CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1

CHAPTER 1
Introduction
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Mirpur is a city of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The city is at an elevation level 459 meters above the sea level and the total area of the city is 1010 km squares and shares 7.9 % of the area of the whole state. Mirpur lies on 33.1491o N latitude and 73.7534oE longitude.

It is 134 kms from the capital of Pakistan (Islamabad) and 190 kms from the capital of the province Punjab i.e. Lahore via Dina through Grand Trunk Road. The city is further connected to Bhimber (49kms) and Kotli (99 kms) districts of AJK. District Mirpur is bounded by District Kotli in the north and east, by Photohar in the west and district Bhimber in the south.

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In the district there fall two sub divisions:
Mirpur
Dadyal
Having 176 and 76 villages respectively and further these 246 villages have 18 union councils.

Figure 1.1 Map of Mirpur AJk

Figure 1.2 Chowk Shaeedan Mirpur
1.1.2 Climatic Information The climate of the region is hot and dry mostly like the neighboring areas like Jehlum and Gujrat. The average temperature is 27.4 o C with the annual average rain fall of 109 mm. In summer the temperature reaches up to 40 oC and falls to 6 oC in winters. During the monsoons season district Mirpur experiences maximum rainfall in month of July and august and average of 154mm of rainfall is recorded that is the highest of the rainfall throughout the year.

1.2 Importance of Water
Water is essential component for life. Without water one cannot even imagine life on earth.70% of the earth consists of water in different forms like oceans, rivers, springs etc. and 30% exist as land. Water is being used in all manners. Without the presence of water, it is impossible for all living things to sustain their lives on earth. Even in the Holy Quran ALLAH say:
“From water We have created all living things.” (AL QURAN)

Figure 1.3
Water is present in the form of oceasons,glaciers in the form of fresh water springs as well as enters the system by means of the hydrologic cycle. The hydrologic cycle is shown below in the figure It involves evaporation,condensation,precipitation,infiltration or runoff generation.hence the hydrological cycle is explained in the below figure

Figure 1.3 Hydrological cycle
Work to be done:
The project involves testing the physical,chemical and biological characteristics of water including pH,chemical contamination and also the Ecoli test.

Samples are collected as per WHO standards and ,the biological testing us conducted on the source from where the water samples are being taken.Water samples are then collected and the bottles are made airtight so that anyother contamination may not cause ant problem,that can be a source of erroe for the result.
1.4 Sources of Contaminations:
There can be many sources of contamination in water such as runoff generated by deicing agents or by the seepage of the nutrients from the chemical fertilizers. That join the groundwater table.in the District Mirpur water used for drinking purposes is mainly provided by Water Supply Department to fulfill the demand tube wells as well as boring has also been done. The water is then supplied by pipelines, one source of contamination can be the exposure of bacteria that result in various waterborne diseases, other can be the seepage of chemical or biological contamination that joins the groundwater table and results in contamination. Hence it is very important to analyze the quality of the water being used for drinking. Water samples were collected from Khari shreef, Mirpur city, Pulmanda, Jatlan, Chaksawari,dadyal and Islamgarh.

1.5 Purpose of the Project:
1) The aim of the project verify if the quality of water is according to the WHO standards.

2) To examine the type of contamination in the water and its possible causes.

3) To protect and maintain the quality of water in nature and artificial resource.

4) To provide awareness in public and health related departments.

1.6 Research Phases
Pre-field work
Study literature
Select methods of analysis
Prepare a framework
During Field Work
Collecting of samples according to the WHO standard
To identify point and non-point sources of water contamination.

To ensure the sample is completely air tight.

Post field Work
To determine the results of the testing
Comparing obtained data with WHO standards
To make stake holders aware of the results.

Readers’ Comments

CHAPTER NO.2
Literature review
2.1 Introduction :
The place around us in which we live is our environment. Human beings share the environment with other animals and living things. Due to the increased industrial revolution the environment is getting polluted. The pollution has adverse effects on the health of human beings as well as on other living things. According to the American Natives:
“We don’t inherit our environment from our elder, but we lend it from our future generations.

It is our duty to protect the environment.

2.2 Water distribution:
Water is present in abundant quantity on the surface of earth. More than 75 % of the earth crust is water and rest of it is the land. The land also contains water in the form of aquifers and Ground water. However, the fresh water that can be used as drinking water only exists as 2.5%. Following figure indicates the various sources of water and the distribution of these sources.

.

Figure 2.1 Distribution of water.

Water is the main element that is responsible for life. In the Holy Quran Allah says:
“We have created Man from drops of Water”
70% of the human body consists of water. The lack of water or presence of unhealthy water for drinking can cause negative effects on the health of human beings. Dirty, polluted or contaminated water produced because of point source pollution or non-point pollution can result in the production of water borne diseases.

Within the ecosystem the place in which a specified specie lives are called the habitat.

Figure 2.2 Habitat
2.3 Ecosystem:
The ecosystem is defined as the environment in which organisms live and interact with each other.

2.4 Environmental Pollution:
The addition of such agents that can cause adverse effects on the health of humans and are not fit for the environment cause Pollution. Environmental Pollution is the biggest threat to the humans now days. The pollution can be of various types causing adverse effects on the humans as well as the ecosystem.
Figure 2.3 water pollution
There are many types of environmental pollution.

Land/Soil pollution
Air pollution
Water pollution
Noise pollution
2.5 Types of Contamination in Water:
The common type of contamination in water are 3 types
Physical Contamination
Chemical Contamination
Biological Contamination.

The physical contamination involves the physical things that can be seen with naked eyes, turbidity of water describes the physical contamination.

The chemical contamination can be because of various concentrations of chemicals that may be present in water greater than the amount that are recommended by the WHO standards.

Biological Contamination of water involves the presence of E. coli. E. coli is a type pf biological contamination present in water. The root cause of the biological contamination in water is mixing of the sewer water with the ground water. The type of contamination is most important to consider. E. coli testing is also involved in our scope. Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms.

Figure 2.4 E. coli
E. coli is the cause of many fatal diseases like:
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
Diarrhea
Meningitis
Pneumonia
Cholecystitis
Bacteremia
And many other types of bacterial infections .So it is very important factor to consider while testing the water quality for portable water .The presence of such type of contamination is a serious point of concern and it is the responsibility of the concerning authorities to mitigate the type of bacterial contamination that can cause serious effects and put the life of many important and valuable life’s at stake.

2.6 Characteristics of water:
Water has the following characteristics
Physical characteristics
Chemical characteristics
Biological characteristics.
2.6.1 Physical Characteristics of water:
The physical properties of water involve the color, odor, taste and the turbidity of water.

2.6.1.1 Color
Pure water is colorless and has no color. But it is not a parameter in the identification of the drinking characteristics of water. There are good chances that the water that has some color due to many reasons can be fit for drinking but the water that is color less may contain contamination either chemical or biological that causes the water to become unfit for drinking. The turbidity of water is checked by means of Spectro direct or by means of turbidity meter. The turbidity is measured in NTU. NTU stands for NEPHOLMETRIC TURBIDITY UNIT. The device passes ray of light through the water sample and the light scattered by the particles present in water is captured at the other end. By comparing the light at 90 degrees and the scattered light the “Turbidity” is determined.

2.6.1.2 Temperature
Measure of hotness and coldness of any body is called Temperature. The temperature of streams and rivers varies from 0 to 35 degrees centigrade. The temperature of water in different regions may vary depending upon the condition of the environment. In hot and humid places, the temperature may be different and in the cold places like the northern hemisphere of the earth the temperature of the water bodies may be different as the environment is cold. The temperature of the normal conditions is described as it is above.

