Chapter 1

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
Introduction
A project work is about an in depth research on a particular area of interest carried out by us based on the specialization opted. Students are deputed to various industries or organizations for training. A detailed report is prepared based on the learnings and outcomes of the study. In other words, this acts as a bridge between academic institution and industry for various job opportunities and building future career of students after completion of their degree/ diploma.

Industry profile
The electronic industry especially the consumer electronics emerged in the 20th century and has now become a global industry worth billions, now the society uses all manner of electronic devices.

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The Consumer electronic industry is composed of organizations involved in the manufacture, design and development, assembly, and servicing of electronic equipment and components. These organizations offer a wide variety of products that frequently have only one thing in common, they depend upon electronic technology to operate. Electronics is one of the fastest evolving and most innovative industries, and also one of the most competitive. The research and development of new, better products is of great importance in electronics, where companies often compete fiercely to bring the newest technology to market first.

The electronics industry dates to the 1800s, when scientists first discovered that they could pass electricity through gas from one metal electrode to another. The first commercial vacuum tube was built in 1904 by John Ambrose Fleming, a British scientist, who used it to detect radio signals. Vacuum tubes continued to be the standard in the industry until the 1950s, when the first transistor and semiconductor diodes were invented and introduced. During this time, integrated circuits were also introduced. By the mid-1980s, other countries, such as Japan, had become serious competitors of U.S. companies when it came to electronics manufacturing. Modern markets are global ones, and companies both buy and sell parts and products to other countries. Many electronics manufacturing companies outsource parts, allowing them to be more competitive on the global market.

In 1920s radio broadcasting became the basis of mass production of radio receivers. The vacuum tubes that made radios practical were used with record players as well, to amplify the sound so that it could be played through a loudspeaker. Television was soon invented, but remained insignificant in the consumer market until the 1950s. The transistor, invented in 1947 by Bell Laboratories, in the early 1950s the transistor’s revolutionized that industry along with other electronics. By 1959 Semiconductor introduced the first Integrated circuits followed when manufacturers built circuits (usually for military purposes) on a single substrate using electrical connections between circuits within the chip itself. Bell’s invention of the transistor and the development of semiconductors led to far better and cheaper consumer electronics, such as transistor radios, televisions, and by the 1980s, affordable video game consoles and personal computers that regular middle-class families could buy.

In the early 20th century the first consumer product was the Broadcast receiver. Later Telephone, Television and Calculators, then audio and video recorders like Game consoles, Players, Personal computer and MP3 players. In 1980s and 1990s the DVD players, Blu-ray disk players, Camcorders. In 2010s the most consumer electronic is mainly based on digital technologies such as GPS, Automotive electronics, Video games, Electronic musical instruments (synthesizer keyboard) Digital cameras and Video players. And in 2010 many new things got invented like internet connectivity using technologies such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, EDGE or Ethernet, products such as TV or Hi-Fi equipment have option to connect to the internet, the high definition (HD) TV’s has also invented this TV’s gives a picture clear video on the TV, Mobile form mobile it has become the Smart phones the new upgraded version of mobile phones has come from 2010 till date.

In 2016 some of the newest products Came they are Smart home devices that connect home device to the internet like Smartphone controllable thermostats and lights, wearable for humans the wearable technology such as Fitbit digital exercise watches. The Consumer Electronic Association estimated the value of US$220 billion sales in 2015.

Most of the consumer electronic especially mobiles are built and manufactured in china due to the maintenance cost, availability of materials, quality, speed as compared to other countries like US. The city named Shenzhen have become the most important production centre for the consumer electronic industry especially Mobile phones Smart phones in china.
DVD players, Video players, Camcorders, Digital cameras, Personal computers, Video game consoles, Telephones, Mobile and Smart phones these products are increasingly based on digital technologies.
Mobile phone industry
Mobile phones are used for a variety of purposes, such as keeping in touch with family members, for conducting business, and in order to have access to a telephone in the event of an emergency. Some people carry more than one mobile phone for different purposes, such as for business and personal use. Multiple SIM cards may be used in a single mobile or a smart phones.

1080019683697100The first handheld cellular mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c.4.4 lbs. (2 kg). The first commercial automated cellular network was launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone in 1979. In 1981 by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden several other countries then in the early mid-1980s. The first-generation (1G) systems which could support far more simultaneous calls but still used analogy cellular technology. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. In 1991, the second-generation (2G) digital cellular technology was launched in Finland by Radiolinjaon the GSM standard. This sparked competition in the sector as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G network operators. Ten years later, in 2001, the third generation (3G) was launched in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard. This was followed by 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G enhancements based on the high-speed packet access (HSPA) family, allowing UMTS networks to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. By 2009 3G networks overwhelmed by the bandwidth intensive applications, such as streaming media. Consequently, the industry began looking to data-optimized fourth-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to ten-fold over existing 3G technologies. The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the WiMAX standard, offered in North America by Sprint, and the LTE standard, first offered in Scandinavia by TeliaSonera.

The above picture indicate how the mobile phone’s has evolved and what we see today as modern Smart Phones.

Low-end mobile phones are often referred to as feature phones and offer basic telephony. Handsets with more advanced computing ability the use of native software applications are known as smartphones.

All mobile phones have a unique identifier called IMEI. Anyone can report their phone as lost or stolen with their Telecom Carrier, and the IMEI would be blacklisted with a central registry. Telecom carriers, depending upon local regulation can or must implement blocking of blacklisted phones in their network. There are, however, a number of ways to circumvent a blacklist. One method is to send the phone to a country where the telecom carriers are not required to implement the blacklisting and sell it there, another involves altering the phone’s IMEI number. Even so, blacklisted phones typically have less value on the second-hand market if the phones original IMEI is blacklisted.
The cell phone industry is one of the fastest-moving industries in the world. The market is growing rapidly with ever-emerging technologies and innovation. The industry is highly concentrated, consisting of smartphone and feature phone segments. The Asia Pacific (APAC) region currently dominates this industry. The research indicates that the cell phone industry in Brazil, Russia, India, and China is expected to register robust growth in the coming years due to economic development and urbanization. Developing regions are expected to register significant growth. Increase in population and rising urbanization in developing regions are the key drivers for industry growth.

According to the report there were 2.8 billion smartphones use in 2017. Samsung was the global leader with a market share of 32%, Apple 25%. Apple was the world’s largest brand with a market share of almost 64%. The smartphone users globally per region 2.6 billion people in the world with a smartphone in 2017, while India and China alone has more than 1 billion users.
The global cell phone industry is expected to continue its growth in 2006-2011 it was estimated $334.8 billion in 2017 with a CAGR of 6.8% over the next five years (2012-2017).
Mobile phone industry in INDIA
The mobile phone industry is the fastest growing industry in the world and India is the second-largest smartphone market globally. The mobile connections every month has increased compared to other county and this trend is the evidence by which the massive influx of handsets into the country. The mobile phone market in India has huge competition among one another. The major competing factors being the features of the mobile phones, the camera quality, the processor in the mobile phone and perhaps most importantly the price. The mobile industry in India has been an attractive destination for mobile phone manufacturers such as Xiomi, HTC and Apple have been attracted to India because of the broad range of customers.

The 2015 is marked as the year of growth for Chinese smartphone brands in India. The share of users of Chinese brand device grew to 22% during H1 2015, up from just 7% during the same year. Share of Indian brand device users remained almost flat while the share of users of other international brands dropped massively.
The share of the Chinese products in the country’s import is also constantly raising and its share has increased from 64.3% in 2012-2013 to 69.4% in 2016-2017.

The mobile phone production in INDIA has increased, the number of mobile phone launched in 2013 it was 957, in 2014 it was estimated like 1137, in 2015 it was 1700 plus mobiles launched.

The mobile phone industry sectors GDP (Gross domestic production) contribution to country in 2011-2012 is 2.1 % of rupees 1,85,930, in 2014-2015 it came down to 1.94% that is 2,42,900 crores and in 2017 it was estimated that 6.2% converting this into monetary terms roughly 9,60,783 crores or $140 billion GDP has been contributed by the mobile sector to the country and it is estimated that in 2020 it is likely to raise 8.2% to countries GDP.

