BSc Health and Safety Management BHSM 4319 Capstone Project critically discuss guidelines for the development and implementation of a health and safety management system

BSc Health and Safety Management
BHSM 4319
Capstone Project
critically discuss guidelines for the development and implementation of a health and safety management system, health and safety policies, and health and safety procedures for a new company in the oil and gas industry
by
Rayan al-mahrooqi
20144924
26 April 2018
Deputy HoD (HSSE)
and
Programme Co-ordinator
Ian Phillips

AbstractThe blueprint of fledging Oil and Gas Company is to comply with the legislation of the country. Employers have a primary duty by law to protect their employees from harm and to provide a safe environment to perform their duties. There are several reasons why workplaces need a health and safety policy or program. To clearly demonstrate management’s full commitment to their employee’s health and safety; to show employees that safety performance and business performance are compatible. To clearly outline employer and employee accountability and responsibility for workplace health and safety; to comply with the Occupational Health and Safety legislation and set out safe work practices and procedures to be followed in order to prevent workplace injuries and illnesses. Every organisation should step up a health and safety management system that includes the four key stones which are risk management, active monitoring, reactive monitoring, and training. Prepare and train the workers what they should do in an emergency evacuation. They are guidelines on how safely handle, storage, and disposal hazardous even non hazardous materials. Health and Safety plays an important role in the work environment. Organizations have to make sure that they protect the employees and the general public from risks in order to carry out operations efficiently. The area of safety and health at work involves with preserving and protecting human and facility resources in the place of work and puts a stop in unnecessary deaths and injuries to employees. It is an endorsed commitment by management to its employees regarding their health and safety. A health and safety program contains the health and safety elements of an organization, objectives which make it possible for the company to achieve its goal in the protection of its workers at the workplace.

AffidavitI hereby declare that this Capstone Project is my own work and any reference made to or taken from other sources has been cited in text and referenced in accordance with the Harvard System of referencing.

Rayan Al Mahrooqi
26 April 2018

Ethical ApprovalThe title of this project has been set by the Modern College of Business and Science BSc Health and Safety Management Programme Co-ordinator. Whilst the project involves a specific and named industry, it is not associated with any existing or defunct company or organisation, and has been completed using authorised publications both online and hard copies, and from information gleaned from lectures, formal and informal conversations.
Consequently ethical approval for the project is not required.

AcknowledgementsI would like to express my sincere thanks to my parents for their continuous support additionally, my siblings for motivating me so I can achieve my research. Also, to my supervisor Mr Ian who gave me the guidance, knowledge and the golden opportunity to do this project of Health and Safety Management. I would like to thank PDO for giving me the insight of Oil and Gas industry.

Contents
TOC “00 Capstone L1 Chapter,2,00 Capstone L2 Section,3,00 Capstone L3 Sub Section,4,00 Capstone L4 Sub Sub Section,5,00 Capstone Front Chapter,1” Abstract PAGEREF _Toc512978264 h ii
Affidavit PAGEREF _Toc512978265 h ii
Ethical Approval PAGEREF _Toc512978266 h iii
Acknowledgements PAGEREF _Toc512978267 h iv
1.Introduction PAGEREF _Toc512978268 h 1
2.Review of Literature PAGEREF _Toc512978269 h 4
3.Legislation PAGEREF _Toc512978270 h 6
Origins of Omani Law (Introduction) PAGEREF _Toc512978271 h 6
International Labour Organisation PAGEREF _Toc512978272 h 7
Labour Law 2012 PAGEREF _Toc512978273 h 7
MD 286/2008 PAGEREF _Toc512978274 h 8
Other Key Legislation in Oman PAGEREF _Toc512978275 h 9
Employers’ Health and Safety Duties and Responsibilities PAGEREF _Toc512978276 h 10
Rights and Responsibilities of Workers PAGEREF _Toc512978277 h 11
4.Methodology PAGEREF _Toc512978278 h 12
5.Discussion PAGEREF _Toc512978279 h 13
Health and Safety Management PAGEREF _Toc512978280 h 13
Health and Safety Policies and Procedures PAGEREF _Toc512978281 h 15
Risk Management PAGEREF _Toc512978282 h 17
Active Monitoring PAGEREF _Toc512978283 h 20
Reactive Monitoring PAGEREF _Toc512978284 h 21
Health and Safety Training PAGEREF _Toc512978285 h 23
Fire and Emergency Preparedness PAGEREF _Toc512978286 h 25
Hazardous Agents and Toxicology PAGEREF _Toc512978287 h 28
Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene PAGEREF _Toc512978288 h 28
Toxicology PAGEREF _Toc512978289 h 29
Occupational Diseases and Ill-Health PAGEREF _Toc512978290 h 31
HAZMAT Management PAGEREF _Toc512978291 h 32
Workplace Hazards and Controls PAGEREF _Toc512978292 h 34
Ergonomics and Anthropometrics PAGEREF _Toc512978293 h 34
Indoor Air Quality PAGEREF _Toc512978294 h 35
Electricity PAGEREF _Toc512978295 h 36
Noise PAGEREF _Toc512978296 h 37
Light PAGEREF _Toc512978297 h 38
Display Screen Equipment PAGEREF _Toc512978298 h 39
Machinery Hazards and Controls PAGEREF _Toc512978299 h 40
Pedestrian and Vehicle Route PAGEREF _Toc512978300 h 41
Environmental Factors PAGEREF _Toc512978301 h 42
Modes of Pollution and Cycles PAGEREF _Toc512978302 h 42
Aspects PAGEREF _Toc512978303 h 44
Impacts PAGEREF _Toc512978304 h 46
Control of Waste PAGEREF _Toc512978305 h 47
Operational Security Management PAGEREF _Toc512978306 h 49
6.Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc512978307 h 52
7.Table of References PAGEREF _Toc512978308 h 54

