Child maltreatment is a major issue and concern that can happen in any family or at the other places such as: Injury to a child from others on purpose, Neglect, Abuse and Child maltreatment. There are number of definitions of child abuse such as when whoever takes care of a child, hurt them deliberately and in anger not accidently. The definition provided by the world health organisation is that child abuse constitutes all forms of physical, emotional, sexual and neglect which causes physical and potential harm to the children health, further development, surviving in their lives (Hirschy, & Wilkinson,2010). Abuse can happen to different children at different time and it can mean different to children such as: Some children are hurt from the others, neglect from the others and are used by the other children and the adults.
The World Health Organisation or WHO (2012) defines asthma as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. The chronic inflammation is an exaggerated airway-narrowing response to triggers, such as allergens and exercise, that leads to recurrent symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and coughing. Symptom episodes are generally associated with widespread, but variable, airflow obstruction within the lungs that is usually reversible either spontaneously or with appropriate asthma treatment.
Brown and Edwards (2012) write that wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness and cough are the most common clinical manifestations of asthma. They can occur especially at night and in the early morning and can vary from person to person. It is not necessary to have all the symptoms at once as different symptoms can occur at different times. According to NACA (2006) frequent cough, feeling weak, wheezing after exercise, shortness of breath and sleeping difficulties can be early signs of asthma while severe wheezing, continuous cough, rapid breathing, anxiety, chest pain, blue lips and fingernails are the symptoms of severe asthma attacks.
childhood abuse can led to adverse adult health outcomes and it can cause them to suffer long term and short term aliments such as stress, brain injury and speech difficulties (Reeve, & Van Gool, 2013). Childhood abuse is a serious problem which effects socially and economically. Each year there are 17,000 cases of physical and sexual abuses cases in Australia. Child health causes long term and short term health problems such a child who has suffered from abuse can develop the health problem such as: brain injury, depression, spinal cord injuries and speech difficulties. Child abuses causes long lasting welfare and economic costs as well (Reeve & van Gool, 2013).
In the Aboriginal families the reason that has caused the child abuse are many and the situation of the family and outside that they have to face have caused the child abusive environment. Family members have faced the situations such as Loss of parental and role model, low self-esteem, poverty, unemployment, limited access to societal resources and services and emotionally damaged family members (Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2002).
Emotional abuse: when child suffers any kind of emotional deprivation or trauma act by a person who is taking care of a child. Physical abuse: this is an act by a person to the child which happens deliberately and it is non-accidental. Neglect: Person who is taking care of a child is unable or not providing conditions and requirements that are essential for the healthy physical and emotional development and bright future of a child. Sexual abuse: when a child is exposed into an involvement into the sexual process beyond their understanding or against to accepted community standards (“Australian Institute of Family Studies” 2013). The notification of the cases to child protection service has been increased according to the data since 2011-2012(“Australian Institute of Family Studies Child abuse and neglect statistics”, 2017).
To recognise the abuses we need to be aware of the child’s behaviour, eating habits and socialising with the other children. The mandatory reporter guides the mandatory reporters to recognise the abuse and whether to report it or not to the child protection helpline (“NSW Dept. Premier & Cabinet”, 2010). Educator can help families by creating supportive environment to prevent children from abuse by keeping open communication with the parents about the issue we can all together build a healthy policy to support and prevent children (World Health Organisation, 1986).
We as an educators all can stop this happening by applying and acting on Ottawa Charter principles and actions such as Creating supportive environment and helping the families and children how to help each other to save the Aboriginal community (World Health Organisation, 1986). Early childhood educators are the mandatory reporters who has a legal obligation to report if there is any concern and issue related to child abuse. If an abuse is noticed the mandatory reporter have the right to report it to the child protection unit. We as an educators and the mandatory reporters need to recognise the abuse and the issue happened in family. Neglect and physical abuse is the most common abuses that occurs in family (Hirschy, ; Wilkinson, 2010).
Children are our future and they need to be safe. We are committed to protect children and young people from the risk of harm and abuse and keep their safety and wellbeing secure in future. People who have suffered from abuse such as Aboriginal children in childhood they often struggle with their physical and psychological health. Child abuse happens under the age of 18 and it is the mistreatment that happens to a person from others (The Children and Young Persons (Care and Protection) Act 1998, 1998).