1.3 Company Profile
Vivo is a Chinese technology multinational manufacturer of smartphones headquartered in Dongguan, Guangdong Province Company Founder in 2009 that designs, develops, and manufactures smartphones, smartphone accessories, software, and online services. Vivo entered the telecommunication and consumer electronics industry with landline phones and wireless phones. From 2011, vivo started its smartphone business. As of 2014, vivo releases and markets its smartphones under the vivo brand, ranking as the 5th top smartphone brand in China, and 10th top smartphone brand globally. The brand uses Hi-Fi chips in its smartphones. Software developed by the company includes the Vivo App Store, iManager, and a proprietary Android-based operating system called Funtouch OS.
In 2012 Vivo released the X1. The X1 was also the first Vivo phone to use a Hi-Fi chip, developed by American semiconductor company Cirrus Logic. Vivo followed this up in 2013 by releasing the world’s first 2k-resolution screen phone, the Xplay3s. Other popular phones in the Vivo lineup include the X5Pro, the X5Max, and the Xshot.
Vivo has become registered in over 100 countries around the world. Vivo began its international expansion in 2014 when it entered the Thai market. The company quickly followed this up by launching in India, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Myanmar, and in Philippines. In the year 2017 Vivo smartphones entered smartphone market in Russia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Brunei, Macao, Cambodia, Laos, Bangladesh and Nepal. In June, 2017 Vivo officially entered the Pakistan mobile phone market and currently it is one of the fastest growing smartphone brand in the country. On 26 November 2017, Vivo entered the Nepali market.
In 2014, vivo sold 25 million units in mainland China, in 2015, the sales volume reached to 45 million worldwide, with an average retail price of $300. Vivo is now among the top five most profitable smartphone brands in China. Currently 20,000 operators work in vivo, and 3,000 engineers are in four R;D centres in Dongguan, Shenzhen, Nanjing and Chongqing. From hardware design and manufacture, to software development (Android based Funtouch OS), vivo has built a complete and sustainable ecosystem.
VIVO smartly catches the nerve of Indian consumers, the Chinese phones or electronic products are popular among Indian consumers but they are equally infamous for their short life span or no durability. Any product with ‘Made in China’ written on it gives Indian consumers a second thought, often. So, to get away with this issue, VIVO partnered with Indian Prime Minister’s ‘Make in India’ initiative. As part of the association, VIVO has establish an assembly unit in Noida, India. As per the brand, the 30,000 square meter production facility unit has a maximum production capacity of 1 million smartphones per month, which can be further increased as per future requirements. The Make in India initiative with vivo’s plan. Its assembly unit in Greater Noida is the first step toward this commitment. With Rs.125 crore in its first-phase investment, this unit has been operated since November, 2015. Totally 2,200 Indian employees are working in the factory, which will help its production capacity reach one million units/month and build a solid foundation for vivo’s sustainable development in India.

VIVO announced Ranveer sing as its brand ambassador in April 2016 and currently also he is the brand ambassador and in recent the famous fashion designer Manish Malhotra has been spotted.
In October 2015, Vivo became the title sponsor of the Indian Premier League (IPL) for a two-year deal and extended its title sponsorship rights for next five more seasons that is 2018-2022 with a winning bid of INR 2199 crores (approximately US $341 million).

Vivo also have a sponsorship deal with FIFA to become the official sponsor 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cups. The company also became title sponsor of India’s Pro Kabaddi. Vivo have 5 and 4 year sponsorship contracts with Indian Kabbadi League and FIFA respectively both ending in the year 2022.
1.4 Vision and mission
To customers, we promise to provide quality products and superior services.

To employees, we commit to build up harmonious work atmosphere of mutual respect.

To business partners, we shall furnish a fair and square cooperative platform on the basis of equality and mutual benefit.

To shareholders, we are devoted to rendering higher investment returns than average.

1.5 Products profile areas of operation
Vivo designs, develops, and manufactures smartphones, smartphone accessories, software, and online services.

These are the mobile phones manufactured by Vivo:
78422526670 Vivo V7 Plus/Vivo V7? 15,334
5.7inchScreen 64 GB ROM
Android 7.1 Nougat OS
788216153670 ?18,299 4 4 GB RAM
32 GB ROM
Android 7.1 Nougat OS
733425000 2 GB RAM
16 GB ROM
Android 6.0 Marshmallow OS
875302150858 Vivo Y55s? 9,899
5.2 inch Screen
3 GB RAM
16 GB ROM
Android 6.0 Marshmallow OS
87503092710 Vivo Y21? 6,575
4.5 inch Screen
1 GB RAM
16 GB ROM
Android 5.1 Lollipop OS
903877112032
918845211274
Vivo V5s? 14,369
5.5 inch Screen
4 GB RAM
64 GB ROM
Vivo V5 Plus? 15,499
5.5 inch Screen
4 GB RAM
64 GB ROM
Android 6.0 Marshmallow OS
890270208733 Vivo Y21L? 6,999
4.5 inch Screen
1 GB RAM
16 GB ROM
Android 5.1.1 Lollipop OS
886188185057
Vivo Y66? 11,199
5.5 inch Screen
3 GB RAM
32 GB ROM
Android 6.0 Marshmallow OS
886188145324
Vivo Y51L? 9,990
5 inch Screen
2 GB RAM
16 GB ROM
Android 5.0 Lollipop OS
755559200387
Vivo Y51? 9,999
5 inch Screen
2 GB RAM
16 GB ROM
Android 5.0 Lollipop OS
537845141514 Vivo Xplay 7? 29,990
5.7 inch Screen
6 GB RAM
128 GB ROM
Android 7.0 Nougat OS
62484026416000 Vivo Y15s? 7,070
4.5 inch Screen
1 GB RAM
8 GB ROM
Android 5.1 Lollipop OS
603159233045
Vivo Y28? 8,640
4.7 inch Screen
1 GB RAM
4 GB ROM
Android 4.2 Jelly Bean OS
80998826543000
Vivo Y31L? 8,500
4.7 inch Screen
1 GB RAM
16 GB ROM
Android 5.1 Lollipop OS
733788167096 Vivo V5 Plus IPL Edition? 15,600
5.5 inch Screen
4 GB RAM
64 GB ROM
Android 6.0 Marshmallow OS
714738337457 Vivo Y15? 9,999
4 inch Screen
512 MB RAM
2 GB ROM
Android 4.2 Jelly Bean OS
548187167549 Vivo V1? 14,844
5 inch Screen
2 GB RAM
16 GB ROM
Android 5.0 Lollipop OS
508816265430
Vivo Y27L? 10,697
4.7 inch Screen
1 GB RAM
8 GB ROM
Android 4.4 Kitkat OS
548731167096 Vivo Y28 8GB? 10,990
4.7 inch Screen
1 GB RAM
8 GB ROM
Android 4.2 Jelly Bean OS
657588228600
Vivo X Shot X710? 11,999
5.2 inch Screen
2 GB RAM
16 GB ROM
Android 4.3 Jelly Bean OS
809988185057 Vivo Y22
? 9,980
4.5 inch Screen
1 GB RAM
4 GB ROM
Android 4.2 Jelly Bean OS
657588250372 Vivo X3S
? 9,970
5 inch Screen
1 GB RAM
16 GB ROM
Android 4.2 Jelly Bean OS
439692269694
Vivo Y27L 16GB
? 11,999
4.7 inch Screen
1 GB RAM
16 GB ROM
Android 4.4 Kitkat OS
809988174171 Vivo Y31
? 9,520
•4.7 inch Screen
•1 GB RAM
•8 GB ROM
•Android 5.1.1 Lollipop OS
766445145960 Vivo Y75 Vivo Y75 Vivo Y79 Vivo X20 Plus
1.5 Competitor’s Information
The Chinese based Oppo Company is the main competitor for vivo compared to other company. Oppo and VIVO competes hand in hand in chine as well as in Indian market specially, from pricing the Smart phones advertising strategies, marketing strategy manufacturing strategy. The picture shown in the below is the best example for this.

987697156409600

List of top five competitors of vivo is shown below
14192251905000Oppo company
137160051435000Samsung
1451791322561800
XIAOMI
1451791649514300
Oneplus

60007522796500Huawei
1.6 SWOT Analysis
Strengths
Easy and useful for users.

User loyalty high & strong resources.

Does exactly what people expect it to do on their first exploration – searches multiple institutions via a single search box, with no extraneous results from unexpected places; has useful facets by institution and type of data (people/organizations/etc.)
Continuous technology development.

Uniqueness, pioneer web application that overcomes many acknowledged limitations of federated approaches that can’t rank relevance across multiple sources.

Targeted focus for expanding desired information.

Open semantic web – all information not stored in one database, represents an “on ramp” to linked data world.

Provides local control over content, what is harvested, and how frequently.

Ability to keep up-to-date automatically.

Can handle the rigors of data integration while maintaining accuracy and granularity.

Weaknesses
New technology – needs training and user tutorials.

May not appear to be doing more than a custom Google appliance of the same source systems (or just the institutional domains) – especially until more advantage is taken of the structured nature of the data and the potential to align data from multiple institutions to the same semantic standards (e.g., MeSH, LCSH)
Exposes duplication of data in the source systems and among systems.