IntroductionThe oil and natural gas industry plays an important role in the world’s economy. This industry is expanding very fast and providing many new job opportunities; but at the same time there is an increased risk of work related fatality, injury and diseases. New exposures of hazards are some of the challenges being faced by the employees to maintain a safe and healthy work environment. There are two major sectors within the oil industry. Upstream this is the process of extracting the oil and refining it involves the operation in searching for oil and gas either underground or underwater. Downstream includes operation that process and stores, markets and transport crude oil and natural gas like methane. The cycle of processing field oil includes exploration, appraisal, development, production and abandonment.
In this discussion, it will be talked about the different types of legislation that involves how the Omani legislation started, the purpose and impact of the ILO, labour law, MD 286/2008, rights & duties of the managers and role & obligation of the staffs. The Omani legislation started in 1971 which involves in two types royal degree and ministerial decree. The ILO was established in 1919. The ILO governing body includes examples of government, employers, organizations and workers organization. It consists of two types’ convection and recommendation. Labour law articles talks about different things such as annual leave, maternity leave, industrial safety and employment of juveniles. MD 286/2008 rules are composed of 43 Articles covering an extensive variety of issues that includes Lighting, Ventilation, heat stress, noise, uniforms, personal protection equipment’s, emergency treatment and work related ill-health. ARWA RD114-2001 is the law for the Protection of Environment and Prevention of Pollution which authorize strict penalties for the environmental pollutants and discharge of waste that are released, both in the land and the water territory of Oman. Roles and responsibility of the employer they have a duty is to maintain a safe workplace, equipment’s and system of work to themselves and to the workers. Duties and responsibility of the workers they have a duty of care to guarantee that they work in a way that is not harmful to their own wellbeing and should receive information regarding hazards and risks.

