CHAPTER – 1
Osteosarcoma is an cancerous tumor in bone its an malignant neoplasm that arises from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin and that exhibits osteoblastic differentiation. It is an histrologocal form of bone cancer which is mostly occurs in young children and teenagers. It happens when the cells that grow new bone form a cancerous tumor. The treatment for osteosarcoma chemotherapy and surgery to remove the tumor is usually successful when the disease is diagnosed early on, before it can spread.
Main causes of the osteosarcoma are the deletion of chromosomes 13q14 inactivate the retinoblast with high risk of causing osteosarcoma development. Likewise bone dysplasias which includes fibrous dysplasia, pagets disease of bone, exostoses, they all increases the osteosarcoma inflammation. Li-Fraumeni syndrome mutation of TP53 gene is a predisposing fact of osteosarcoma development.
The main signs and syndrome are swelling or lumps around bones or the ends of bones. Bone or joint pain or soreness. This pain may come and go for months. At firs the pain might not to constant but might be very worse at night. And may have frature abnormally with trauma. Although osteosarcoma might weaken the bone it develops in, fractures (breaks) are not common. Exceptions are rare telangiectatic osteosarcomas, which tend to weaken bones more than other forms of osteosarcoma and are more likely to cause breaks at the tumor site.
Osteosarcoma is more common in males than in females. Females tend to develop it slightly earlier, possibly because they tend to have their growth spurts earlier. Children with osteosarcoma are usually tall for their age. This also suggests that osteosarcoma may be related to rapid bone growth. People who were treated with radiation therapy for another cancer might have a higher risk of later developing osteosarcoma in the area that was treated. Being treated at a younger age and being treated with higher doses of radiation both increase this risk.
1.2 Treatment :
Treatment for osteosarcoma depends upon the stage of the inflammation, Majorly types like surgery, chemotherapy , Radiation therapy in some cases. To reduce the risk of cancer like prevention the chemotherapy is given before and after surgery. Radiation therapy is less oftenly used. Mostly the treatment based upon extend, grade, location of cancer of affected individuals.
Firstly the localized, resectable osteosarcoma , cancer which will not spread easily to other part of body, it can be removed by surgery completely. In this type they have to grades namely high and low grade, wherein high grade they sread quickly and grow faster if not treated. Treatment like Biopsy followed by chemotherapy which usually for 10 weeks and then a major surgery and chemotherapy continued even surgery. In low grades the cancer grows very slowly and their growth rate were very low but this type of cancer be cured by a surgery a chemotherapy is not needed.
Secondly the localized, non-resectable osteosarcoma, they are the cancer cell types which do not spread and can be removed easily by a surgery. The structure are like too very large and close in beforely removed tumors. Like wise a biopsy was performed and chemotherapy followed Radiation therapy to avoid further tumor formation.
Metastatic osteosarcoma in which cancer cells where already spread to distant part of body, mostly spread to the lung part. A biopsy have been done and chemotherapy followed by a surgery. Radiation therapy have been performed in some cases.
Recurrent osteosarcoma is the cancer which occurs after the treatment, nearly it occurs at the palce close to the first tumor and other part of the body. Mostly found will be in lungs. If it affects at original site like arm or leg affects limb-sparing surgery, Amputation of limb may be recommended. Like wise chemotherapy will be continued even if the cancer cells do not removed they go and major surgery. Radiation therapy will be performed in cases if needed.
1.3 Herbal medicine
Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as remedies for human diseases because they contain components of the therapeutic value .Recently the acceptance of traditional medicine as an alternative form of health care and the development of microbial resistance to the available antibodies has led authors to investigate the antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants.
Historically ,plants have provided a source of inspiration for novel drug compounds as plant derived medicines have made large contributions to human health for development of new drugs.
Plants produce a diverse range of bioactive molecules making them rich sources of different types of medicine. Most of the durgs today are obtained from natural sources or semi-synthetic derivatives of natural products and used in the traditional systems of medicines. Thus it is a logical approach in drug discovery to screen traditional natural products.
Approximately, 20 % of the plants found in the world have been submitted to pharmaceutical or biological test and a sustainable number of new antibodies introduces on the market are obtained from natural or semi-synthetic resources.
1.4 cell line
A cell culture that is derived from one cell or set of cells of the same type and in which under certain conditions the cells proliferate indefinitely in the laboratory.Cancer cell line models are required to understand the underlying mechanisms of tumour progression and for pre clinical investigations.cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions ,generally outside their natural environment. Majorly the cells are isolated from living tissue and are maintained under carefully controlled conditions.
Most of the cells required artificial substrate, some of the concepts in mammalian cell culture are isolation of cells , maintaining cells in culture, plating density. And there are many components present in the cell line to enhance the growth of cells like carbon sources for energy, amnioacids for building blocks of protein, vitamis to promote cell survival and growth, balanced salt as a cofactor.
Aplication of cell line ,To study the function of mutation at the endogenous level ,To intiate target identification and validation studies. There are many cell line which depends upon its needs are used in various ways. Human cell line pairs provide a model system for the study of the role of genes in cellular processes and drug responses. Cell lines are provided with a matched wild type control parental cell line ensuring phenotypes can be attributed directly to the requested genetic modification.
1.5 Delonix elata
Delonix elata is an erect tree with 6-10 m tall and is commonly called as white gulmohar. It is the flowering plant from the species fabaceae family delonix.It is a deciduous tree with a rounded spreading crown and drooping branches.It grows up to 5-15metres tall.The tree is harvested from the wild area for local uses such as food,medicine,wood etc.These trees are also protected and cultivated by local people in India.For cultivating this trees require a sunny position, well drained soil.It may also grows well in rocky soils.
Domain : Eukaryota
Figure 1.0 Delonix elata
? Leaves are used by traditional practitioners in case of inflammatory joint disorders.
? Delonix elata trees bark are used as a febrifuge and antiperiodic
? It reduces swelling and wounds by extracting the juice of the leaves.
? Leaves juice mixed with castor oil are applied over wounded and swelling to reduces the inflammation
? Leaves are also used as antioxidant and anti inflammatory property
? Majorly used for joint pain like arthritis
1.5 Aim and Objectives :
In-vitro antioxidant and anti- inflammatory activity of Delonix elata samples againts oestrosarcoma MG-63 cell line.
• To identify the bioactive compounds in Delonix elata.
• To estimate the antioxidant activity of Delonix elata
• To estimate the anti inflammatory activity using Delonix elata againts osteosarcoma cell line