Fig 2.4 lake
2.6.1.3 Taste and odor
Pure water is colorless and odorless. However organic matter can cause the water to have a taste or odor. The failing leaves can be a source or any other type of chemical as well as biological contamination can be a cause of the taste in water. The primary sources of taste and odor problems in drinking water are algae and bacteria. However, other anthropogenic sources such as wastewater discharges and chemical spills also act as sources of chemicals that cause off tastes and odors. Such chemicals can affect both groundwater and surface water. In most cases drinking water that has a strong rotten egg odor, although particularly unpleasant, is perfectly safe to drink. However, in some rare occasions the odor may be caused by sewage or other contaminates in a building’s water supply, which could cause health problems. Threshold Odor Numbers are whole numbers that indicate how many dilutions it takes to produce odor-free water. As described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, the test involves two steps. Step one is used to determine the range of dilutions for the final test. Add the following amounts of sample water to four 500 mL flasks: 200 mL, 50 mL, 12 mL, and 2.8 mL. Add enough odor-free water to the flasks to create a total volume of 200 mL. Also, prepare another flask filled with only odor-free water. Heat the flasks to 40-60?C and shake. Smell each flask, starting with the odor-free water, then proceeding from lowest to highest concentration of sample water. Prepare flasks for the final test according to the volume of sample in the jar that first has a detectable odor. 2.8 mL ? Intermediate dilution 12 mL ? 12 mL, 8.3 mL, 5.7 mL, 4.0 mL, and 2.8 mL 50 mL ? 50 mL, 35 mL, 25 mL, 17 mL, and 12 mL 200 mL ? 200 mL, 140 mL, 100 mL, 70 mL, and 50 mL Add the amounts of sample water indicated to five 500 mL flasks. Next, add odor-free water to bring each flask to a total volume of 200 mL. Include two blanks (flasks with 200 mL of odor-free water) in the series of samples near the expected threshold for a total of seven samples. Have a group of testers smell each flask, beginning with the smallest concentration of sample water. Record the volume of sample water in the first flask an odor is detected by each tester. Compute the TON using this equation:
Threshold Number = (A+B)/A
Here A is the sample to be tested and ‘B’ is the volume of porewater used for dilution. Thus, if 00 ml sample is diluted with 100 mL of odor free water and odor is just detectable n the resultant sample, the TON is 2. Ideally the TON should be 1
2.6.1.4 Turbidity
The degree of cloudiness or haziness of water is called turbidity. The turbidity is measured in terms of Nephelometric units NTU. The device used to measure turbidity is called Nephelometer. In the device the test sample that is clear is 1st placed the device contains a bulb that causes light to pass through the sample placed at 90 degrees, Then the light through the turbid sample is observed, the comparison of both causes the turbidity of the water to be determined. The WHO standard provides that the turbidity should be less than 5 NTU.

Fig 2.5 turbidity samples
The term turbidity is related with the physical appearance of water and it has nothing to do with the drinking characteristics of water. A water sample that appears to be cleared having less value of turbidity as per the standards of WHO which is less than 5NTU does not make sure that the water is safe for drinking it may be more appealing but the drinking characteristics may not be as per WHO standard egg the arsenic is a cancer causing agent and has no color and smell as well as no taste.so if arsenic contamination is present in water then it would be unfit for drinking even if the sample of water had a NTU value equal to 1.

Figure 2.6 Turbidity Meter
Turbidity can be measured directly with a turbidity meter/sensor, or indirectly with a secchi disc/tube.

Turbidity is caused due to the presence of any colored substance in water even different organisms impart color to the water e.g. plankton imparts green color and algae may produce yellow or reddish green color in water, soil sediments present in water may produce reddish brown color in water. However, World health organization’s guidelines for drinking water in 2004 have set a standard of value should be less than 5 NTU and ideally the value of the turbidity of water should be somewhat around 1 NTU the same values have been set as a standard as per WHO standards for turbid water in Pakistan.

Figure 2.7 Turbid water due to grains of soil
2.6.1.5 PH of water
The negative log of hydrogen ion or hydroxide ions give the value of the pH of water. The pH for safe water should be ranging from about 6.5 to 8. The pH can be calculated by means of a litmus paper and by comparing it to a pH paper, or by means of a pH meter. It measures the pH, temperature and even the dissolved solids that are present in water.

Fig 2.8 PH Paper
2.7 Biological Properties of Water
Water is considered as the best solvent due to the HOH bond. Water has a cohesive and an adhesive behavior. Water may contain bacteria in it as well. Risk analysis has is used for the E. coli determination Escherichia coli, commonly called E. coli, is one of the most common species of coliform bacteria. It is a normal component of the large intestines in humans and other warm-blooded animals. It is found in human sewage in high numbers. E. coli is used as an indicator organism because it is easily cultured, and its presence in water in defined amounts indicates that sewage MAY be present. If sewage is present in water, disease-causing bacteria may also be present.

2.8 Chemical Contaminants in Water

Figure 2.9 Chemical testing in lab
2.8.1 Aluminum:
Aluminum can be present in water in a variety of forms, e.g. in case of Acid rain or many other natural processes can cause the aluminum presence in water. Aluminum reacts with water to form a thin layer of peroxide and this layer prevents water to react with the metals hence aluminum panels do not get rusted. AL can be present in the form of peroxides or in the form of polymers of Aluminum. The presence of Al in water can vary depending upon various chemical as well as biological factors. The quantity of Al in a water of pH having 7 that is totally neutral can be in a range 0.001 to 0.05 mg/l and the range for water that has a value of pH greater less than 7 that means the water being acidic in nature and has the value of aluminum to be0.5-1mg/lying case of high acidic water emissions from various sources the concentration of Aluminum is to be recorded as up to 90 mg/l as per WHO standards. In Pakistan the range has been described to be 0.2 mg/l.

2.8.2 Hardness
The hardness in water is mainly due to the presence of carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium, hardness can cause high use of soap can cause clogging in pipes. However, there are two types of harness that is temporary hardness and permanent hardiness the temporary hardness is more likely to be caused by the carbonates and bi carbonates and it is easy to remove by means of boiling however the permanent hardness is caused by the non-carbonates and it is very difficult to break down because of it being complex. Water encounter’s the calcium and magnesium when it flows through minerals most commonly limestone is the cause of hardness in water Since the hardness enters in such manner hence the ground water has greater hardness then the surface water.

Fig 2.92.8.3 Chlorides
The chlorides are mostly found in water in the form chlorides of the Alkali metals of sodium chloride, potassium chloride and in the form of calcium chloride. The quantity of the chloride that is an anion meaning negatively charged depends upon the quantity of the oppositely charged cations which in most of the case are the alkali metals .The chlorides of the alkali metals are used for a variety of reasons e.g. mostly as the deicing agents or in the production of the fertilizers case of rains the runoff is generated that causes the chlorides which are highly mobile to enter various basins. Chloride occurs naturally in foodstuffs at levels normally less than 0.36 mg/g. An average intake of 100 mg/day has been reported when a salt-free diet is consumed. However, the addition of salt during processing, cooking, or eating can markedly increase the chloride level in food, resulting in an average dietary intake of 6 g/day, which may rise to 12 g/day in some. The chlorides can also get added to water during the treatment process where chlorine is used as a cleaning agent. however, it should have a concentration less than 250 mg/l as fixed by WHO for Pakistani standard
2.8.4 Arsenic
Arsenic is a metal resembling substance and is it proves to be very fatal if high concentrations of the metal are found in the drinking water. High quantity of Arsenic present in the drinking water can result adverse effects on the health of human body. Mineral deposits in many areas contain natural levels of arsenic. When the ground water passes through these deposits it dissolves arsenic in to the well water. Arsenic neither possess Andy taste nor does it have smell or color, so it is not possible to detect the presence of arsenic if it is not tested in laboratory. The adverse effects of arsenic depend upon the amount being feed in to the body as well as the time of exposure to arsenic. The unborn and the elderly people may suffer greater risk due to high level arsenic.