It is vital to understand the fundamental of health and safety and management principles in order to successfully implement health and safety in the workplace. The management of health and safety is crucial to ensure the workplace environment, plant, machinery, equipments and activities are safe and without risk to people. Health and safety management system should consider the keystones of health and safety which are risk management, active monitoring, reactive monitoring and health and safety training. Risk assessment does activity based risk assessment such as chemical and biological hazards, manual handling, and display screen equipment. Active monitoring known as proactive monitoring which is looking for hazards before an accident occur. It includes inspection, audits, survey, tours and sampling. Reactive monitoring looks at results after an accident has occurred which is examining and learning the failure of the health and safety management system. Thus, providing remedial actions and finding out the root cause of the hazard. Health and safety training ensures people have the proper knowledge to undertake their task safely without harming themselves or others. Implementing health and safety program means planning, developing and review procedures. Planning is essential for implementing health and safety policies. Controlling risks can be achieved through the co-ordinated action by all members of the organisation. By implementing appropriate control measures that eliminate or reduce the risk to an acceptable level, which means less accidents and reduced losses.
Fire safety management is very essential to have in an organisation because when fire occurs there’s a high possibility of injuries, deaths, property damage and reputation damage. Accidents can easily happen without the proper training in place, to prevent it from happening set up policy and procedures. If occupational health is managed, then it will reduce absence sickness and removal of health hazards that appear in the work. Manage health at workplace by doing the plan, do check, act to identify potential risk like chemical, biological, physical, ergonomics agents. The risk from occupational diseases can lead to serious consequences for human health. Therefore, to overcome the problems, some remedies should be implemented such as putting into action a risk assessment and health surveillance which is needed in order to collect data, and risk management to prevent new diseases. Hazard is the potential source to cause harm and affects individual’s health. They are different types of hazardous agents which are chemical, biological, physical, and psychological agents. Exposure to hazard agents in any form can affect the body in many ways and can enter the body through skin contact, ingestion, inhalation, and injection. Hazardous and nonhazardous waste flow should be controlled from the source of generation to the final treatment. It is essential to have a policy and procedures that controls the handling of waste by implementing an effective plan of management that includes collection, segregation, storage, treatment and disposal of waste.
Examples of ergonomic hazards are display screen equipment, indoor air quality, electricity, noise, light, and manual handling. It is essential to implement ergonomics concept so the risk of MSDs can be reduced in companies. Proper implementation of ergonomics can decrease compensations costs, increase productivity, and decrease employees rate of replacement. The oil and gas industry has major hazards to the environment which can impact at different areas like air, water, soil and all living things. Pollution is connected to all activities throughout all stages of oil and gas production. During all the processes of drilling, production, refining, and transportation, the impacts that are generated from it are waste water, gas emission, solid waste, and aerosols.

Review of LiteratureInternational health safety at work discusses about the foundation of health and safety into the level of NEBOSH international general certificate which is the ideal level of this programme written by Phil Hughes and Dr Ed Ferrett. Occupational health and safety framework covers foundations in health and safety, policy, organising, planning, measuring, audit ; review. It also demonstrate workplace hazards ; risk control, transport hazard ; risk control, musculoskeletal hazard ; risk control, work equipment ; risk control, electrical safety, fire safety, chemical ; biological health hazard and risk control, plus physical ; psychological health hazards and risk control.
Introduction to safety management notes discuses about introduction to management general health ; safety knowledge written by Ian Philips. The notes covers occupational health ; safety, the origin of legislation framework, how to implement it to ensure the organisation meets legal ; industry health ; safety standards. It also includes workforce should be competent and work in a safe ; healthy manner without putting themselves at risk or any other person. Occupational health requirements of the organisation develop workforce and system that will bring a safe and healthy workplace with a positive culture, plus reduce costs from minimising accidents, incidents, and near misses. Comply with environmental compliance to ensure the workplace doesn’t have adverse effect on people’s health or the environment.
Health and Safety Executive website discuses about information and guidance on health and safety related to different topics and industries. HSE aims to reduce work-related death, injury and ill health. It includes health and safety law and make sure the company complies with health and safety laws. It involves practical steps that protect people from harm and at the same time protect the future success and the growth of your business. They provide health and safety management in order to protect people from harm and at the same time protect the future success and growth of the business.

Health and Safety Authority website discuses about how workers in work activities can be protected from work related injury and ill-health. By enforcing occupational health and safety law, promoting accident prevention, and providing information and advice across all sectors, including retail, healthcare, manufacturing, fishing, entertainment, mining, construction, agriculture and food services. It concerns in protecting human health and the environment from the risks of chemicals, and to ensure proper handling, storage even disposal of chemical used in the workplace. Plus, expand the workers knowledge on work-related health risks.

Work Safe website discusses about workplace health ; safety laws and setting out principles, duties and rights in relation to health ; safety. Provide a balanced framework to secure the health and safety of workers and workplaces by protecting workers and other persons against harm to their health, safety and welfare by eliminating or minimising risks arising from work. It requires health and safety work risks to be managed. This means consideration of the potential work-related health conditions as well as the injuries that could occur. Also it includes management ; knowledge on different industries and topics such as chemicals, asbestos, machinery, electricity, manual handling and hazardous substance.