Many instances of URIs for NSF, NIH, geographic places, keywords.

Same person may appear in results from several institutions and the harvesting does not on its own yet attempt to resolve duplicates.

Both these issues are better addressed in the source systems where there is local knowledge to validate, but this project can’t mandate data clean-up.

Difficulty to place a value on the information, especially with regards to completeness.

Difficult to explain how differs from social networking sites that may be more inclusive but less authoritative – faculty may prefer to see everything and be their own judge of what to consider reliable (will it be more important than Facebook or LinkedIn?)
Sceptical user ideas on how application will function and be used.

Struggle to develop initial awareness of technology because it is so new.

Pioneering tool for science community – new innovations often received guardedly.

Opportunities
Massive distribution channels & connections locally and nationally.

Brand awareness.

Ability to generate future discoveries/research by leveraging the technological advances.

Avenue that is enhanced regardless of the current position of the economy.

Endless applications can be developed & multiple uses of collected data.

Pioneering tool for science community – new innovation.

Threats
Competitors of other social networking sites – creating value/comfort.

Improvements to commodity search via tags using schema.org annotations to HTML.

Need for data disambiguation – won’t support network analysis unless data are aligned prior to indexing, or a new analytical process is developed to disambiguate using the harvested information (or queries going back to fetch more detail).

We believe Dave Eichmann at Iowa is developing such approaches, and we should work with him to position this effort as the infrastructure for sustainability and broad application to leverage his exploratory research results.

1.7 Future growth and prospects and financial statement
Vivo in collaboration with Oppo have planned to invest 4,000 crore in Uttar Pradesh to set up large-scale campuses, replicating their China models, which will have manufacturing plants, space for suppliers and accommodation for staff, as part of their expansion plans for India. Oppo is almost finalized 200 acres and Rs 1,000 crore by themselves, while Rs 1,000 crore investment is through their vendors. Vivo has 200 acres of land. They have seen the plot, but have some problems with that so they are sorting that out. Their investment will also be of Rs 2,000 crore. Land for the two companies is allotted in Greater Noida. Vivo has planned for include developing townships on the proposed campuses. The construction work has been started and commercial production will start by 2019 in the same place.

1.8 BALANCE SHEET
VIVO MOBILE INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED
Half yearly and yearly ended September 30, 2017
Particulars
Assets
Non-current assets September 30, 2017 March 31, 2017
Unaudited Unaudited
Property, plant and equipment 2,006,131,006 1,446,234,631
Capital work in progress – 63,342,052
Intangible assets
Financial assets 39,421,475 39,868,486
i. Investments – –
ii. Loans 6,073,601,335 443,276,902
Other financial assets 161,900,594 161,900,594
Other non-current assets 14,312,671 26,002,342
Deferred tax assets/liability 40,138,311 33,167,410
Total non-current assets 8,335,505,392 2,213,792,417
Current assets Inventories
Financial assets 10,347,182,224 9,711,128,717
i. Trade receivables 15,973,508,567 5,084,747,624
ii. Cash and cash equivalents 348,087,208 617,658,068
iii. Bank balances other than (iii) above – 4,573,536,832
iv. Loans 4,874,816 –
v. Other financial assets – –
Current tax assets (Net) – –
Other current assets
Assets classified as held for sale 4,126,360,243 2,590,092,107
Total current assets 30,800,013,057 22,577,163,349
Total Assets 39,135,518,450 24,790,955,766
Equity and liabilities
Equity Equity share capital
Other equity 280,000,000 280,000,000
Reserves and surplus
Other reserves (483,572,822) (3,199,778,221)
Total equity (203,572,822) (2,919,778,221)
Liabilties
Non-current liabilities
Financial liabilities i. Borrowings 6,996,150,375 6,996,150,375
ii. Other financial liabilities – –
Provisions – –
Employee benefit obligations
Deferred tax liabilities 16,697,891 16,483,004
Other non-current liabilities 87,546,999 70,984,321
Total non-current liabilities 7,100,395,265 7,083,617,700
Current liabilities
Financial liabilities i. Borrowings – –
ii. Trade payables 32,022,734,277 19,266,039,611
iii. Other financial liabilities 191,586,568 76,240,158
Provisions – 230,394,264
Employee benefit obligations 29,602 20,557
Other current liabilities 24,345,559 1,054,421,698
Total current liabilities 32,238,696,006 20,627,116,288
Total liabilities 39,339,091,272 27,710,733,987
Total equity and liabilities 39,135,518,450 24,790,955,766
STATEMENT OF PROFIT AND LOSS
Particulars September 30, 2017 September 30, 2016 September 30, 2017 March 31, 2017
Unaudited Unaudited Unaudited Unaudited
Income Revenue from operations 70,619,965,487 15,669,790,384 70,619,965,487 61,733,029,043
Other income (207,238,946) 5,786,126 (207,238,946) 1,162,875,356
Total income 70,412,726,541 15,675,576,510 70,412,726,541 62,895,904,398
Expenses Cost of materials consumed 54,877,859,796 14,783,338,800 54,877,859,796 59,081,572,495
Changes in inventories of finished goods, work-in-progress 4,486,935,797 (1,231,235,594) 4,486,935,797 (4,538,867,222)
Excise duty 704,360,758 401,242,098 704,360,758 1,429,057,626
Employee benefit expenses 847,585,473 98,424,843 847,585,473 382,995,914
Finance costs 108,644,802 6,748,064 108,644,802 65,240,484
Depreciation and amortization expense 105,569,564 34,204,353 105,569,564 89,524,320
Other expenses 6,572,535,853 2,358,332,200 6,572,535,853 7,531,036,097
Total expenses 67,703,492,043 16,451,054,763 67,703,492,043 64,040,559,714
Profit before exceptional items and tax 2,709,234,498 (775,478,254) 2,709,234,498 (1,144,655,315)
Exceptional items – –
Profit before tax 2,709,234,498 (775,478,254) 2,709,234,498 (1,144,655,315)
Income tax expense Current tax – –
Deferred tax 6,970,901 11,338,499 6,970,901 13,664,256
Profit for the period 2,716,205,399 (764,139,755) 2,716,205,399 (1,130,991,060)
Other comprehensive income Items that will not be reclassified to profit or loss Remeasurement of post-employment benefit obligations –
Deferred gains/losses on cash flow hedges –
Income tax relating to these items Other comprehensive income for the period, net of tax – – –
Total comprehensive income for the period 2,716,205,399 (764,139,755) 2,716,205,399 (1,130,991,060)
CHAPTER -2
2.1 Theoretical background of the study
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Appraising the performance of the individual groups and organisations is a common practice of all societies, while in some instances these appraisal processes are structured and formally sanctioned, in other instance they are an informal and integrated part of daily activities. Thus the goal setting is designed to improve work performance, an important organisational behaviour, directly related to the performance of goods or the delivery of service. To Performance is most often thought of as task accomplishment. Performance is the evaluation of a person’s performance. Accurate appraisal help the supervisors to fulfil their dual roles as evaluators and coaches. As a coach, supervisor is responsible for encouraging employee growth and development. As an evaluator, a supervisor is responsible for making judgements that influence employee’s roles in the organisation.

The major functions of performance appraisal are.

To give employees feedback on performance.

To identify the employees developmental needs.

To make promotion and reward decisions.

To make demotions and termination decisions.

To develop information about the organisation’s selection and placement decisions.

It is important for performance appraisals to measure performance accurately.

MEANING
Performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the behaviour in the work spot, normally including both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job performance. Performance here refers to degree of accomplishments of the tasks that make up an individual’s job. It indicates how well an individual is fulfilling the job demands. Often the term is confused with effort, the performance is always is measured in terms of results and not effort. In order to find out whether he should receive a bonus, a pay rise or promotion, his performance appraisal not only let the employee’s future of efforts, activities, results and task direction. Under performance appraisal we evaluate not only the performance of the worker but also his potential for development.

The appraising is a systematic process involving three steps.

Setting work standards.

Assessing employee’s actual performance relative to these standards.

Offering feedback to the employee so he can eliminate deficiencies and improve performance in course time.

It tries to find out how the employee is performing the job and tries to establish a plan for further. The appraisal is carried out periodically, according to a defined plan. It is certainly not a one shot deal. Performance appraisal is not a past- oriented activity, with the intension of putting poor performance in a spot. It is a future oriented activity showing employees where things have gone wrong, how to set everything in order, and deliver results using their potential in a proper way.

THE BENEFITS OF PERFORMANE APPRAISAL.

Employee perspective (Administrative uses)
Despite imperfect measurement technique, individual differences in performance can make a difference to company performance.

