
into post-14 mathematics education. London, The Stationery Office.
Van Alphen, K., Voorst, Q. V. T., Kekkert, M. P. ; Smits, R.E.H.M. (200
7) Societal acceptance
of carbon capture and storage technologies. Energy Policy. 35 (8), 4368–4380.
The layout for each type of publication can be found on the following pa
ges. If you are using
the bibliographic software RefWorks, you should use the ‘Imperial
College London – Harvard’
style which follows the same format as this guide.
Writing a
reference list
12

9. WHAT IS A BIBLIOGRAPHY?
There may be items which you have consulted for your work, but not cited. These can be listed
at the end of your assignment in a ‘bibliography’. These items should be listed in alphabetical
order by author and laid out in the same way as items in your reference list. If you can cite from
every work you consulted, you will only need a reference list. If you wish to show to your reader
(examiner) the unused research you carried out, the bibliography will show your extra effort.
Always check the guidance you are given for coursework, dissertations, etc., to find out if you are
expected to submit work with a reference list and a bibliography. If in doubt, ask your lecturer
or supervisor.
What is a
bibliography?
13

10. HOW TO WRITE REFERENCES FOR YOUR REFERENCE LIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY: HARVARD STYLE
Remember: Your lecturers consider accurate and consistent referencing to
be an important
part of your academic work. Always check your course guidelines so you k
now which style
of referencing to use, and always use the help guides especially if y
ou’re using a new style.
The examples on the following pages are in two parts:
• the information you should collect about each piece of work you use; and
• how this information is presented when you write a full reference.
If you cannot find the type of work you need to provide a reference for, please contact
your librarian for more help (see section 11).
Book: print
Author / Editor (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name)
(Year of publication)
Title (this should be in italics)
Series title and number (if part of a series)
Edition (if not the first edition)
Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named)
Publisher
Simons, N. E., Menzies, B. & Matthews, M. (2001) A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope
Engineering. London, Thomas Telford Publishing.
14
Layouts for your
reference list and
bibliography

Book: online / electronic
Author / Editor (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name)
(Year of publication)
Title (this should be in italics)
Edition (if not the first edition)
Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named)
Publisher
Available from: URL
Date of access
Simons, N. E., Menzies, B. & Matthews, M. (2001) A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope
Engineering. London, Thomas Telford Publishing. Available from: http://www.myilibrary.
com?ID=93941 Accessed 18th June 2015.
Book: chapter in an edited book
Author of the chapter
(Year of publication)
Title of chapter followed by In:
Editor (always put (ed.) after the name)
Title (this should be in italics)
Series title and number (if part of a series)
Edition (if not the first edition)
Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named)
Publisher
Page numbers (use ‘p.’ before a single page number and ‘pp.’ where ther
e are multiple pages)
Partridge, H. & Hallam, G. (2007) Evidence-based practice and information literacy. In: Lipu,
S., Williamson, K. & Lloyd, A. (eds.) Exploring methods in information literacy research.
Wagga Wagga, Australia, Centre for Information Studies, pp. 149–170.
15
Layouts for your
reference list and
bibliography

Journal article: print
Author
(Year of publication)
Title of journal article
Title of journal (this should be in italics)
Volume number
Issue number
Page numbers of the article (do not use ‘p’. before the page numbers)
Chhibber, P. K. & Majumdar, S. K. (1999) Foreign ownership and profitability: Property
rights, control, and the performance of firms in Indian industry. Journal of Law & Economics.
42 (1), 209–238.
Journal article: online / electronic
Most online articles will have a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and you should use this in your
reference. The DOI is a permanent identifier provided by publishers so that the article can always
be found. If there is no DOI then you should use the URL. Some lecturers will ask you to reference
an online journal article as a print article, so always check your coursework guidance.
To find the DOI, when you read an article online, check the article details as you will usually find
the DOI at the start of the article. For more help, contact your librarian.
If you read the article in a full-text database service, such as Factiva or EBSCO, and do not have
a DOI or direct URL to the article you should use the database URL.
Author
(Year of publication)
Title of journal article
Title of journal (this should be in italics)
16
Layouts for your
reference list and
bibliography