LegislationOrigins of Omani Law (Introduction)As claimed by (Nyulawglobal.org, 2016) Sultanate of Oman, having Muscat as its capital. It is a central Islamic monarchy in the Arab gulf. The Sultanate of Oman has four governorates Muscat, Dhofar, Musandam and Buraimi and five regions such as Batinah, Dhahirah, Dakhiliyah, Sharqiyah and the Wusta. The Sultanate gained its independence in July 1970 and since then was governed by Sultan Qaboos. Earlier to 1971 the Sharia/Islamic courts had the authority to determine on civil and criminal laws which is how the new phase of judicial and administrative has been conducted by Sultan Qaboos bin Said AL Said therefore improved the judicial system in the Sultanate. The lawful request of the Sultanate of Oman has been to a great extent classified in a constitution issued by the royal decree 101/96 on 6 November 1996. Sultanate of Oman legislation consists of two types: the primary and secondary legislation. The Sultan, known as a royal decree, enforces primary legislation. The secondary legislation is issued agreeable to ministerial decisions. The legal system in Oman is composed of a mixture of the Anglo-Saxon law and the Islamic law.
The governance is worked conforming to political, financial, social, cultural, and security standards set down in articles 10 to 14 of the constitution examples the property of the state over normal assets, a free market national economy, can’t take someone’s property without valid reason, balance chances between Omani residents. The constitution has also given different social rights that should be valued during the conduct of the government systems. Those rights consist of among others, the equal opportunity between citizens before the law, their equality in open rights and obligations and the restrictions of discrimination between them because of their sexual orientation, origin, color, language, and religion.
The Sultan is the head of state and the supreme commander of the armed forces. With his responsibilities set down in article 42 of the constitution, the Sultan keeps up the right and opportunities of the citizens, ensures the standards of law, takes brief measures to counter any risk to the safety of the state or its regional integrity, act for the state both inside and remotely in all worldwide connections.

International Labour Organisation(Philips, 2012) stated that the International Labour Organization (ILO) was established in 1919 to advance social equity and thereby contribute to widespread and long-term peace. The ILO belongs to the United Nations in 1945 and was formed as a direct result of World War 2. The ILO governing body includes examples of government, employers’, organizations and workers organization. Throughout the years, the ILO has issued for adjustment by member states broadly obey code of International Labour Standards on freedom of association, employment, social strategy, states of work, social security, industrial relations and work organization. Conventions (C155) talks about the main topics while recommendations (R164) talks about detailed topics which are forms of international labour standards that include guidelines on occupational safety and health. Conventions and recommendations are used regularly as models for making new or altering legislation. Legislation and some part of R164 can be used to model the plan and method of organization and companies on existing while taking into consideration culture and religion aspects. Conventions are open to be agreed to by the UN Member states. And once they have been approved on, they have a binding responsibility to follow with the requirements and know how to comply with the requirements once it’s been accepted. In order to be accepted, it has to be approved by 2/3 of the experts. Those member states approving the different conventions are required to report frequently to the ILO on their development in implementation and ongoing operation. The ILO objective is to promote social justice and internationally be aware of human and labour rights. And their mission is that social justice is important to international and lasting peace. (Ilo.org, 2018) states that the ILO brings together governments, employers, and workers spokesperson of 187 member states in order to set labour standards, develop polices, and set up programmers to promote decent work for all women and men. The other objectives are setting and promoting standards, essential principles, rights at work, create greater opportunities for women and men to decent employment and income, and enhance the effectiveness of social protection for all.
Labour Law 2012
Based on (Ministry of Manpower, 2012) Qaboos bin Said, after research of the state basic law announced by the royal decree no. 101/96, and the Labour law delivered by the royal decree No. 34/73 and changes thereof, and in conformation with public interest have declared these followings articles about different things such as annual leave, maternity leave, industrial safety and employment of juveniles. In Oman, numerous adjustments were represented in the labour laws for the welfare of workers.

As per Chapter two states that two weeks off have been required for laborers in all private firms. The leave can be on any day commonly chosen by the companies and workers. The limit number of work hours a day has been set at nine hours a day. A worker can be requested to work additional hours, as long as it does not surpass 12 hours a day. The manager should give the workers a core wages for the hour besides 25 percent for the additional hours throughout the day shifts and 50 percent for the additional hours throughout the night shifts. The new Omani law adds for 30 days of paid leave yearly and an urgent leave for six days. It has as well as brought work beneficial changes in relation to banishment and discontinuation of service of a worker. The organization that does not agree to the recommendation of Oman guidelines would be punished.
According to part 5, the employment of juveniles before the age of 15 is banned and is not suppose to exceed seven hours a day continuously at work. The employees should not be obliged to work for additional hours or work during leave. Depending on their age job, the minister determines which industry is suitable for them to work in. all providing regulating in employment of workers are relevant to women workers without being prejudice and should not be working between 9 pm and 6 am. Female workers have the right to get maternity leave for 50 days with earning full salary. As long it does not exceed 6 months, the employer should not reject the female employee for her absence as a result of maternity illness accepted by the medical certificate.