High levels of arsenic can result in skin cancer or thickening or discoloration of the skin. Some research’s previously done shows some elevated quantity of Arsenic in drinking water of PUNJAB and SINDH. Keeping in view the adverse effects of arsenic on the human body the WHO have set a standard of less than equal to 0.005 mg/l of arsenic.

2.8.5 Boron
Boron occurs in the nature in the form of isotopes and its behavior in the nature is somewhat like the behaviors of silicon. Boron occurs in the form of a solid in nature at room temperature. It not only occurs in amorphous form but also in the crystalline form. IN the rsction with water it results in the formation of weak boric acid H3BO3. The boric acid is very weak acid and has a pKa value of 9.5. The waterborne Boron may be dissolved by the minerals and the sediments. The boron dissolution of boron depends upon the value of the pH of the soil, the adsorption is dependent on the value of pH for water. The greater adsorption is generally observed at a pH of 7.5 to 9. Boric acid is mostly used in detergents and as the neutron absorbers in case of the nuclear installation.

In nature boron is present in the form of undissociated boric acid and in the forms of borate ions. The natural water contains very low quantity of boron, but high quantity of boron indicates mixing of sewer contamination air municipal waste because the water in the case is found to be rich in detergents and washing agents that are a common in the sewer water. concentration ranges have been reported for water bodies within Pakistan, Russia, and Turkey, from 0.01 to 7 mg/liter, with most values below 0.5 mg/liter.

2.8.6 Chromium
Chromium is highly toxic and has adverse effects on the human body. The total concentration of chromium should be less than 2 micro-gram/liter for the water that is used for drinking but the concentrations up to 120 micro gram/liters have also been observed the high concentration of chromium (IV)or long-term exposure or inhalation causes lung cancer.

Hence keeping in view, the above-mentioned facts WHO proposes a value of 0.05 mg/l as a standard (WHO guide lines for drinking water 2004).

2.8.7 Copper
Copper concentration may differ depending on the different conditions. Copper is very handy in the production of electrical appliances as well as CuSO4.5H2O know as copper sulphate penta hydrate is used for the removal of Algae. The concentration of copper in treated water increases during the distribution, more commonly is systems with PH that lies in the acidic range or in the presence of high carbonate water of alkaline or basic pH value. WHO sets a standard value as per WHO guidelines for drinking water set in 2004.

2.8.9 Cyanide
Cyanide may lower vitamin B12 levels and hence exacerbate vitamin B12 deficiency. The high concentration s of the cyanide will result in the adverse effect on human bodies such as goiter is a common problem resulted due to high the high levels of cyanide also cause adverse and harmful effects on the nervous system of the human body. Cyanide Can be measured up to a limit pf 2micro gram/liter by means of tint metric as well as photometric methods. The value of 0.007 mg/liter is considered as a standard.

2.8.10 Zinc
Zinc is an important nutrient but in case of high quantity of zinc in the water that is being used for drinking the results are bad for the human health. In case of high quantity of Zinc in the portable water this results in the stomach disorders. The level of zinc in natural and ground water does not exceed 0.01mg/l but in case of the water that follows in the pipes due to the dissolutions the value of zinc concentration may be increased. The daily requirement of Zinc is 15-20 mg/day. A value of 5 mg/l is ok however 3mg/l is the value set as standard by WHO for Pakistan.

2.2.11 Mercury
Mercury is present in portable water in the form of Hg+2. It is used in thermometers and used in goldmining as wells in the electrolyte production of chlorine Food is also a source of Hg. According the WHO standards the value between 2 and 20 micro-gram/liter is safe. The value for Pakistan is somewhat same or less than that of the WHO value.

2.2.12 Manganese
Manages is an abundant metal that is present in the earth crust. It is present along with iron. The high values of the manganese content in aerobic waters may be because of the industrial contaminants’ high values can have adverse effects on the body of human beings the level of manages in fresh water is somewhat 2 to 20 micros; gram/liter. The values of manganese as per liter for water is somewhat equal or less than the value set as standard by the World health organization in 2004.

2.2.13 Total Dissolved Solids
The inorganic salts like calcium,magnesium,carbonates and other such elements such as potassium,sodium etc. and some amount of organic matter results in the formation of TDS.There are no records on the adverse effects of high TDS vales as per WHO however it should be in a range of 200 to 600 ppm (here ppm stands for parts per million.)
2.3 Biological Characteristics of water
2.3.1 Dissolved Oxygen
Dissolved oxygen is also a term that is of significant oxygen. The high as well as low quantity of the dissolved oxygen can affect the aquatic life. Greater contents pf dissolved oxygen indicates greater aquatic life and less quantity indicates low chances for survival of aquatic life.

Figure 2.10 Aquatic life in lakes
2.3.2 E-coli
Total Coliform consist of group of organisms that are present in the body of various animals in the digestive system and hence help in the digestion of food. These are also present in the animal wastes as well. The soil and the decaying vegetables can also be a source of the coliform bacteria. The high concentration of the coliforms groups the “Escherichia coliform” also known as the E.coli in present in the feces and if it is found to be present in water it causes various harmful and adverse effects on the human body. It is a source of various diseases such as listed below. E.coli is the cause of many fatal diseases like:
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
Diarrhea
Meningitis
Pneumonia
Cholecystitis
Bacteremia
E.coli in the drinking water indicates the presence of fecal contamination. E coli O157:H7 causes various diseases and stomach problems and mostly the source of such contaminant for human are the rotten food or juices etc.

Figure 2.11 E-coli
2.4 Sources of Pollution
2.4.1 Point sources
The point sources may include source such as factory’s waste or oil spill that is called point source common examples are
Industrial Contamination
Wastewater from sewers
Dry weather pollutants through pipes and channels

Fig 2.12 Point Source
2.4.2 Non-Point Sources
If pollution or contaminants enter in to water from scattered sources than it is called Non-Point source runoffs generated that may be urban , agricultural or may be construction or land runoffs.

The following figure explains the terms such as the urban runoff generated at the streets, the agricultural runoff generated due to the fertilizers effects, construction runoffs that are generated from the site of construction and the land runoffs i.e. when the water passes through rocks of high mineral contents its absorbs the minerals that are of high quantity in the composition of the rock and hence the runoff generated as a result is called the land runoff.

Fig 2.13 Runoff generated as Non-Point sources

2.5 Water Borne Diseases
Water borne diseases are such diseases that are produced due to drinking of the contaminated water . The term waterborne disease is reserved largely for infections that predominantly are transmitted through contact with or consumption of infected water. Trivially, many infections may be transmitted by microbes or parasites that accidentally, possibly because of exceptional circumstances, have entered the water, but the fact that there might be an occasional freak infection need not mean that it is useful to categories the resulting disease as “waterborne”.

“Every Minute a child dies due to a water borne disease.”
WHO and UNICEF estimated that 80 % of the illness in the 3rd world countries is due to the waterborne diseases.88% of the water borne diseases are due to the unhygienic conditions of sanitation and poor water supply systems
The most common diseases that are associated with water are as follows
Cholera
Typhoid
Dysentry
Meningitis
Hepatitus
Poilio
Abdominal Pain and cramps
Diarrhoea and Gastroenterits
The water borne diseases are very fatal and cause a threat to one’s life who is infected by these hence it is important to understand the causes of the water borne diseases . Following are the most common types of causes
Unhygienic conditions of livings
Poor sanitation systems
Dirty and Leak Pipes
Water contaminated form point or non-point sources
By means of flies that transmit diseases
Uncovered drinking water that gets contaminated
Dirty hands and clothes
Dirty cooking pans and vessels or pots
More over the Main causes are listed below :
Pollution is the MainSource of water borne disease .The contaminants enter in to the water that is then used for drinking purposes
The bacteria and viruses are also responsible for the water borne diseases.