They often do not know what to say and do. Blue not foundation helps and empowers them to heal their wounds and support them around. It build resilience and empower recovery for 1 in 4 adults who have suffered trauma in childhood (“The Blue Knot Foundation and all its resources”, 2017).
Let’s save the children from abuse as human beings and act on the principle and actions of Ottawa Charters of ” moving into the future” and help Aboriginal children and all the children from facing the abusive environment (World Health Organisation, 1986).
The recent data collected from the AIHW indicates that in 2015-16 225,487 Australian children have suspected from being at risk of harm of child abuse or neglect. 355,925 notifications have been issued by state and territory authorities. It has increased 11.2% from the 320,169 reports in pervious year (Australian Institute of Family Studies. 2013). According to data collected 5 to 10% are girls and up to 5% are boys who have been exposed to sexual abuse. Girls and boys who are sexually abused are toddlers and even babies (Child Sexual Assault: Facts and Statistics, 2015). In Aboriginal children the young children who are facing abusive environment are vulnerable and they are over represented in child protection statistics and related deaths (cooke, 2014).
Asthma has two types of effects and triggers it can happens by allergic reactions and non-allergic reactions.
Allergic triggers are:
• Mould, Certain food, Pollen, Dust mites, Animal dander
The non allergic triggers are:
• Air pollution, Exercise, Infections, Occupational irritations, Medications etc.
There are some ways to treat asthma. People who had asthma they need to avoid the triggers as much as they can such as Mould, certain foods, pollens, dust mites and animal dander and if they are in contact with them they need to use their medicine prescribed by the doctors.
Ignatavicius and Workman (2010) write that pulmonary function tests (PFTs), usually using spirometry, are the most accurate tests that can be performed to diagnose asthma. According to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (2012) this test measures how much air the patient can breathe in and out as well as how fast the patient can exhale it. Christensen and Kockrow (2011) add that PFTs determine the reversibility of bronchoconstriction which helps to diagnose asthma.
Inhaler is one of the most common medicine and a way to stop the asthma and it effects in 5-10 minutes and it is a rescue and quick relief medicine. People need to carry inhaler with them all the time who they get infected easily with the triggers. Inhaled corticosteroids: are the inhales for the people to inhale and these are prescribed most commonly by the doctors as they have low risk chances of side effects.
Christensen and Kockrow (2011) write that maintenance drugs aim to prevent and minimize asthma’s symptoms but need to be taken regularly. Leukotriene modifiers: these are the medicine and sometime that have side effects in them which called adverse and psychological side effects. Theophylline: these are the kind of medicine that relax the airways however they are not very common and are prescribed by the doctors very commonly. Long-acting beta agonists: these are the type of medicine that reduces inflammation in the airways. Ignatavicius and Workman (2010) describe that patients also need to be educated to have adequate rest and sleep, proper nutrition and fluid intake.
Overall the emotional abuse was the most common child abuse in Australia during 2015-16 and it is counted as 45% overall substantiations. Neglect was the second common child maltreatment in Australia in 2015-16 and is counted as 24.9% in overall substantiations.The physical abuse was the third child maltreatment is counted as 18.3% and sexual abuse was the fourth child maltreatment in 2015-16 and it is 12.2% in Australia (The Children and Young Persons (The Children and Young Persons (Care and Protection) Act 1998, 1998).
All families and cultures have different beliefs and it is important for the families to make sure and be aware of their culture and biases. Family importance comes at first. Child abuse can happen anywhere in any family, it is not based on the education, culture and economic status etc. Families are responsible to take care of their children and protect them from harm, however it is the responsibility of the whole community to protect children from this sensitive issue of child abuse. Families and educators can work together and ‘ build healthy policy’ as stated in World Health Organisation (1986) to save Aboriginal children and the other children from abuse and save their life.
In conclusion asthma can be described as a chronic respiratory condition which can be identified by breathing difficulty, wheezing, cough and chest tightness. Narrowing and swelling of the airways and increased mucus production are the major episodes looked for to establish an asthma condition. Physical examinations, pulmonary function tests, blood tests and chest X-rays are also used to determine asthma. The medications used to manage asthma long term are symptom preventers and symptom controllers. Symptom reliever medications are used for the immediate control of its symptoms. Inhalation or ingestion of allergens and pollutants, exposure to cold weather, exercises, infections and occupational factors such as dust and chemicals can be considered asthma’s risk factors, and healthcare professionals need to provide client education in order to prevent and minimize asthma attacks.