MD 286/2008As stated by (Curtis, 2012) in 2008 the Ministry of Manpower published Ministerial decree no. 286/2008 presenting the rules of occupational health and safety for establishments governed by the labor law. The Regulations accommodates to thoroughly supervise structure with the goal of enhancing ideal health and safety in the place of work and securing workers from different job-related risks. The rules are composed of 43 Articles covering an extensive variety of issues including: Lighting, Ventilation, heat stress, noise, uniforms, personal protection equipment’s, emergency treatment and work related ill-health.
As per article 15, the manager must take all vital activities to take sufficient care to the workers protection while at the working environment. Work outfit and gear for personal protection must consent with the predetermined measures of safety obligation and relies upon the real risks the employee’s are being detected to. The manager should prepare the workers’ on the most ideal method to utilize, conserve, and accumulate such gears. Important indication in the significant languages should be posted in every single unsafe zone where access is forbidden without utilizing individual protection equipment.
In article 17, the manager has to take all the actions to make sure the facilities in the workplace are enough to protect the health and safety of the workers. The conditions include: firstly, different toilets have to be equip along with female workers toilet and should be distant from the male toilets plus the toilets should be sanitized with exhaust ventilator and enough lighting. Secondly, all rooms should have enough ventilation and lighting along with each bed should be apart from each other by at least one meter. Every employee should own their private cupboard and their bed sheets should be kept clean. Thirdly, the preparation of the food should be sanitized and be kept in tight closed containers as well as have a separate place for cooking. Fourthly, the place where they serve food should have enough ventilation and lighting and be kept clean at all times. Restrooms should be kept close to work and have different rooms for female and male workers.

According to article 16, in managing with different risks in the work environment, the regulation gives a checklist of measures to the managers that needs to be performed, so they can reduce accidents and the vulnerability of being exposed to different risks and dangers that consists of: fire, mechanical and electrical risks, chemical hazards, heavy weight equipment’s, workers’ transport vehicles, also the hazards of dangerous beams, job- related cancer and asbestos. The manager should also provide enough lighting and is spread in the workplace equally. The system should have emergency light in place, just in case of failure of the normal lights and should clearly show the workers the emergency exits and utilize it. Along with having fire extinguisher and alarms in place and clearly shown.