Prevention from water borne diseases. Following steps can be taken to avoid the water borne diseases
Drink filtered water or the water that in in bottles.

The containers must be washed regularly.

Warm and cooked food should be eaten.

Keeping fingernails short and clean can cause effects.

Using toilets and better sanitary conditions.

Improve personal hygiene.

Wash food before cooking and cook food at high temperatures.

Use boiling to removed temporary hardness of water.

Take extra care whiling disposing of animal or toddler feces.

10) Always sanitize your hands after visiting a hospital because hospitals are the breeding places for pathogenic bacteria’s that are responsible for many harmful diseases
11) Always try to avoid drinking water from random places such as the recreational spots and parks etc. try to carry your own water or if you do not have it use bottled water
Figure 2.14

WHO TIPS
Make sure the water is clear has no smell or any type of color.

Try to drink water that has been treated by killing bacteria and avoid drinking water that is not well treated or not treated at all
Ensure that the tank you are using to store water on a large or a small scale it is clean and does not contain any contamination.

If water is being used for bathing add any good antiseptic in water so that it may become germ free and does not cause illness or any other hazard. By doing this small step one is at a lower risk of getting infected by germs in water.

Try to practice best hygiene by washing hands before or eating meal and after using of toilets.

Get yourself immunized by means of vaccination.

Reader’s Comments
CHAPTER NO.3

Methodology
3.1 Introduction to Instrument:
The testes were performed on 35 samples to used: collected from Khari Sharif area, pulmanda, jatlan, dadyal, isamgarh and chaksawari in such a way that the whole area was to be covered. The test performed on the samples involved physical, chemical as well as biological testing. Following things were used
Spectro Direct
PH meter
TDS meter
Biological Kits
Turbidity Meter
Arsenic kits
3.1.1 Introduction to Spectro Direct:
Spectro direct is a device that is used to locate the chemical contaminations in the water sample that is to be tested. The instrument consists of a dial and 24mm sample tubes. The instrument comes with preprogramed methods proven range of Lovibond tube tests, liquids, powders and reagents.

After switching on the machine 1st of all undergoes a self-test with the empty chamber to check the function test of the stepper motor and halogen lamp present inside the chamber. The machine also contains a glass filter to fulfill the purpose.

The light source comes from a bulb that is a tungsten bulb. The Spectro direct is a single beam photometric device. The Spectro direct performs the self-test as soon as it gets on.

The light passes through a slot to the monochromator and hence here it splits in to spectral ranges. The monochromator is a holographically produced transparent grating. The purpose of the mirror which in the case are moveable is to provide that the light of desired wavelength passes through the exit slot and hence through the water sample. The value is then sent to a microprocessor that generates results which are displayed in the screen of the instrument. Hence the silent features are preprograming Lovibond ranges, Absorption of light then its transmission and detecting it at the exit slot hence generating the results.

Figure 3.1 Spectro Direct
Hence the working of the Spectro direct is described below in the figure 3.2

Figure 3.2 working of Spectro direct
3.1.2 Introduction to PH meter
The pH meter is used to check whether the water sample that is being tested is acidic or more towards the basic nature. Basically, it measures the hydrogen ion activity in the water sample being tested.

Figure 3.3 PH meter
3.1.3 Turbidity Meter:
The turbidity meter is used to measure the degree of haziness or cloudiness of water. In the device there is a tungsten bulb the light is passed through the sample horizontally and at an angle of 90 degrees and hence the pattern of the light dispersed by the solids causing haziness is determined in terms of NTU.The Turbidity check meter is shown in the following figure as below

Figure 3.4 Lovibond Turbidity Check
3.2 Method of Sampling:
The samples of water up to 35 were collected from different sites of Mirpur, Islamnagar, Chaksawari , Jatlan , Pulmanda , Dadyal. The samples were collected from Govt Tube wells as the direct Source ,some of the filter plants and from the boring water as well.

Figure 3.5 colleting Sample from Tube well#4 (Islamgarh)
The sample is collected as per directed by WHO guidelines and the method is that to wash the hands properly by siprit,then flame the sipirit on a stick and apply the smoke near the source so that the germs in the air near the source may not enter in the sample, open the tap and let the water run for 10 seconds so that the water in the pipe may flow out after that pour water in to the sample and hence air tight the sample.Moreover, the biological kit is used at the source.Pour 50 ml of water in the sampler,break the neck of the powder provided and hence seal it for 24 hours.After 24 hours observe the color of the sample any change in the colour to green shade indicates the contamination in water. Following methods can be adopted for sampling
Statical sampling
Judgmental Sampling
Haphazad Sampling
Random Sampling
Stratified Sampling

Figure 3.6 Water filtration Plant
In case of statical sample regular points are selected at fixed intervals.

In case of judgmental sampling we take samples from selective points.

In case of Stratified sampling we divide the areas per nature and geological conditions and take samples
In case of random or haphazard sampling we take samples randomly.

3.3 Procedure of Tests
3.3.1 pH of Water:
pH is the negative log of hydrogen ion concentration. Its shows the activity of hydrogen ion in water sample.

pH= -logH+
Apparatus:
Beaker
pH meter
Test sample
Procedure:
Pour water in to the 250ml beaker from the sample bottle and dip the pocket pH meter in the sample so that the bottom up to the mark in in the water. The pH meter will start displaying value, but it would not be steady. Wait till the value becomes steady and after the value becomes steady note down the reading.

Perform the test at least 3 times and then take the mean average reading, so that there may be very less chances of errors.

WHO Standard
As per WHO the reading should be between 6.5-8.5.

3.3.2 Total Dissolved Solids:
TDS stands for total dissolved solids. It indicates the concentration in terms of parts per million of calcium.potassium.sodium etc. ions in water sample.

Apparatus:
Beaker
Water Sample
Pocket TDS meter
Procedure:
The procedure is same as that of the determination of ph. Pour some water in to the 250ml beaker and then place the pocket Tds meter in the water sample such that it may not touch the sides of the beaker otherwise it would not provide accurate results. Note down 3 readings from the TDS meter as these get steady and hence report the average value to avoid errors.

WHO Standard
As per WHO standard the value should be in a range of 200-600 ppm.

3.3.3 Manganese LR with Vario Powder Test:
Manganese is an important nutrient as it is found in food items. Mg is found in many of seeds, canned food and even in tea. It is an important nutrient for the growth and health of human body and is also used in medicines. The safe range of Mg in food is up to 1.5mg/l but it becomes concerning if it increases up to 10 times the normal range.

Apparatus
24mm vial bottles
Powdered magenes
Reagent 1
Reagent 2
Spectro direct.

Procedure:
Take 24mm vial bottle No.1 and fill it with clean ionized water, the vial#1 will be used to set the Spectro direct zero.

In the 2nd vial take 10ml of deionized water and then add the powder vario in the sample. Shake it for several minutes so that the powder gets dissolved completely.

Now add 15 drops of Reagent 1 which is the Alkaline cyanides reagent and mix it properly.

After that add 21 drops of PAN indicator Ascorbic acid reagent and shake it vigorously so that the sample may achiever a reddish-brown color.

Place the sample in the Spectro direct and press the test button.

The Spectro direct with the rememorized Lovibond ranges will perform a test of 2 minutes on the sample and will display results on the screen.

