Charles Robert Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, the biologist, the psychologists, philosophist, pioneer of evolutionism who put forward the doctrine of biological evolution, which destroys all kinds of idealistic theology and species invariance.
Long before Darwin, many scientists expressed themselves on the a gradual and continuous change in all species of plants and animals, but it was Darwin who put forward a completely new hypothesis regarding living nature, generalizing individual evolutionary ideas into one, the so-called theory of evolution, which was the most widely spread in the world.
Darwin suggested that in competition among animal populations, only those will survive that have properties of benefits under given specific conditions, allowing producing offspring as well. His theory is based on three principles: a) heredity and variability; b) the struggle for existence; c) natural selection.
Variability is an inalienable attribute of all living things. Despite the similarity of living organisms of the same species, two completely identical individuals cannot be found within the population. This variation of features and properties creates the advantage of some organisms over others.
A certain variability, or adaptive modification, is the ability of individuals of one species to react in an identical way to changes in the environment. Such group changes are not inherited, so they can not supply material for evolution..
The core principle of natural selection has the following implications: Organisms have a tendency to overproduce while living space and food are limited, so that creatures must “fight for survival.” Variants exist in individuals within the same population, and individuals with favorable variations that adapt to the environment will survive and multiply offspring, while individuals without favorable variability will be eliminated. His natural selection principle is based on the prevailing “amalgamation genetic” hypothesis at that time

Evolutionary model: due to the immutability and persistence of the driving forces, the natural laws that created all living things are still in force today. As a derivative of their actions, evolution is happening and haunt her. The problem is that most scientists adhere to Darwin’s theory, but cannot explain how the universe was created and why life was born. The basic principles of the theory of evolution by themselves do not explain neither the diversity of species, nor their monotony; nor the complication or simplification of organisms. In the end, everything is determined by the given initial conditions. You can shed light on the question of why in a favorable environment should be mammals, but what is attributed to the emergence of this environment? How can we explain why, in conditions that combine the presence of sea water, saturated with carbon dioxide of air and sunlight, all the diversity of life was born?

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The second author of the theory of natural selection, A. R. Wallace (1823 – 1913), did not dare to apply it to a person at all, without finding an explanation for such properties as “the ability to comprehend the ideas of space and time, eternity and infinity, the ability to deep aesthetic pleasure certain combinations of shapes and colors. Finally, the ability to abstract concepts about shapes and numbers generating mathematical Sciences. How could one or the other of these abilities begin to develop, if they could not bring any benefit to man in his original, barbaric state?”. Wallace suggested that human evolution was guided by”the Supreme intelligent being, just as we guide the development of domestic animals and plants.” Ladder of living beings from the base to the top of the steps was erected of any power by force, preferring not to advertise their intentions.


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