Other Key Legislation in OmanThe principal framework legislation is the Law for the Protection of Environment and Prevention of Pollution (RD 114-2001).  This law authorize strict penalties for the environmental pollutants and discharge of waste that are released, both in the land and the water territory of Oman. According to (ARWA, 2013) based on article RD 46/1995 Law of Handling and Use of chemicals states that tests should be conducted on the chemicals to determine their level of hazard and toxicity. Permits needs to be issued for any hazardous chemicals located in the work environment in order to research about them. Collecting the related data to allow agencies to inspect them and registering the chemicals including the people handling it. Developing guidelines, rules, advice for the workers in the area of chemicals and promoting proper awareness on the safe handling of chemicals. Checking that all boxes of inspection are fulfilled and chemicals should be examined at site. Prepare meetings for the committee to follow up the implementation of its decisions. The user of the hazardous chemicals should take the proper measurements to protect the staff against health hazards even risks and provide them with complete PPE. They must be trained and fully aware of the handling and dealing with the risks of chemicals. Prepare a list that includes the users, name of chemical, quantity, level of hazard and method of handling which should be given to the department. The punishment of not obeying to the rules is jailed for maximum of three years and fine of five thousand Riyal Omani.
According to RD 114/2001 Law on Conservation of the Environment and Prevention of Pollution states that no pollutants should be disposed in the environment unless it’s in accordance with the rules and conditions issued by the ministry. The owner should use proper measures to adopt the techniques approved by the ministry to minimize the generation of the waste and to use proper machines to prevent pollutions of the environment and to protect its natural resource. The ministry has the right to take the necessary measures to monitor and control the environment in which environment conservation policies and methods shall be re-assessed. Without having a permit from the ministry, the hazardous waste should not be handled, dealt with or disposed in the environment. The hazardous waste should not be discharged in wadis, groundwater, and flood drainage.
Employers’ Health and Safety Duties and ResponsibilitiesEmployers have legal obligation to guarantee a safe and healthy environment. As an employer they have rights and responsibilities for their own wellbeing and their workers. The employer’s duty is to maintain a safe workplace, equipment’s and system of work. Employers need to provide instruction to the employees and supervision to make sure they are working in the right way. The goal is to work in a hazard and risk free zone; to achieve this, employers need to make sure that workers are protected from anything that may cause harm by adequately controlling any hazards. The employers need to give the employee information about the hazards in the workplace, also the training on how to deal with it.
Employers have a responsibility to take care of their own and staff wellbeing and safety, to take reasonable care not to put other individuals at harm by what the person does or doesn’t do throughout work, to maintain machinery and equipment’s. The employer should equip their staff with necessary instructions and training, appropriate PPE free of charge and adequate supervisors of work practices. Consulting with their workers to set up health and safety policy in order to maintain and report any accidents or ill-health records as required by law. Managers need to guarantee that direct reports are properly prepared in their job obligations. The manager must assess the worker’s progress all the time and determine if extra preparing is required. And also work with every worker to make career objectives and arrangements to accomplish them. Managers should also make disciplinary action to an employee if their incapable to sufficiently operate their jobs or obtrusively breaks organization rules.

Rights and Responsibilities of WorkersThe right of a worker is to work in a safe and healthy environment which is given by law and normally it can’t be changed or removed by your manager. As far as possible, to control any danger to the wellbeing and safety properly, the employers need to ensure that actions are taken and risk assessment in order to prevent any accident or ill-health. As well as working with their boss to ensure they get the proper training, and understanding of the company’s health and safety rules. The manager must give personal protective equipment (PPE) to all employees without payment. They should utilize this properly and follow the training and guidance they have been given. Giving employees leaflets about health and safety laws so they can read and understand the documents. The organization has to provide basic facilities such as toilets, drinking water and cafeteria. Teaching the employees to report any work related accidents, diseases and dangerous emergency so they can investigate it.
Workers have health and safety obligation as well as employers. This reflects a good safety management that is vital for the employer and employees to cooperate. The duties of the employee is to coordinate with the employer on health and safety matters, follow guidelines from the employer on health and safety matter and attend important training and report harmful and defect’s noticed in the working environment. All workers have a duty of care to guarantee that they work in a way that is not harmful to their own wellbeing and receive information regarding hazards and risks.

MethodologyThis project is based on qualitative research and not quantitative. Qualitative research includes collecting information from hard and soft publications, interviews, lectures and discussions with peers. The data gathered is from case study, theory, books, lectures, websites, and journals. In primary data, the research is based on data gathering information strategies that involves interview, focus groups, lectures, and library. And in the secondary data, it includes the internet and books which has been cited in text and referenced in accordance with the Harvard System of referencing.

Quantitative research was not used in this research as questioners were not used and the collection of information did not involve numerical data. While quantitative research uses tools like questionnaires, and surveys to collect the data.