Note down the values.

WHO Standard
The value should be in a range of 0.01-0.7 mg/l KMnO4.

3.3.4 Chloride Tablets for test:
Chloride formation takes place when an Acid like HCL is dissolved in water, the chlorine Gains and electron in the outer most shell and hence acquires a negative charge. This negative changed chloride is called an anion.

Chloride or chlorine act as a perfect agent for bleaching as well as for cleaning or disinfecting water.

It has the tendency to kill bacteria that are present in water, mostly the filter plants make use of chloride or chlorine gas to perform filtration of water.

Chloride concentration per liter used for cleaning of the ground water containing colloids and iron II is reposted to be somewhat between 40mg/l to 63 mg/l.

It is also used for as an indicator for river or ground water fecal contamination.as it is an excellent non-reactive solute.

Around the globe it is used to check the level of contamination in water for rivers, lakes etc.

Apparatus:
24 mm Vial bottles
Spectro Direct
Chloride T1 and T2 Tablets
Sample Water
Procedure:
Take the vial bottle no 1 and clean it thoroughly with clean water.

Fill the vial bottle no 1 with the deionized sample water and fill it up to the mark of 10 ml.

Take the vial bottle no 1 and place it in the Spectro direct and press the zero button.

Now in the 2nd vial bottle takes 10 ml of the water sample and add the Chloride T1 tablet in the sample.

Crush the tablet and shake the bottle such that the tablet may be dissolved completely in the vial bottle water sample .

Now add the tablet Chloride T2 and crush it and mix it so that it may get dissolved in to the sample completely.

Place the sample containing the dissolved tablets in water in to the Spectro direct chamber such that the marks consider to each other.

Press the Test button and after 2 minutes Note down the result.

Same is done for all samples
WHO RANGE:
0.5 to 25 mg/l.

3.3.5 Sulfate Test using Vario Sulfa Powder
Sulplates are used as tanner and are disposed in water from mines and mills.

Sulphates occur naturally in the form of MgSO4( magnesium sulphate) or in the form of CaSO4(calcium sulphate).

High concentration of sulphate may cause water to have slightly bitter taste.

Mostly ground water when passes above the rocks such as gypsum having configuration of CaSO4.2H2O it absorbs the sulfate and results in formation of H2SO4 that in excessive quantity of water is very dilute.
Mineral that contain sulfate include Epsom Salt, Glauber’s salt and gypsum.

Procedure:
Take 24mm 10 ml vial bottle no1 and fill it with 10 ml of clean water.

Now close the cap of the vial bottle and then place it in to the Spector direct chamber.

Close the lid of the chamber and press the zero button.

The Spectro Direct will show a message of ZERO accepted on the screen.

Now in the 2nd 24mm vial bottle add 10 ml of clean water of the same sample and then add Vario Slupha 4/F10 powder from the pack.

Then mix it toughly and you will observe a cloudy colour.

Place the Sample in instrument and press the TEST button.

The Spectro Direct will show results in 5 minutes when the reaction time will complete.

WHO Range:
2-100 mg/l
3.3.6 Test for ALUMINIUM by Tablets:
Aluminum is present in the earth crust as a metal. But it is also used as a purifying coagulant to remove contamination form water.

Water reacts with Al to form Al(OH)3 since it has no color nor any taste hence it cannot be detected easily, to detect the presence of Al in water we must perform chemical testing of the water sample.

Al is also present in food that we eat and is considered as an important nutrient as well however the high quantities of Alu can result in adverse effects on the human health.

Alzheimer is a disease that is caused duty to the high concentration of Al in water
Water sample that has a value of greater that 0.2 mg/l should never be utilized for drinking.

However, the water that contains high quantity of Al can used for other purposes such as in-service stations or for bathing or showering and for household chores, cleaning.

Apparatus
24 mm Vial Bottles
Spectro Direct
Sample Water
Aluminum NO 2 tablets
Procedure:
Take 24mm vial bottle and add after cleaning add 10 ml of water of the sample to be tested.

Place the 1st vial bottle in the Spectro direct chamber and press the ZERO button ,The Spectro direct will flash a light and then it will display a message of ZERO ACCEPTED.

Take 10 ml of water in the 2nd Vial and fill it up to 10 ml mark.

Now Take One tablet of ALUMINIM NO 2 and Crush it so that it may be dissolved easily.

Now after dissolving the tablet place the vial in the Chamber of the Spectro Direct.

Press the TEST button .

The reaction time of 5 Minutes will start, and after the reaction time the device will display the results.

Same procedure is adopted for all samples.

WHO Range:
It should be less than 0.22 mg/l
3.3.7 Potassium By tablets:
Potassium is also a very important element for the human-body, but it can also cause harmful effects to various organs of the human body if it is present in very high quantities.

Potassium naturally occurs in all- natural sources of water.it is widely present in our environment and even present in the water that we use for drinking.

High levels of potassium in water can cause kidney diseases, heart disease, artery diseases, hypertension, diabetes ,adrenal insufficiency .

Potassium is important to keep normal osmotic pressure in human cell.

However, a concentration greater than 10 mg/l can be concerning.

Apparatus:
24mm vial bottles
Spectro Direct
Potassium tablets
Water Sample
Procedure:
Take 24mm vial bottle and add after cleaning add 10 ml of water of the sample to be tested.

Place the 1st vial bottle in the Spectro direct chamber and press the ZERO button ,The Spectro direct will flash a light and then it will display a message of ZERO ACCEPTED.

Take 10 ml of water in the 2nd Vial and fill it up to 10 ml mark.

Now Take One tablet of Potassium and Crush it so that it may be dissolved easily.

Now after dissolving the tablet place the vial in the Chamber of the Spectro Direct.

Press the TEST button .

The reaction time of will start, and after the reaction time the device will display the results.

Same procedure is adopted for all samples.

WHO Range:
1-10 mg/l greater that 10 mg/l means water is unfit for drinking.

3.3.8 Test of Zinc using Tablets:
Zinc is also an important nutrient for the human body. Zinc is a cation and contains 2 electrons in the valance shell. It has a “+2” change.

Zinc combines with Chlorides to form ZnCl2, when zinc comes in contact with eater results in the formation of Zn(OH)2. The normal concentration of zinc should be up to 5mg/l.
Zinc is bluish white in color and does not occur abundantly in nature in rocks.
Zinc requirement for the human body in normal in 0.3 mg/kg.

As per WHO the concentration is 0.02-5 mg/l.

Apparatus;
24 mm vial
Spectro Direct
Test Sample
Zinc tablet
EDTA tablet
Procedure:
Take 24 mm vial bottle and fill it water. Now add a tablet directly from the foil with the title Zinc/Copper.

Crush the tablet and mix it thoroughly so that it gets absorbed completely in the water.

Place the 24mm vial in the Spectro Direct and press the ZERO button.

The reaction time will start for 5 minutes and after the reaction time the message will be displayed as “ZERO ACCEPTED.”
Now press the test button.

The result will be displayed automatically.

Repeat the same process for all the available samples.

Range:
The range of Zinc should not be more that 5 mg/l and should not be less than 0.02 mg/l.
3.3.9 Copper with Powder:
Copper is used for a variety of appliances as well as pure copper or copper mixed with other elements is used for the electrical wiring. Copper is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity.

Copper is also present in the blue crystalline form of CuSO4.5H2O.

Copper is present in the natural water as well as in the ground water up to the concentrations of 0.0005 to 1 mg/l.

Copper is also important for the activity of many enzymes.

Copper if found in water at high concentration can cause the water to have bluish color and hence can also cause it to have an unpleasant odor.