Volume number
Issue number
Page numbers of the article (do not use ‘p’. before the page numbers)
Available from: URL or DOI
Date of access
Arrami, M. & Garner, H. (2008) A tale of two citations. Nature. 451 (7177), 397–399. Available
from: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v451/n7177/full/451397a.html
Accessed
20th January 2015.
or
Wang, F., Maidment, G., Missenden, J. & Tozer, R. (2007) The novel use
of phase change
materials in refrigeration plant. Part 1: Experimental investigation. Applied Thermal
Engineering. 27 (17–18), 2893–2901. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.applthe
rmaleng.2005.06.011
Accessed 15th July 2015.
or
Read, B. (2008) Anti-cheating crusader vexes some professors. Chronicle of Higher Education.
54 (25). Available from: http://global.factiva.com/ Accessed 18th Jun
e 2015.
Note: articles published online may not have page numbers.
Pre-print journal articles
It is likely you will find articles available online prior to being subm
itted to the peer review
procedure and published in a journal. These articles are preprints and m
ay be placed in an
online repository or on a publisher’s website (but not in a specific
journal issue).
Author/s
(Year of writing)
Title of journal article
Submitted to / To be published in (if this information is with the article)
Title of journal (in italics)
17
Layouts for your
reference list and
bibliography

Name of repository (in italics)
Preprint
Available from: URL (if available)
Date of access
Silas, P., Yates, J.R. ; Haynes, P.D. (2008) Density-functional investigation of the rhombohedral
to simple cubic phase transition of arsenic. To be published in Physical Review B. Arxiv.
Preprint Available from: http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.1692. Accessed: 23rd July 2010.
In-text citation: (Silas, Yates ; Haynes, 2008)
Note: there will not be volume, issue or page numbers assigned to preprint articles.

Conference proceeding: individual paper
Author
(Year of publication)
Title of conference paper followed by, In:
Editor / Organisation (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name)
Title of conference proceeding (this should be in italics)
Place of publication
Publisher
Page numbers (use ‘p.’ before a single page number and ‘pp.’ where ther
e are multiple pages)
Wittke, M. (2006) Design, construction, supervision and long-term beha
viour of tunnels in
swelling rock. In: Van Cotthem, A., Charlier, R., Thimus, J.-F. and Tshi
bangu, J.-P. (eds.) Eurock
2006: Multiphysics coupling and long term behaviour in rock mechanics: P
roceedings of the
International Symposium of the International Society for Rock Mechanics,
EUROCK 2006, 9–12
May 2006, Liège, Belgium. London, Taylor ; Francis. pp. 211–216.
18
Layouts for your
reference list and
bibliography

Standard
Name of Standard Body / Institution
(Year of publication)
Standard number
Title (this should be in italics)
Place of publication
Publisher
British Standards Institution (2003) BS 5950–8:2003. Structural use of steelwork in building:
code of practice for fire resistant design. London, BSI.
Report
Author / Editor (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name)
(Year of publication)
Title (this should be in italics)
Organisation
Report number: followed by the number of the report (if part of a report series)
Leatherwood, S. (2001) Whales, dolphins, and porpoises of the western North Atlantic .
U.S. Dept. of Commerce. Report number: 63.
Map
Author (usually the organisation responsible for publishing the map)
(Year of publication)
Title (this should be in italics)
Scale
Series title and number (if part of a series)
Place of publication
Publisher
British Geological Survey. (1998) South London. 270, 1:50 000. London, British Geological Survey
19
Layouts for your
reference list and
bibliography

Web page / website
Author / Editor (use the corporate author if no individual author or editor is named)
(Year of publication) (if available; if there is no date, use the abbreviation n.d.)
Title (this should be in italics)
Available from: URL
Date of access
European Space Agency. (2015) Rosetta: rendezvous with a comet. Available from:
http://rosetta.esa.int Accessed 15th June 2015.
Email: personal
Personal emails should be referenced as personal communication, unless y
ou have
permission from the sender and receiver to include their details in y
our reference list.
Sender
(Year of communication)
Email sent to
Name of receiver
Date and month of communication
Harrison, R. (2014) Email sent to Mimi Weiss Johnson, 10th June.
Personal communication
Name of practitioner
Occupation
(Personal communication, followed by the date when the information was provided)
Law, James. Engineering consultant. (Personal communication, 26th April
2014).
20
Layouts for your
reference list and
bibliography

Lecture / presentation
Name of lecturer / presenter
(Year of lecture / presentation)
Title of lecture / presentation (this should be in italics)
Lecture / Presentation
Title of module / degree course (if appropriate)
Name of institution or location
Date of lecture / presentation (day month)
Wagner, G. (2006) Structural and functional studies of protein interactions in gene expres
sion .
Lecture Imperial College London, 12th December.
11. SOURCES OF FURTHER HELP
For more referencing examples:
www.imperial.ac.uk/admin-services/library/learning-support/reference-management
Want to use reference management software?
The Library recommends RefWorks for undergraduate and Master’s students, and EndNote
for postgraduate research students and staff. For information and training workshops:
www.imperial.ac.uk/admin-services/library/learning-support/reference-management
To contact your librarian for more advice:
www.imperial.ac.uk/admin-services/library/subject-support
Sources of
further help
21

CONTACT US
www.imperial.ac.uk/library
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@imperiallibrary
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August 2016