Documentation of performance appraisal and feedback may be required for legal defence.

Appraisal offer a rational basis for constructing a bonus or merit system.

Appraisal dimensions and standards can help to implement strategic goals and clarity performance expectations.

Employee perspective (Development purposes)
Individual feedback helps people to rectify their mistake and get ahead, focusing more on their unique strengths.

Assessment and reorganisation of performance levels can motivates employees to improve their performance.

NEED FOR PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM
To provide information about the performance ranks based on which decision regarding salary fixation, promotion, transfer, and demotion are taken.

Provide feedback information about the level of accomplishment and behaviours.

This information helps to review the performance of the employees, rectifying performance deficiencies and to set new standard of work if necessary.

Provide information, which helps to council the employees.

Provide information to diagnose in employee regarding skill, knowledge, determine training and development needs and to prescribe the means for employee growth.

To prevent grievances and indiscipline activities.

PURPOSE OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Performance appraisal aims at attaining the different purpose, they create and maintain a satisfactory level of performance.

To contribute to the employee growth and development through training self and management development programme.

To help the superior to have a proper understanding about their subordinates.

To guide the job changes with help to continuous ranking.

To facilitate for testing and validating selection tests, interview techniques through comparing their scores with performance appraisal ranks.

To provide information for making decisions regarding lay off retrenchment.

To facilitate fair and equitable comparison based on performance.

To ensure organisation effectiveness through correcting employee for standard and improved performance and suggesting the change in employee behaviour.

WHAT DO APPRAISER EVALUATE
INDIVIDUAL TASK OUTCOMES:
The focus is on the results of work behaviour. This approach deals with bottom line such as how many cars an employee sold or how much profit the employee brought into the organisation during the month. Hear the performance appraisal such as MBO, Balance score card.

BEHAVIOURS:
The focus in on the behaviour exhibited by employee while executing the job. A sales person should greet customers as they enter the store, help them find what they are looking for, take their payment promptly and then thank them for their business. It is quite likely that a sales person who did not respond to customer’s requests promptly might also possibly complete sales, but this individual would not have been leaving a positive impression on the minds of customers the way managers preferred. A sound behaviour- based evaluation would on the basis of Behavioural appraisals such as critical incident, behavioural check list, behaviourally anchored rating scale etc.

TRAITS:
The focus is on the personal characteristics of employees such as their ability to arrive at decisions, loyalty to the company, communication skills or level of initiative show. This type of assessment probes a lot about what a person is but relatively little about what he actually does. Since the link between personal traits and actual behaviour is weak, trait- based appraisals are potentially more susceptible to charges of unfairness by minorities, women and other protected groups. The trait appraisal.

WHO WILL APPRAISE THE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
SYSTEM
The appraisal may be any person who has thorough knowledge, about the job content, contents to be apprised, standards of contents, and who observe the employee while performing a job. The appraisal should be capable of determining what is more important and what is relatively less important. He should prepare reports and make judgments without bias. Typical appraises are: supervisors, peers, subordinates, employees themselves, users of service and consultants. Performance appraisal by all these parties is called “360 degree performance appraisal”
SUPERVISORS
Supervisors include superiors of the employee, other superiors having knowledge about the work of the employee and department head or mangers. General practice is that immediate superiors appraise the performance which is reversed by the department manager this is because supervisors are responsible for maintaining and they have the opportunity to observe direct and control and move over they are accountable for successful of their subordinates, sometimes other supervisors who have close employees work and also appraise with a view to provide additional information.

PEERS
Peer appraisal may be reliable if the workgroup is stable over a reasonable long group is stable over a reasonable long period of time and performs tasks that require interactions however little research has been conducted to determine how peer establish standards for evaluating others or the overall effect of peer appraisal on the group attitude whatever research was done on military personal at the management or pre-management level(officers or the officer candidate) rather than on employees in business organisation.

SUBORDINATES
The concept of having superior’s rates by subordinates is being used in most organisation today, especially in developed countries. Such a novel method can be useful in other organisation settings provided the relationship between superior and identifying competent superiors. In universities and research institutions, this approach may not gain acceptance in traditional organisations where subordinates practically do not enjoy much discretion. Appraisal by subordinates has been used by companies like Xerox and IBM to give superiors feedback on how their employees view them.

SELF APPRAISL
If individuals understand the objectives they are expected to achieve and the standards by which they are to be evaluated, they are to a great extent, in the best position to appraise their own performance. Also, since employee development means self- development, employees who appraise their own performance may become highly motivated.

CONSULTANTS
Sometimes, consultants may be engaged for appraisal when employees or employers do not trust the supervisory appraisal and management does not trust the self- appraisal or peer appraisal or subordinate appraisal. In this situation, consultants are trained and they observe the employee at work for sufficiently long period for the purpose of appraisal.

CUSTOMERS
Internal and external customers also used as sources of performance appraisal information, particularly for companies, such as Ford and Honda that are focused on totally quality managements. External customers have been used for some time to appraise restaurant employees, but internal customers can include anyone inside the organisation who depends on an employee’s work output.

METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
With the evolution and development of appraised system, a number of methods or techniques for performance appraisal have been developed.

They are as follows:
Traditional Methods
Graphic rating scales
Rankings method
Paired comparison method
Forced distribution method
Critical incident method
Essay or free from appraisal
Group appraisal
Confidential report
Modern Methods
Behaviourally anchored rating scale
Assessment centre
Human resource accounting
Management by objectives
Psychological appraisal
NEW TRENDS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEMS
In the emerging business environment, companies are learning a new rule for benchmarking employee performance and deciding on his reward. Customer satisfaction, organisational prosperity, and corporate raison must be the ultimate arbiter to circumvent the problems. The performance appraisal systems existing in companies in India have brought forth many problems at all the organisation structure. The findings of a survey conductor by business today in tie up with a few organisation revealed. (a.) performance appraisal systems do not appear to be connected to rewards (b.) Middle managers feel that they are underpaid (c.) Factory workers are unhappy about their Pay scales, incentives, flat bonuses and unrealistic allowances.

Some of the emerging techniques of performance appraisal adopted by companies they are.

Narrative essay: A candid statement from a ratee
Simple ranking: Order of rating from best to worst
Alternation ranking: Altering from top to bottom of list
Paired comparison: Comparing rates to one another
Forced distribution: one-to-one comparison
Behavioural checklist: A descriptive rating
Critical incident: Evaluation based on key incidents
Graphic rating scale: Standardized, quantitative rating
BARS: Rating in behavioural terms
MBO: Measuring performance against results
Work planning review: Emphasizes process over outcomes
Immediate superiors: Feedback from immediate boss
Self-appraisal: Evaluation by ratee
Peer-group appraisal: Evaluation by team members
Upward appraisal: Evaluation by subordinates
360-degree appraisal: Evaluation by boss, peers and
Subordinates
Assessment centres: Assessment based on response to a
2.2 Literature review with research gap
Organizational Context Factors Influencing Employee Performance Appraisal, Gabriela Rusua, Silvia Avasilcaia, Carmen-Aida Hutua (2016) in their research article it emphasizes the role of the organizational context in employee performance appraisal processes. The study aims to develop a comprehensive research framework in order to investigate the employee performance appraisal systems and processes based on main organizational contextual dimensions. The study stresses on the importance of the contextual factors, organized in process and structural factors, as having a significant influence on employee performance appraisal with an impact on work performance. The study concludes that, in order to identify the most important factors which might have a significant influence on the employee performance appraisal, with positive impact on increasing the individual work performance and the overall company performance.

Performance Appraisal in Greek Public Sector, Charalampos Amygdalos, Nikoleta Bara, Georgios Moisiadis (2014). In this research article. The basic element of the survey is the investigation of the Greek public sector and in particular the way in which the system evaluates the performance of undertaken task. In this article, they examine the relationship between the variables (gender, age) and the variables (objective/ subjective potential in appraisal and general attribute of the subjects for appraisal to the appraisal system). As far as the gender is concerned (male, female), it is obvious that this variable can have different influence on the attribute of those asked and the same happens with age, which is of equal importance. The study conclude that both gender and age respectively affect the objectivity of the appraisal system. Both males and females agree that the person who appraises subjectively affects evaluation. Also there are two cases. When there are no pre-determined appraisal criteria, when there is opposing attitude with the person who appraises
Enabling more objective performance appraisals, Duysal Askun Celika (2014) in this research article it is very important for managers is not to ignore the attention and the time they allocate to their subordinate’s performance observations. The study exemplifies an important methodology “pinpointing” implemented for the sales managers working in a pharmaceutical industry as part of a training program. Performance appraisals are critical for organizations especially recruitment ; selection, training, motivation, compensation ; benefits and most importantly, overall organizational performance. And from an organizational viewpoint, appraisal system is said to measure and improve performance, and then help in allocating such resources as pay and promotions. From a personal viewpoint, the appraisal system is a mechanism that provides him or her feedback, to the rewards and certain related outcomes for performance. This not only relates to enabling higher organizational and personal performance, but also might form the foundation for employee satisfaction as well.