Copper however, if found in heavy concentrations can causes adverse effects such as liver disorders. This is because it accumulates in the liver and can also be responsible for brain and eye related diseases. The normal range should be as per WHO instructions.

Apparatus:
24 mm Vial
Spectro Direct
Copper Vario Powder
Procedure:
Take 24 mm Vial bottle NO1 and clean it thoroughly. After cleaning the vial add water from the sample that is to be tested.

Place the sample in the machine and press the zero button so that the Zero accepted message may be displayed
After this now add water in the vial 2 and pour copper vario powder in the sample and mix it completely so that it can be dissolved.

After 2 mins the result will be displayed automatically.

Range:
The WHO range is 2 mg/l.

3.3.10 Chlorine with Vario Powder:
Chlorine is yellowish green gas and has a pungent . Chlorine is also used a s a disinfectant for cleaning of water.

Most of the countries specially in Europe use chlorine to clean the sewer contaminations in water and then afterwards the water can be reused for drinking and other house hold purposes.

Apparatus:
24mm Vial bottles
Spectro Direct
Chlorine Vario Powder.

Procedure:
Take Press the zero button and the zero-accepted message will be displayed by the instrument.

Now add chorine vario powder DPD/F10 from the sample .

From the list of tests select chlorine and select free chlorine from the sub list that pops.

The results will be displayed.

10 ml of water sample in the vial and place it in the Spectro direct.

Range:
0.01-2 mg/l as per WHO.

3.3.11 Arsenic Testing with KIT :
Arsenic is a metal resembling substance and is it proves to be very fatal if high concentrations of the metal are found in the drinking water. High quantity of Arsenic present in the drinking water can result adverse effects on the health of human body. Mineral deposits in many areas contain natural levels of arsenic. When the ground water passes through these deposits it dissolves arsenic in to the well water. Arsenic neither possess Andy taste nor does it have smell or color, so it is not possible to detect the presence of arsenic if it is not tested in laboratory. The adverse effects of arsenic depend upon the amount being feed in to the body as well as the time of exposure to arsenic. The unborn and the elderly people may suffer greater risk due to high level arsenic.

High levels of arsenic can result in skin cancer or thickening or discoloration of the skin. Some research’s previously done shows some elevated quantity of Arsenic in drinking water of PUNJAB and SINDH. Keeping in view the adverse effects of arsenic on the human body the WHO have set a standard of less than equal to 0 to1.5 mg/l of arsenic.

Figure 3.7 Arsenic Testing in lab
Apparatus:
Arsenic Kit
Spatula
Water Bottles with 60 ml mark
Sample of Water.

Procedure:
Take 60 ml of water in the bottles provided with the kit.

Now add 2 drops of reagent 1 and mix thoroughly.

Add now a spoon full of reagent 2 by red spoon. And shake the sample so that it may get dissolved in to and for motion
Add reagent 3 by means of green colored spoon and shake again.

Now place an Arsenic Test Strip in the sample and then place it for 20 minutes.

After 20 minutes compare the color of the Test strip with the paper provided in the kit.

Range:
As per WHO recommendations it should be less than 1.5 mg/l.If found to be greater the water in unsafe for drinking.

Figure 3.8 Arsenic kit
3.3.12 Ecoli- Testing:
1) Collect sample from the direct source and fill the kit upto the specified mark
2) Now add the powder pack that is provided with the kit.

3) After adding the powder, shake the kit to dissolve it in the sample.

4) After 48 hours if the color changes from brown to green or any shade of green, It indicates the presence of sewer contamination.

Figure 3.9 Ecoli Testing Kit Results

Reader’s Comments

CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND CONCULUSION

Sample # 1
Gulzar Habib Qabristan Haul Road
(End User)
Sr# Name of Tested element RESULT 1 Aluminum 0.015 mg/l 2 Free Chlorine 0.14 mg/l 3 PH of Water 7.91 4 Total dissolved Solids 265 5 Sulphate 67.8 mg/l 6 Boron 4.0 mg/l 7 Hardness 30 mg/l 8 Potassium 1.4 mg/l 9 Cyanide Under ranger 10 Nitrate LR Over Range 11 Sulphide 1+2 Under range 12 Chloride T Over range 13 Copper Under range 14 ZINC o.o4 mg/l 15 Arsenic ZERO 16 Ecoli Negative 17 Temperature 29.90C Sample # 2
Khalqabad (Boring)
Sr# Elements to be tested Result 1 Aluminum 0.17 mg/l 2 Chlorine 0.31 mg/l 3 PH of water 7.09 4 Total dissolved Solids 159ppm 5 Chloride 5 mg/l 6 Sulphate 47 mg/l 7 Boron 0.05 mg/l 8 Hardness Over range 9 Potassium 2.4 mg/l 10 Cyanide 0.007 mg/l 11 Nitrate LR Over range 12 Sulphide 1+2 Under range 13 Copper Under range 14 Zinc 0.03 mg/l 15 Arsenic ZERO 16 Ecoli Negative Sample #3
D4 Boring Water
Sr# Elements to be tested Result 1 Aluminum 0.05 mg/l 2 Chlorine 0.04 mg/l 3 PH of water 7.40 4 Total dissolved Solids 265ppm 5 Chloride 4.8 mg/l 6 Sulphate 43 mg/l 7 Boron 0.06 mg/l 8 Hardness Over range 9 Potassium 1.9 mg/l 10 Cyanide 0.013 mg/l 11 Nitrate LR Over range 12 Sulphide 1+2 Under range 13 Copper Under range 14 Zinc 0.02mg/l 15 Arsenic ZERO 16 Ecoli Negative Sample#4
Muslim Hand Filter Plant
End User
Sr# Elements to be tested Result 1 Aluminum 0.13 mg/l 2 Chlorine 0.31 mg/l 3 PH of water 7.49 4 Total dissolved Solids 268ppm 5 Chloride Over range 6 Sulphate 43.4 mg/l 7 Boron Under range 8 Hardness Over range 9 Potassium 2.9 mg/l 10 Cyanide Under range 11 Nitrate LR Over range 12 Sulphide 1+2 Under range 13 Copper 0.04 mg/l 14 Zinc 0.015mg/l 15 Arsenic ZERO 16 Ecoli Negative 17 Temperature 30.00C Sample #5
F1 Markazi EID Gah
( Water Supply )
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum 0.13mg/l <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.10 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 7.82 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 314ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride Over range <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 69.5 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron 0.043 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 35 mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 5.3 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Cyanide Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Sulphide 1+2 0.06 mg/l <50 mg/l
13 Copper 0.06 mg/l <2 mg/l
14 Zinc 0.05 mg/l 5mg/l
15 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
16 Ecoli Negative Negative
17 Temperature 32.80C 30-350C

Sample#6
Quaid E Azzam Stadium
( Filter )
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum Under range <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.12 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 7.30 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 361ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride Over range <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 37 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron 0.03 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness Over range 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 1.5 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Cyanide 0.017 mg/l 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR 0.3 mg/l <50 mg/l
12 Sulphide 1+2 Under range <50 mg/l
13 Copper Under range <2 mg/l
14 Zinc 0.03 mg/l 5mg/l
15 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
16 Ecoli Negative Negative
17 Temperature 32.80C 30-350C
Sample#7
CHITTER PARI ( TAP WATER )
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum 0.11mg/l <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.06 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 7.91 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 314ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride Over range <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 88.4 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron 0.41 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness Over range 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 1.4 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Cyanide Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Sulphide 1+2 0.06 mg/l <50 mg/l
13 Copper 0.43 mg/l <2 mg/l
14 Zinc 0.05 mg/l 5mg/l
15 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
16 Ecoli Negative Negative
17 Temperature 30.90C 30-350C
Sample#8
Dahari Rustam (Boring)
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum 0.02mg/l <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.07 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 7.60 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 376ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride Under range <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 45 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron 0.063 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 54 mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 4.4 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Cyanide Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Sulphide 1+2 0.03 mg/l <50 mg/l
13 Copper 0.08 mg/l <2 mg/l
14 Zinc 0.15 mg/l 5mg/l
15 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
16 Ecoli Negative Negative
17 Temperature 32.80C 30-350C
Sample #9
Kalyal End User
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum 0.03mg/l <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.10 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 7.82 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 314ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride Over range <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 69.5 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron 0.013 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 43.5 mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 5.3 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Cyanide Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Sulphide 1+2 0.07 mg/l <50 mg/l
13 Copper 0.04 mg/l <2 mg/l
14 Zinc 0.04 mg/l 5mg/l
15 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
16 Ecoli Negative Negative
17 Temperature 32.80C 30-350C
Sample #10
Staff COLONEY OHT
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum 0.1mg/l <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.10 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 8.01 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 377ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride Over range <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 12 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron 0.15 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 35 mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 1.3 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Cyanide Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Sulphide 1+2 0.06 mg/l <50 mg/l
13 Copper 0.06 mg/l <2 mg/l
14 Zinc 0.05 mg/l 5mg/l
15 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
16 Ecoli POSITIVE Negative
17 Temperature 31.60C 30-350C
Sample # 11
Islamgarh Kalyal Bani Filtration Plant
Govt Girls High School
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum 0.01mg/l <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.13 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 8.03 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 243ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride 7.1 mg/l <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 12.2 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron 0.14 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 46.6mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 6.7 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Manganese Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Copper 0.14 mg/l <2 mg/l
13 Zinc 0.21 mg/l 5mg/l
14 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
15 Ecoli Positive Negative
16 Temperature 30.90C 30-350C
Sample# 12
ISLAMGARH (SOURCE)
Govt TUBE WELL #4
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum 0.16 mg/l <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.06 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 7.25 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 367ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride 21.8 mg/l <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 16 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron 0.14 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 43 mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 7.1mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Manages Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Copper 0.20 mg/l <2 mg/l
13 Zinc 0.24 mg/l 5mg/l
14 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
15 Ecoli Positive Negative
16 Temperature 32.80C 30-350C
Sample # 13
Pooli Moor Govt Tube Well ISLAMGARH
Source
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum 0.17mg/l <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.06 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 7.67 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 308 ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride 6.3 mg/l <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 90 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron 0.17 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 37.6 mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 1.0 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Manages Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Copper Under range <2 mg/l
13 Zinc 0.13mg/l 5mg/l
14 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
15 Ecoli Positive Negative
16 Temperature 32.80C 30-350C
Sample #14
Model Town Islamgarh Boring
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum 0.17mg/l <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.18 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 7.30 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 334ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride 6.3 mg/l <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 47.0 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron 0.16 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 37.6 mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 5.4 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Maganes Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Copper 0.17 mg/l <2 mg/l
13 Zinc 0. 1 mg/l 5mg/l
14 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
15 Ecoli Positive Negative
16 Temperature 30.80C 30-350C
Sample # 15
ISlAMGARH END USER
Water Supply
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum 0.09mg/l <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.04 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 6.88 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 326ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride 9.9 mg/l <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 28.7 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron 0.13 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 42 mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 2.1 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Maganes Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Copper 0.14 mg/l <2 mg/l
13 Zinc 0.04 mg/l 5mg/l
14 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
15 Ecoli Positive Negative
16 Temperature 31.30C 30-350C
Sample #16
Ban khurma End User
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum Under range <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.19 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 7.04 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 159 ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride 5 mg/l <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 42 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron 0.23 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 24.5 mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 1.73 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Maganes Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Copper Under range <2 mg/l
13 Zinc 0.03mg/l 5mg/l
14 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
15 Ecoli Positive Negative
16 Temperature 29.00C 30-350C
Sample#17
JANYAL BORING WATER
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum 0.19 mg/l <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.10 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 7.06 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 665 ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride 12.5 mg/l <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 51 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron 0.053 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 35 mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 1.70 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Maganes Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Copper 01.34mg/l <2 mg/l
13 Zinc Over range 5mg/l
14 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
15 Ecoli POSITIVE Negative
16 Temperature 30.10C 30-350C
Sample#18
Fazal Abad Khari shreef
(Source)
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum 0.12 mg/l <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.14 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 7.12 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 602ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride 22.5 mg/l <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate Over range <200 mg/l
7 Boron 1.34 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 57 mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 2.01 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Maganes Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Copper Under range <2 mg/l
13 Zinc 0.40 5mg/l
14 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
15 Ecoli POSITIVE Negative
16 Temperature 30.10C 30-350C
Sample#19
Samwal Shreef
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum 0.19 mg/l <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.10 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 8.03 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 665 ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride 17.3 mg/l <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate Over range <200 mg/l
7 Boron Over range 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 47 mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 1.34 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Maganes Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Copper 1.2 mg/l <2 mg/l
13 Zinc 0.02 mg/l 5mg/l
14 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
15 Ecoli Negative Negative
16 Temperature 32.40C 30-350C
Sample # 20
Darbar Khari Shreef
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum Under range <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 1.0 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 7.85 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 603 ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride 15.3 mg/l <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 65 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron 0.23 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 54 mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 8.40 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Maganes Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Copper 1.34mg/l <2 mg/l
13 Zinc 0.40 mg/l 5mg/l
14 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
15 Ecoli POSITIVE Negative
16 Temperature 32.70C 30-350C
Sample 21
MUSLIM HAND FILTER JAMIA MASJID
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum 0.14 mg/l <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.10 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 6.90 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 240 ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride 17.2 mg/l <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 27.6 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron 0.21 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 37.1mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 9.3 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Maganes Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Copper 0.24 mg/l <2 mg/l
13 Zinc 0.17 mg/l 5mg/l
14 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
15 Ecoli Negative Negative
16 Temperature 33.30C 30-350C
Sample 22
Pulmanda Boring
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum 0.2 mg/l <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.10 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 7.42 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 158 ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride 8.10 mg/l <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 24 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron 1.8 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 56 mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 43 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Maganes Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Copper Under range <2 mg/l
13 Zinc 0.018 mg/l 5mg/l
14 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
15 Ecoli Negative Negative
16 Temperature 33.10C 30-350C
Sample #23
Jatlan Market Near Canal Boring
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum 0.17 mg/l <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.19 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 7.89 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 368ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride 17.2 mg/l <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 26.7 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron 1.6 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 65 mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 6.2 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Maganes Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Copper 2.12 mg/l <2 mg/l
13 Zinc Over range 5mg/l
14 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
15 Ecoli POSITIVE Negative
16 Temperature 34.70C 30-350C
Sample #24
Bankhurma Water Supply
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum 0.13 mg/l <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0. 1 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 7.43 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 265 ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride 17.3 mg/l <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 24.8 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron Under range 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 45 mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium Under range <250 mg/l
10 Maganes Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR Over range <50 mg/l
12 Copper Under range <2 mg/l
13 Zinc 0.019 mg/l 5mg/l
14 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
15 Ecoli Negative Negative
16 Temperature 34.40C 30-350C
Sample# 25
New Laddar Village Govt Middle School
Boring
Sr# Elements to be tested Result WHO(Pakistan)
1 Aluminum 0.07 mg/l <0.2mg/l
2 Chlorine 0.93 mg/l <1mg/l
3 PH of water 7.34 6.5-8.5
4 Total dissolved Solids 224ppm <1000ppm
5 Chloride 12.7 mg/l <250 mg/l
6 Sulphate 24.7 mg/l <200 mg/l
7 Boron 0.08 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
8 Hardness 52 mg/l 2-100 mg/l
9 Potassium 0.56 mg/l <250 mg/l
10 Maganes Under range 0.007 mg/l
11 Nitrate LR 1.4 mg/l <50 mg/l
12 Copper 0.45 mg/l <2 mg/l
13 Zinc 0.054 mg/l 5mg/l
14 Arsenic ZERO <= 0.05mg/l
15 Ecoli Negative Negative
Samples FROM CHAKSAWARI ( 26 to 31 )
Sr# Parameters S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
1 PH of sample 7.30 6.90 7.12 6.97 7.02
2 Color & odor unobj Unobj unobj unobj unobj
3 Turbidity 0.43 NTU 0.54
NTU 1.3 NTU 1.5 NTU 0.72
NTU
4 Free Chlorine 0.05
mg/l .090
mg/l 0.40
mg/l Under
range 0.1
mg/l
5 Sulphate 38.3 4.3 under under 4.1
6 Temperature 29.8C 27.9C 29.0C 30.2C 30.5C
7 Aluminum 0.14 0.19 0.08 0.20 0.02
8 Zinc 0.28 0.34 0.05 0.23 0.42
9 Copper 0.49 1.08 0.034 0.23 0.41
10 Boron 1.9 1.7 2.4 0.9 1.8
11 Nitrate LR Over
Range Over
Range Over
Range Over
Range Over
Range
12 Potassium 1.4 0.5 9.1 2.3 1.6
13 Hardness 33 46 26 12 43
14 TDS 348 345 249 346 348
15 Arsenic ZERO ZERO ZERO ZERO ZERO
16 Maganese under Under under under under
17 Ecoli +ve +ve +ve +ve +ve
SAMPLE #31 to #36
Samples from Dadyal
Sr# Parameters S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
1 PH of sample 7.63 7.90 7.16 7.03 7.12
2 Color & odor unobj unobj unobj unobj unobj
3 Turbidity 1.03 NTU 1.11
NTU 0.833 NTU 0.57 NTU 1.63
NTU
4 Free Chlorine Under
range .05
mg/l 0.06
mg/l 0.04
mg/l 0.15
mg/l
5 Sulphate 19.4 41.8 55.9 35.5 32.5
6 Temperature 31.2C 32.7C 32.7C 33.8C 33.8C
7 Aluminum 0.08 0.07 0.04 Under Under
8 Zinc 0.32 0.22 0.04 0.03 0.29
9 Copper 0.66 0.97 0.45 0.70 0.07
10 Boron 0.045 1.10 0.07 0.09 0.31
11 Nitrate LR Over
Range Over
Range Over
Range Over
Range Over
Range
12 Potassium 1.34 6.5 8.7 13.53 23.6
13 Hardness 39 40.3 23.3 34.5 36
14 TDS 316 396 401 338 410
15 Arsenic ZERO ZERO ZERO ZERO ZERO
16 Maganese under under under under under
17 Ecoli +ve -ve +ve -ve +ve