Performance appraisal and a field study, Sudi Apaka, Sefer Gumusb, Gokhan Onerc, Hande Gulnihal Gumusd (2014) in this research article. In order to make the process to be successful, the management has to adopt the phases of planning, appraisal and development to be actuated significantly. Strong human resources in the managements can only be achieved through a strong performance appraisal. In the competitive markets, when the performance appraisals of the managements are oriented to the marketing and the sales, the motivation of the employees will be focused on the profit targets. Hence the most significant variables like time, amount, quality, costing, health and security standard shall be implemented according to the requirements of the performance management systems and organisations. The purposes, the principles, the traditional and contemporary methods of the performance appraisal methods have been examined in the theoretical section of the study.

The performance appraisal, Edmund K Miller (1997) in this research article. Performance is appraised by the supervisor or a fellow worker. About the performance appraisals there are something employees should expect to encounter for the rest of the working life. Besides salary, PAS represent the “grades” employee receive on the job. Employee can have the same kinds of connotations as academic report cards, both positive and negative. We all like to hear about the good things we’re doing and how valued our contributions are, but there’s obviously a flip side to this, i.e., we’re not doing so well and are not as valued by our employer, or at least the employer’s representatives who control our destiny. Performance appraisals take many forms and are handled in a wide variety of ways, even within the same organization. Whatever they involve specifically, they all share a common purpose to provide periodic feedback to employees about their job performance. This might be described as “downward appraisal” as it comes from the supervisor to the supervised. Some employers have instituted “upward appraisals.” The study concludes that, which should be closely coupled to the appraisal itself, is the annual salary adjustment. Neither of these exists in isolation. While appraisal grades may not be something look forward to getting, they can’t be avoided. What’s more, they can be extremely positive in helping you progress throughout your working career. So don’t be intimidated by the process and ask questions to be sure you’re getting the most out of being appraised.

The Study on Appraisal of Enterprise Employee Performance, Cui Huibao Liu Lei (2009) in this research article, the achievements appraisal system design’s method referring to investigated enterprise’s achievements evaluating indicator and the related literature synthesizes an achievements evaluating indicator system, has carried on the thorough investigation using the questionnaire. This article unifies the chines Enterprise’s actual situation, it has established the enterprise staff achievements appraisal indicator system. It has carried on the appraisal to the indicator system using the factor analytic method, analysed 6 main factors, the worked achievement target accounts for the biggest proportion, the next was working ability, the individuality quality and so on which influence quite big targets, the enterprise human resources superintendent they obtained analysis result has certain reference value.

The Impact of Performance Management Orientations and Appraisal Justices on Employee’s Knowledge Sharing Behaviours, Pengcheng Zhang, Wenxing Liu (2009) in this article, Performance appraisal is an important management tool to influence employees’ knowledge sharing behaviours, the approaches and effects of performance management orientation and appraisal justice on knowledge sharing behaviours. Which shows intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and control orientation in performance appraisal system is the significant positive, weak positive and U shaped separately relation with knowledge sharing behaviours. Distribution justice has the greatest effect on KSBs, while interactive justice has moderated the effect of extrinsic motivation orientation on knowledge sharing behaviours, but mediated the effect of performance management orientations on knowledge sharing behaviours. The intrinsic motivation had positive impacts on knowledge sharing significantly. Thus, people would undertake extra-role work such as knowledge sharing activities if they are evaluated with intrinsic incentive performance appraisal system. Extrinsic motivation only had weak relations with people’s knowledge sharing behaviours only when they aware such behaviours benefit them from long-term view. The control degree and knowledge sharing behaviours had U-shaped relation. The study concludes that justice of performance appraisal had positive effect on knowledge sharing behaviours, and distribution justice would lessen the effects of procedural and interactional justice on knowledge sharing behaviours study distinguished these effects distribution justice may crow out procedural and interactional justice.
Analysis of Bank Performance Appraisal Based on the Contingency Theory, Yang Hongbo, Liu Fangfang (2010) in this article, Performance appraisal is one of the most active areas in theory and practice of bank management, from which various methods and theories have been put forward one after another. The performance appraisal system should consist of the following elements: environment, objectives, indicators and standards. The contingent relations among each element and the following tips are to be considered in establishing an high- effective bank performance appraisal system on contingency basis. The complicated internal and external bank environment, how to make performance appraisal fair and impartial. In this article, contingency theory is adopted in analysing the performance appraisal system, and bank performance appraisal process. As a special industry, banks’ operating performance will face the impacts from the internal and external bank environment, such as changes of the element quality, changes in banking customer as well as in external competitive environment. This factors have a greater impact on performance appraisal and the two constitute a contingent relationship between each other. The study concludes that, to establish a set of bank performance appraisal system with the environmental requirements not only affects the bank’s sustainable development, but also directly affects the vital interests of employees and business practices of employees.

Organizational Justice Problem of Performance Appraisal in Enterprise, Wang Ping, Xiong Qian (2011) in this article, the performance appraisal, to meet it’s organizational justice problems which affect the implementation of performance appraisal and the exact validity of the evaluation results. This paper analyses the source of three kinds of organizational justice which staff felt, then point out the positive and negative impact on performance appraisal in enterprise. It indicates the main source of distributive justice is assessment results, procedural justice is a fair assessment methods, and interactive justice is the assessor. It comes up with four proposals to improve the organizational justice in performance appraisal in enterprise Assessment should be based on job performance, Think highly of the assessment methods, Try to increase its scientific rationality, Advance the quality of the assessor, and enhance the communication, Set up a correct understanding of the performance appraisal in staffs. The study concludes that organizational justice have a significant impact on performance appraisal in enterprise, it not only affect the implementation of performance appraisal, but also affect the management and operation of the enterprise. To help businesses gain positive impact from organizational justice, this paper puts some inspiration to help enterprises to improve senses of organizational justice in performance evaluation.

The Application Study on the Appraisal of Corporate Performance Based on the Decision Tree, Sun Chengai (2011) in this article, to strengthen enterprise performance management they have effectively improve the competitiveness of enterprises. By analysing the factors affecting enterprise performance, on the basis of enterprise development, staff satisfaction from three dimensions which are friendly with the social enterprise sperformance evaluation index and a decision tree evaluation model is established. Enterprise performance evaluation refers to using the mathematical statistics and operational research theory, specific index system are compared to the uniform standard, according to certain procedures, through quantitative analysis, the enterprise must operate the period of operation efficiency and operator performance makes the objective impartial and accurate comprehensive evaluation.

Influence of Error Learning on Staff Innovative Behaviour: Based on Goal Orientation in Performance Appraisal, Runfeng Yin (2011) in this article, the human resources management, performance appraisal has been widely implemented in all kinds of enterprises and organizations. It has the influence on staff’s work attitude and behaviour and the achievements of an organization, generally there are two kinds of goal orientation in performance appraisal, namely evaluation orientation and development orientation. The paper focuses on the past performance being evaluated, and staff rewards, punishments or promotion are based on the assessment results which is little flexibility, while the latter helps improve performance in the future, regarding the assessment results as the basis for future staff performance improvement. Performance appraisal has the guidance function to the staff behaviour, and different goal orientation leads to different manner and result in the organizations’ processing errors and failure. Therefore, it has different influence on staff error learning and innovative behaviour. The study conclusion is that to explore how goal orientation in performance appraisal influences staff error learning and staff innovative behaviour and its mechanism. The good reliability and validity proved by practice. The development oriented performance appraisal is positively correlated with staff innovative behaviour though the practice of staff error learning, while evaluating the performance appraisal negatively correlated with staff innovative behaviour. The relationship between goal orientation in performance appraisal, staff error learning and staff innovative behaviour demonstrates the staff’s belief that organizations should encourage error learning though development oriented performance appraisal which can increase the staff innovative behaviour. While evaluation oriented performance appraisal will decrease staff innovative behaviour.

Construction and application of quantitative model of instructor performance appraisal, Zhang Cuixian, Fang Yuan (2011) in this article, performance assessment or evaluation is uncertain problem. The subjective influence of assessment in the process of the measurement is bigger. So establishing scientific performance evaluation quantification model can weaken subjective factors, and improve the scientific, objective assessment results. In this paper, the weight of the evaluation to determine the specific impact, the use of level analysis is to determine the weights of the various index method, also is the binary comparison, first give each a comparison results certain scale, then the methods of summation by giving out the various indexes of approximate weights and consistency inspection.

The study concludes that, the quantitative analysis with the function of about performance assessment reflect the work of instructor’s performance level comparatively accurate and science make a horizontal and vertical comparison, which brings out intuitive results.

Modelling Performance Appraisal using Soft Computing Techniques: Designing Neuro-Fuzzy Application, Ms. Nisha Macwan, Dr.Priti Srinivas Sajja (2013) in this article, The paper discusses how soft computing is a pertinent for Performance Appraisal. Performance Appraisal can be Objective as well as Subjective. Performance Appraisal is vague, uncertain and imprecise which may not result into fair decision. The paper proposes neuro-fuzzy approach for performance appraisal that removes any psychological elements that may have a negative bearing on unbiased evaluation. Fuzzy logic handles the vagueness and uncertainty that is observed in evaluation parameters and artificial neural network learns decision making from available data and experience to provide unbiased decision. Performance appraisal of candidates in relation to a particular position is a key task towards managing the human resources of an organization. As the world began to shift towards knowledge-based capitalism, it reminds all organizations on the importance of maintaining their talented knowledge workers. Therefore, discovering and promoting the most qualified candidates is essential because valuable human expertise is the main source of competitive advantage for the organizations. Performance depends up on the right combination of effort, ability and skill. The conclusion of the study is that, the research work signifies application of Soft Computing techniques for Performance Appraisal. The Computational Theory of Perceptions (CTP) in soft computing suggests a different approach to deal with real problems in which decision relevant information is mixture of measurements and perceptions. Performance Appraisal is based on Objective parameters which can be precisely measured as well as Subjective parameters which are imprecise in nature. Hence soft computing can be suitably applied for performance appraisal.

Research on Performance Appraisal of Human Resource Management Based on DEA/BPNN Model, Lianguang Mo (2014) in this article, the theory circle of human resource management and many enterprises are researching the method as well as the implementation effect of performance appraisal, and the performance appraisal of marketing personnel is especially important. Presently some problems in the performance evaluation of enterprises’ marketing personnel, such as the absence of indexes and standards to evaluate performance and the neglect of teams’ performance appraisal. In the process of actual implementation, there are many methods related to the performance appraisal of human resource management. The sales teams of the enterprises are chosen as the research object and the performance appraisal index system is built. The system takes the orders and clients of sales teams as output index, and takes the number of people and the total cost as the input index. Meanwhile, a kind of new data envelopment analysis (DEA)/analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method is applied to conduct specific performance appraisal on a sales team so as to solve the original problem of the failure to sort completely. The conclusion of the study is that the new method is mainly reflected in the following three aspects. On one side, the new method helps to solve the original problem of the failure to conduct sequencing completely by DEA method, and further distinguishes the DMUs, on the other side, the new method still maintains the original characteristics of DEA, which means the analysis of the economic meaning of some indexes for the performance appraisal of some multi-input and multi-output DMUs.

Hybrid Fuzzy-Conventional Method to Improve 360-Degree Performance Appraisal, Nanta Sooraksa, Pitikhate Sooraksa (2016) in this article the tool used in performance appraisal for evaluation and prediction of employee performance is 360-degree performance appraisal. Recently, the effectiveness of the tool is suspicious about validity and reliability in case of unfair weighting and subjective data. This paper proposes a method to enhance the effectiveness of the tool by using a hybrid approach of fuzzy logic and conventional development. The proposed method provided in this work helps improve survey and software for human resource management (HRM). The article reflect how the employee functions in the team and to help members of the team working better together. Following the 360- feedback process from different in perspective helps a more rounded view of individual performance, improves relevant competencies, enhances understanding of strength of staff members for career development and obtains better awareness for managerial issues to be developed. The disadvantages may include dishonest opinions, stress and tension from giving feedback, and difficult in validation of the results. In academic viewpoints, the main disadvantages are caused by unfair weighting and subjective data. The conclusion of the study is, Evaluators can be self, subordinates, supervisors, colleagues, customers and related teams. The opinions with rated scores will then be finalized to provide a key performance index qualitatively. The key performance index will be used to classify the level of performance. Suggestions or comments will then be given to the employee for improvement.
720 DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS: AN EFFECTIVE TOOL TO EFFICIENCY OF MODERN EMPLOYEES, J. George (2016) in this article As Organizations evolve and new techniques make work complicated it also becomes necessary to have a complex and integrated appraisal system. As organization grows and become diverse the expectation from each employee becomes high in turn, the employee’s expectation from the employer also increases. The main need of 720-degree performance appraisal is the improvement of the performance of the people in their jobs and to ensure that the expectations of the employer, employee and the customers are met. For a man the unexamined life is not worth living”, said the Greek philosopher Socrates. An employee whose performance is not examined and enhanced does not lead to fruition. Throughout the Globe the performance appraisal system has been utilized as a method of evaluating an employee’s job performance. It is rightly said that, “Encouraged people achieve the best; Dominated people achieve second best; neglected people achieve the least.” as recognition and reward at the right time is the best encouragement. From the time Human beings have evolved they have employed different methods to appraise the performance starting from the traditional comparison method to the modern 720 degree appraisal method. 720 degree appraisal method aims at monitoring, measuring, giving feedback and encouraging the employees to achieve the goal and for the Organization in turn. The conclusion the study is Man is not a finished product. He is a dynamic being ever growing. Man is in progress. So also in the building of employees’ performance, it is essential to do continuous check and training. And it is specially done through the 720 degree that insists upon 360 degree twice in a year. And 720 degree approach eases the progress of employees by its continual check and support. The study says that one of the main reasons for the high turnover of employees today is caused by the unhealthy relationship between the employee and his immediate managers. As it has been often affirmed as ‘human resource is most valuable asset’, then it has to appraise the relationship of employee and his/her managers to arrive at better result.

Tool Support for Effective Employee Performance Appraisal in Software Engineering Industry, Prashanth Prabaharan, Indika Perera (2017) in this article the appraisal chosen hear is primarily in qualitative nature, the instances that associate with matric. Latest methods of evaluating employees by using rating scale. The incapable of providing real time performance feedback, in software industry. This can lead to biasness in evaluating and the employees may get dissatisfied with the outcomes in which they feel not justifiable enough. This research is focused on improving qualitative appraisal criteria using quantifiable attributes with the support of a tool. This methodology is to provide an integrated evaluation engine for obtaining work performance comparative index, with the integration of build server, project management tool and attendance record system. The outcome of this improved process is made available to the management indicating per employee and per team performance. The progress of the employee over a time period is generated in a line graph where the employee can self-evaluate their stance and how to improve their work efficiency. The conclusion of the study is, predominantly reduced the biasness of the existing employee rating system. This tool provides the details about each employee when they login to the portal. The performance index is calculated based on the criteria. The implementation and evaluation of this system showcase that this is a novel concept especially for the companies who are struggling in assessing the employee’s performance on a periodical manner.

Research on Performance Appraisal System Based on Process Management, Lei Li (2017) in this article, to solve the problem of performance appraisal of SME (Small and medium-sized enterprises) s’ designers, the paper proposes a design method of appraisal system combining with product data management (PDM) workflow management. Performance appraisal system model based on process management the characteristics of supporting businesses, introduced a workflow template customization idea, and explains how it works. Designed data interface the function module design with other functional modules and assessment of algorithm system. This system is an effective solution to objective and automatic assessment of designers. The study concludes, the design of the performance appraisal system in line with the management system supporting SMEs. The system can assess the performance of technical design personnel in accordance with the process of data management to make it automated and objective. The system has also extended the capabilities of PDM, strengthened the management of corporate human resources, and improved the efficiency of enterprise information management.
Additional evidence of attitudinal influences in performance appraisal, Aharon Tziner, Kevin R. Murphy in this article the attitudes of twenty-nine managers toward performance appraisal and toward their organization were used to predict differences in mean ratings and measures of discrimination among rates and performance dimensions. Substantial multiple correlations were obtained for all three dependent variables (between 32 and 46% of the variance in each measure was explained), and several individual correlations were statistically significant. Rates shows low levels of confidence in the appraisal system, high levels of discomfort, or high levels of instrumental commitment were more likely to provide ratings that were unusually high or that did not discriminate well among rates and/or dimensions. Rates shows higher levels of attitudinal commitment or who perceived more risks associated with ratings tended to provide lower ratings and to discriminate among rates and/or dimensions. attitudes toward performance appraisal include both attitudes and beliefs about how well one might do the task and attitudes and beliefs about the outcomes that are likely if one gives high, low, accurate, inaccurate, etc. ratings. Research in has focused on raters’ self-efficacy beliefs, beliefs about rating norms in the organization, and beliefs about the consequences of performance appraisal.