GRAPHS AND CHARTS
Aluminum:

Fig 4.1 Chart for Aluminum
The graph indicates that all samples have a value of Aluminum
Less than or equal to the WHO value 0.2 mg/l. Which is a safe value to consider.
CHLORINE:
Bar Chart for free Chlorine:
WHO RANGE <1.0mg/l
-20955041084500-20955041084500
Figure 4.2 Bar Chart for Chlorine
The bar chart indicates that as we move from samples of filters to the boring water samples the value of Chlorine starts decreasing. All 34 samples have value equal or less than the value proposed by WHO. However, The Higher value of Chlorine in case of Ban Khurma End User Water Sample was observed.

TURBIDITY
The turbidity range was observed between 0.45 to 2.34 NTU. WHO suggests a reading less than 5 NTU is acceptable and a value up to 1 NTU is ideal.

Figure 4.3 Chart for Turbidity
PH of Samples:
The WHO range of PH for samples should be between 6.5 to 8.5. The values are according to the WHO standard values.

Figure 4.4 Chart for PH of Samples
Total Dissolved Solids:
The value of TDS for all 35 samples was found to be in range of 150 to 450 ppm. The WHO suggests a value safe if its less than 1000 ppm .So samples have safe values of TDS.

Figure 4.5 Graph for TDS
Colour and Odor:
The colour and odor of all the samples that were collected was found to be unbojectable.

Temperature:
The temperature of samples that were tested varied from 27 to 33 degree centi grade.There are no hard and fast rules provided by WHO for the temperature at which water samples should be tested.

Generally in lakes in normal conditions the temperature of water varies from 30 to 35 degree centi grade
.BORON:
The value of Boron as suggested by WHO standards is less than equal to 0.3 mg/l.However it was observed that the samples S8,S19,S20,S22,S24,S26,S27 AND S28 contain concentration of boron higher than the WHO range.

Figure 4.6 Graph for Boron
Sulphate:
The value of Sulphate as given by WHO is <200 mg/l. About 34 samples satisfied the value but the value of Sulphate for Sample 18 END USER FAZIL ABAD was found to be 247mg/l. Higher than the WHO reading.

Figure 4.7 Graph for Sulphate
COPPER:
35 samples were tested for copper and all the samples satisfy the WHO range.The WHO range for copper is <2mg/l

Figure 4.8 Graph for Copper
ZINIC:
All the 35 samples were tested for Zinc.34 samples had value of zinc within range,while one sample from JANYAL BORING contained high levels of zinc.

Figure 4.9 Graph for ZINC
POTASSIUM:
All values obtained after testing the samples were within the WHO range.The WHO value for Potassium is <250mg/l.

Figure 4.10 Graph for Potassium
Arsenic:
All the samples were tested and the value of Arsenic was found to be between 0 to 0.005 mg/l. Which is a safe range as per WHO standards.

E.COLI:
Following Table demonstrates the reults.

SR Sample Results Remarks
1 Gulzar Qabristan Boring Negative Safe
2 Khalqabad Boring Negative Safe
3 Muslim Hand Filter F2 Negative Safe
4 Football Chowk D4 Negative Safe
5 End User F1 Negative Safe
6 Quaid Stadium Filter Negative Safe
7 Chitter Pari TW Negative Safe
8 Dadyal Tube Well Negative Safe
9 Jamia Masjid Dadyal Negative Safe
10 Samwal Shreef Khari LA 4 Negative Safe
11 Tap Water Bankhurma Negative Safe
12 New Laddar Middle School Negative Safe
13 Pulmanda Boring Negative Safe
14 Muslim Hands Filter Jatlan Negative Safe
15 End User Kalyal B5 Negative Safe
16 Dhari Rustom Positive Unsafe
17 Staff Coloney OHT Positive Unsafe
18 Tube Well#4 Islamgarh Positive Unsafe
19 Tube Well#8 Islamgarh Positive Unsafe
20 Poli Moor Filter Islamgarh Positive Unsafe
21 Model town Islamgarh Positive Unsafe
22 Kalyal bansi Girl High School Positive Unsafe
23 Chaksawari T4 Positive Unsafe
24 Chaksawari I3 Positive Unsafe
25 Chaksawari M1 Positive Unsafe
26 Darbar Khari Positive Unsafe
27 Fazal Abad Bankhurma Positive Unsafe
28 Janyal Boring Positive Unsafe
29 Bankhurma boring Positive Unsafe
30 Jatlan Market Positive Unsafe
31 Dadyal Filter Positive Unsafe
32 Dadyal Boring Positive Unsafe
33 C4 Mirpur Ajk Positive Unsafe
34 Chiterparri Boring water Positive Unsafe
35 Well Dadyal Positive Unsafe

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