Evaluation Criteria for Performance Appraisal of faculty Members, Elena Arnautua, Ioana Panca in this article, Evaluation criteria for performance appraisal of faculty members is an interdisciplinary study situated in between the concern for the quality of the education process and efficient human resources management. The high-paced evolution of science and technology, the implementation of new technologies and the globalization of competitive market enhance the need for evaluation of the personnel inside organizations. For the evaluation to take place correctly there is a need for precise measuring techniques. The evaluation criteria need to be correctly formulated with the accepted standards, clearly defined and easy to observe. Behaviourally anchored rating scales respect the constraints of an efficient evaluation tool. The 360-degrees feedback evaluation ensures objectivity in evaluation, by offering the assesse the possibility of adjusting their image of their own performance through others’ perspective.

CHAPTER: 3
Research methodology
Research Design
3.1 Statement of the problem
Appraisal is considered to be one of the factors that motivates employees to work efficiently.
The problem observed in a product based company like VIVO is appraisal system is more prominently carried out in marketing department as compared to others.
3.2 Need for the study
Performance appraisals provide employees and managers with opportunities to discuss areas in which employees excel and those in which employees need improvement.

Performance appraisals should be conducted on a regular basis, and they need not be directly attached to promotion opportunities.

Employee gets Personal Attention.

Employees need to know when their  job duties are being fulfilled and when there are issues with their work performance.

Managers should schedule this communication on a regular basis.

3.3 Objectives
To examine the process and methods of existing performance appraisal system.

To identify the determinants of performance appraisal system at VIVO.

To analyse the effectiveness of performance appraisal methods in the organisation.

To trace the drawbacks in the prevailing system and suggest mechanism to overcome the problems.

To suggest measures to improve the performance appraisal system at VIVO.

3.4 Scope of the study
Improve working relationships and communication between supervisors and subordinates.

Develop employees into future supervisors.

The research is restricted to the PAS for lower level and middle level positions in the organisation.

Being a sensitive nature of activity, the constraint will be the reluctance to reveal the details.

To help management plan future development and growth.
3.5 Research of the study
3.6 Hypothesis
Hypothesis testing:
Null Hypothesis (Ho): There is no statistically significant difference in the perception across the categorised defined by functional expertise performance appraisal exhibiting true potential.
Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is statistically significant difference in the perception across the categorised defined by functional expertise performance appraisal exhibiting true potential.

Statistical tools adopted: Single factor Anova has been contemplated to test the Hypothesis. The purpose of this test is to understand whether the performance appraisal system exhibits the true potential of the employees across the 3 groups consistently.

3.7 Limitation
It is limited to the employees of Vivo in Bangalore region.

The period of study is only for about 3months, which is a major constraint.

The perception bias or attitude of the respondents may also act as hurdles to the study.

The study is only confined to effectiveness performance appraisal.

The company’s policy of not disclosing some data and information for obvious reasons, which would have been very much useful for the report.

CHAPTER: 4
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Table 1 -showing percentage of Respondents who fall in different gender groups.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Male 65 65.0 65.0 65.0
Female 35 35.0 35.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Inference: The table indicates that 55% respondents are Male category and 35% belong to Female category.

Graph 1 representing percentage of Respondents who fall in different gender groups.

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Interpretation: Most of the respondents are Male job seekers.

TABLE 2 Table showing percentage of Respondents who fall in different age groups
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid <25 years 56 56.0 56.0 56.0
25-30 36 36.0 36.0 92.0
36-45 7 7.0 7.0 99.0
46-55 1 1.0 1.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Inference: The table indicates that 56% respondents belong to age group of less than 25 year and 36% belong to 25-30 year and 07% belong to 36-45 years and 01% belongs to 46-55 and above.

Graph2 representing percentage of Respondents who fall in different age groups.

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Interpretation: Most of the respondent’s age group is less than 25 years.

Table3 showing percentage of Respondents in work experience.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid <1 year 38 38.0 38.0 38.0
2-3 years 28 28.0 28.0 66.0
4-5 years 19 19.0 19.0 85.0
6-7 years 8 8.0 8.0 93.0
>7years 7 7.0 7.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Inference: The table indicates that 38% respondents have less than 1 year experience and 28% belong to 2-3 year work experience and 19% belong to 4-5 year work experience and 08% are having 6-7 year and 7% have more than seven years of work experience.

GRAPH 3 Graph representing percentage of Respondent in work experience.

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Interpretation: Most of the respondents are having only one year of experience.

Table 4 showing Performance appraisal ensures assessment of individual potentialities and capabilities
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Highly Non Satisfactory 6 6.0 6.0 6.0
Non Satisfactory 15 15.0 15.0 21.0
Moderately Satisfactory 36 36.0 36.0 57.0
Satisfactory 35 35.0 35.0 92.0
Highly Satisfactory 8 8.0 8.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Inference: The table indicates that the assessment of individual potentialities and capabilities the employees 6% believe that it is Highly Non Satisfactory, 15% believe that it is Non Satisfactory, 36% believe that it is Moderately Satisfactory, 35% believe that it is Satisfactory, 8% believe that it is Highly Satisfactory.

Interpretation: Most of the respondents are Moderately Satisfactory
Table 5 showing percentage of Respondents Communication of job expectations and
Performance criteria.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Highly Non Satisfactory 3 3.0 3.0 3.0
Non Satisfactory 18 18.0 18.0 21.0
Moderately Satisfactory 36 36.0 36.0 57.0
Satisfactory 37 37.0 37.0 94.0
Highly Satisfactory 6 6.0 6.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Inference: The table indicates that the job expectations and performance criteria of the employees 3% believe that it is Highly Non Satisfactory, 18% believe that it is Non Satisfactory, 36% believe that it is Moderately Satisfactory, 37% believe that it is Satisfactory,
6% believe that it is Highly Satisfactory.

Graph5 showing percentage of Respondents Communication of job expectations and performance criteria.

Interpretation: Most of the employees believe it is satisfactory.

Table6 showing percentage of Respondents Role of Performance Appraisal System in identifying the Training Needs of appraisers.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Highly Non Satisfactory 3 3.0 3.0 3.0
Non Satisfactory 14 14.0 14.0 17.0
Moderately Satisfactory 33 33.0 33.0 50.0
Satisfactory 42 42.0 42.0 92.0
Highly Satisfactory 8 8.0 8.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Inference: The table indicates that the Respondents Role of Performance Appraisal System in identifying the Training Needs of appraisers of the employees 3% believe that it is Highly Non Satisfactory, 14% believe that it is Non Satisfactory, 33% believe that it is Moderately Satisfactory, 42% believe that it is Satisfactory, 8% believe that it is Highly Satisfactory.

Graph6 showing percentage of Respondents Role of Performance Appraisal System in identifying the Training Needs of appraisers.

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Interpretation: Most of the employees believe
Table7 showing percentage of Respondents Role of PAS in identifying the staffing deficiencies.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Highly Non Satisfactory 3 3.0 3.0 3.0
Non Satisfactory 18 18.0 18.0 21.0
Moderately Satisfactory 36 36.0 36.0 57.0
Satisfactory 39 39.0 39.0 96.0
Highly Satisfactory 4 4.0 4.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Inference: The table indicates that the Respondents Role of Performance Appraisal System in identifying the staffing deficiencies of the employees that is 3% believe that it is Highly Non Satisfactory, 18% believe that it is Non Satisfactory, 36% believe that it is Moderately Satisfactory, 39% believe that it is Satisfactory, 4% believe that it is Highly Satisfactory.

631371675005Graph7 showing percentage of Respondents Role of PAS is identifying the staffing deficiencies.

Interpretation: 39% of the respondents feel that PAS plays a pivotal role in identifying the deficiencies embedded within an individual.

Table7 showing percentage of Respondents Objectivity ensured in appraisal process.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Highly Non Satisfactory 3 3.0 3.0 3.0
Non Satisfactory 18 18.0 18.0 21.0
Moderately Satisfactory 34 34.0 34.0 55.0
Satisfactory 33 33.0 33.0 88.0
Highly Satisfactory 12 12.0 12.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Inference: The table indicates that the Respondents objectivity in appraisal process the employees that is 3% believe that it is Highly Non Satisfactory, 18% believe that it is Non Satisfactory, 34% believe that it is Moderately Satisfactory, 33% believe that it is Satisfactory, 12% believe that it is Highly Satisfactory.

Graph8 showing percentage of Respondents Objectivity ensured in appraisal process.

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Interpretation: Among all the respondents 34% believe that PAS is executed considering the predetermined objectives.

Table9 showing percentage of Respondents Effectiveness of performance management system in the organisation.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Highly Non Satisfactory 1 1.0 1.0 1.0
Non Satisfactory 18 18.0 18.0 19.0
Moderately Satisfactory 27 27.0 27.0 46.0
Satisfactory 34 34.0 34.0 80.0
Highly Satisfactory 20 20.0 20.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Inference: The table indicates that the Respondents Effectiveness of performance management system in the organisation the employees is 1% believe that it is Highly Non Satisfactory, 18% believe that it is Non Satisfactory, 27% believe that it is Moderately Satisfactory, 34% believe that it is Satisfactory, 20% believe that it is Highly Satisfactory.

Graph9 showing percentage of Respondents Effectiveness of performance management system in the organisation.

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Interpretation: 34% of the respondents communicated that PAS followed in the organisation is quite effective in nature.

Table10 showing percentage of Respondents Suggestions towards continuous improvement and feedback given post appraisal process.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Highly Non Satisfactory 6 6.0 6.0 6.0
Non Satisfactory 22 22.0 22.0 28.0
Moderately Satisfactory 30 30.0 30.0 58.0
Satisfactory 29 29.0 29.0 87.0
Highly Satisfactory 13 13.0 13.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Inference: The table indicates that the Respondents suggestion to improvement and feedback post appraisal of the employees that is 6% believe that it is Highly Non Satisfactory, 22% believe that it is Non Satisfactory, 30% believe that it is Moderately Satisfactory, 29% believe that it is Satisfactory, 13% believe that it is Highly Satisfactory.

Graph10 showing percentage of Respondents Suggestions towards continuous improvement and feedback given post appraisal process.

Interpretation: 30% of the respondents said that they have been continuously groomed for improvements post the appraisal process.
Table11 showing percentage of Respondents Role of PAS in compensation adjustments
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Highly Non Satisfactory 6 6.0 6.0 6.0
Non Satisfactory 19 19.0 19.0 25.0
Moderately Satisfactory 41 41.0 41.0 66.0
Satisfactory 29 29.0 29.0 95.0
Highly Satisfactory 5 5.0 5.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Inference: The table indicates that the Respondents Role of Performance Appraisal System in the organisation of the employees that is 6% believe that it is Highly Non Satisfactory, 19% believe that it is Non Satisfactory, 41% believe that it is Moderately Satisfactory, 29% believe that it is Satisfactory, 5% believe that it is Highly Satisfactory.

Graph11 showing percentage of Respondents Role of PAS in compensation adjustments
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Interpretation: among all, 41% of the respondents firmly agree that PAS entitles to various compensation adjustments carried out in the organisation.
Table12 showing percentage of Respondents Contribution of PAS to career advancement.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Highly Non Satisfactory 12 12.0 12.0 12.0
Non Satisfactory 18 18.0 18.0 30.0
Moderately Satisfactory 34 34.0 34.0 64.0
Satisfactory 30 30.0 30.0 94.0
Highly Satisfactory 6 6.0 6.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Inference: The table indicates that the Respondents contribution of PAS to career advancement of the employees that is 12% believe that it is Highly Non Satisfactory, 18% believe that it is Non Satisfactory, 34% believe that it is Moderately Satisfactory, 30% believe that it is Satisfactory, 6% believe that it is Highly Satisfactory
Graph12 showing percentage of Respondents Contribution of PAS to career advancement.

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Interpretation: 34% respondents are okay with the career growth received during PAS.
Table13 showing percentage of Respondents Role of PAS in the diagnosis of job design errors.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Highly Non Satisfactory 14 14.0 14.0 14.0
Non Satisfactory 21 21.0 21.0 35.0
Moderately Satisfactory 30 30.0 30.0 65.0
Satisfactory 30 30.0 30.0 95.0
Highly Satisfactory 5 5.0 5.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Inference: The table indicates that the Respondents diagnosis of job design errors of the employees that is 14% believe that it is Highly Non Satisfactory, 21% believe that it is Non Satisfactory, 30% believe that it is Moderately Satisfactory, 30% believe that it is Satisfactory, 5% believe that it is Highly Satisfactory.

707572457291Graph13 showing percentage of Respondents Role of PAS in the diagnosis of job design errors.

Interpretation: around 30% of the respondents feel that PAS has been an effective tool in identifying errors in job design.

Table14 showing percentage of Respondents Rate the effectiveness of existing Performance Management System in your organization.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Highly Non Satisfactory 8 8.0 8.0 8.0
Non Satisfactory 11 11.0 11.0 19.0
Moderately Satisfactory 36 36.0 36.0 55.0
Satisfactory 36 36.0 36.0 91.0
Highly Satisfactory 9 9.0 9.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Inference: The table indicates that the Respondents PAS in organisation of the employees that is 8% believe that it is Highly Non Satisfactory, 11% believe that it is Non Satisfactory, 36% believe that it is Moderately Satisfactory, 36% believe that it is Satisfactory, 9% believe that it is Highly Satisfactory.

Graph14 showing percentage of Respondents Rate the effectiveness of existing Performance Management System in your organization.

990600260985
Interpretation:
Table15 showing percentage of Respondents which of the following is the purpose of PAS.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Retention strategy 14 14.0 14.0 14.0
Reward allocation 21 21.0 21.0 35.0
Identification of training and development needs 12 12.0 12.0 47.0
Facilities promotions & transfers & termination decision 11 11.0 11.0 58.0
To clarify an employee’s job requirements 7 7.0 7.0 65.0
Identifying barriers to performance 7 7.0 7.0 72.0
Motivational strategy 28 28.0 28.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Inference: The table indicates that the Respondents that which of the following is the purpose that the employees, 14% believe that it is Retention strategy, 21% believe that it is Reward allocation, 12% believe that it is Identification of training and development need , 11% believe that it is Facilities promotions & transfers & termination decision, 7% believe that it is to clarify an employee’s job requirements, 7% believe that it is to Identifying barriers to performance, 28% believe that it is Motivational strategy.
619760692241GRAPH15 showing percentage of Respondents which of the following is the purpose of PAS.

Interpretation: 28% of the respondents have sensed that PAS has been used as an motivational factor.Table16 showing percentage of Respondents Psychological barrier to effective PAS.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid a. Feeling of insecurity 27 27.0 27.0 27.0
b. Being too sceptical or modest 49 49.0 49.0 76.0
c. Worrying that performance appraisal might cause resentment to subordinates 24 24.0 24.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Inference: The table indicates that the Respondents Psychological barrier to effective PAS of the employees that is 27% believe that it is Feeling of insecurity, 49% believe that it is Being too sceptical or modest , 24% believe that it is Worrying that performance appraisal might cause resentment to subordinates.

Graph16 showing percentage of Respondents Psychological barrier to effective PAS.

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Interpretation:
Table17 showing percentage of no of meeting scheduled in year to discuss employee performance
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1 year 41 41.0 41.0 41.0
3 years 19 19.0 19.0 60.0
3 or more year 40 40.0 40.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Inference: The table indicates the no of meeting scheduled in year to discuss employee performance that is 41% respondents believe that 1year and 19% respondents believe that 3 year and 40% respondents believe that 3 year or more years.

Graph17 showing percentage of no of meeting scheduled in year to discuss employee performance.

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Interpretation:
Table18 showing percentage of are any changes planned in existing performance management system in the next 12 months?
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 20 20.0 20.0 20.0
No 15 15.0 15.0 35.0
Don’t know 65 65.0 65.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Inference: The table indicates that is there any changes planned 20% respondents thinks that yes and 15% respondents believe that no and 65% respondents says they don’t know.

Graph18 showing percentage of are any changes planned in existing performance management system in the next 12 months?
489857260350
Interpretation:
CHAPTER 5: Findings, Conclusion and Suggestions
5.1 Summary of findings.

Most of the respondent’s age group is less than 25 years.

5.2 Conclusion and Suggestions/ Recommendations.

The performance measures leads exist both at fresh entry level as well as to continuing education level for working personnel.

In future performance appraisal measures will have to be planned in relation to the changes taking place.

Proper training and satisfaction at all levels will be the strongest foundation to launch an assault on the challenges and convert the challenges to opportunities through effective performance appraisal measures in the organization. Industry most response like wise.

Most of the employees are known that who will conduct the appraisal and when it will conduct but reaching the knowledge of appraisal system to every employee is required.

Proper feedback should be given to the management cadre staff at fixed time periods, so that the employee increase the performance based on their remarks.

The chance for improving the self-appraisal should be more because of the employee feeling there is no chance for self-appraisal, it will increase potential to the organization.

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