DiscussionHealth and Safety ManagementAs stated by (Philips, 2016) in the initial review which is also called the gap analysis. It allows the company to compare its current OH&S if any to the OHSAS 18001, this comparison will show the areas that need focusing in improving and changes that are needed to comply with the standards. The gap analysis consists of questions that are a yes or no answer, if you answer no then it reveals gaps that should be changed. The most important tool for the gap analysis is the checklist. This is a list of the requirements in the standard, written on question format. The checklist will become the roadmap of the project, telling the organisation what areas of the existing system need revision. The standard list will need to be implemented, and documented. Every question on the checklist can be answered by knowing what is in place and what is not in place. The team must be familiar with the standard in order to perform an effective audit. Once the team has been trained on the OHSAS 18001 then they can be competent performing the gap analysis.
In the Occupational Health and safety policy should provide a clear directions and visions on where the person wants to be and be able to reach it which is approved by the top management. Developing OH&S policy shows commitment in implementing and maintaining the overall OH&S performance. The company’s OH;S policy should emphasize the need to prevent injury and ill health, comply with all legal and non-legal requirements, and be appropriate to the nature and scale of the OH;S risks that the organization must deal with. All workers working under the control of the organization will have to be aware of their individual OH;S obligations and to be reviewed to ensure it remains up-to date. In order to develop OH;S objectives, actions have to be encouraged and implemented.
The planning process is required to have the proper steps in developing a programme meeting the OHSAS 18001 requirements. The company is responsible for identifying and determining the workplace hazards of all works activities under all conditions. This creates the need for a detailed plan of work activities that must be based on both process hazard and job hazards to meet all possible hazard scenarios and conditions. A list of job type should be established and determining each associated job hazards by specific activity must be completed. The organization should keep all the documents of identification of hazards, risk assessments and determined controls up-to-date. When establishing, implementing, and maintaining the OH;S management system, the organization has to control the risks which need to be considered.
The implementation process is a system developed during the planning phase. The staffs in the workplace have to be competent to perform tasks that may impact on health and safety in the workplace. The definition of competence is having appropriate education, training and experience. Top management demonstrate his commitment by ensuring the availability of resources essential to establish, maintain and improve the OH;S management system. The organization should ensure that any person under its control performing tasks that can impact on OH;S are competent on the basis of appropriate education, training, experience and keep related records.
In the checking and corrective action phase is when the organisation should know if the system is effective in managing risk and protecting staff or needs improvement. In this process the organisation learn from their accidents and incident, errors and ill-health data. If there’s any issue, the organisation should take action on that problem and then update the risk assessments and policy. This phase is to monitor and measure the process against OHS policy, objectives, including legal and then report the results. Every worker involved with the system should be aware of their responsibility regarding the operation of the system. The organization should establish, implement and maintain a procedure to monitor and measure OH&S performance on a daily basis.
Each company’s top management should review the health and safety management system to ensure it is continually improving and effective for the work environment. This review should be documented with the relative top management signature and kept up-to date. The management system should be reviewed regularly to deliver the commitment and continual improvements. The organization should establish, implement and maintain a procedure for the identification, storage, protection and keeping of records.
OH;S management system auditing is a process in which organizations can review and continuously evaluate the effectiveness of their system. This must be implemented to ensure that the OHS management system is operating in compliance with these requirements. To help the organisation to manage the risk of workplace accidents and ill-health and confirm that arrangements are in place to meet legal requirements. OH;S system and arrangements are designed to meet recognised standard criteria. Only competent, independent and part of the organization should carry out OH;S management system audit. Auditors should be acquainted with the requirements set out in any relevant legislation; they should be aware and have access to standards and authoritative guidance relevant to the work they are engaged in. OHSAS 18001 is the only system that is accredited and requires annual audit of the system by an auditor approved by the accrediting authority.
In the continual improvement phase the organisation must display that they are continually monitoring and reviewing their health and safety performance while aiming to improve. It can be achieved by carrying out internal audits, performing management reviews and implementing corrective actions.

Health and Safety Policies and ProceduresAccording to (Philips, 2016) the statement of intent lays down the intentions of health and safety policy for the organisation, sets out commitment in managing health and safety effectively. The statement is signed and dated by the senior person in order to maintain the importance of health and safety also showing commitment and intentions for health and safety. It’s a written policy statement that shows the staff that the organisation’s is committed to health and safety and it’s signed and dated regularly by the most senior person.
In the organising section includes the names of who will have responsibilities for health and safety matters in the organisation. Organising deals with the health and safety roles and responsibilities of key people, their accountability and authority. It gives details necessary for compliance and health and safety training for the entire workforce. This document should be clearly written that provides details and objective to occupational health & safety policy which also contains arrangements, procedure and instructions to deal with significant hazards and controlling measures plus reviewing it annually.
The arrangements section contains details of what the organisation is going to do to achieve the aims which are set out in the statement of health and safety policy. This procedure enables health and safety to implement, identify and control the main hazards in the risk assessment within the organisation. It should be reviewed annually and it can only be effective if it’s followed up by the company and the staffs. The arrangement section will include risk management, accident management, active monitoring, and health and safety auditing.
Health and Safety Management is necessary to ensure the workplace environment, machinery, equipment and activities are safe without any risk to the workforce. The keystones are risk management, active-monitoring, re-active monitoring and HSE training. Removal of any one of the keystones will have a failure of the health and safety management system.
Risk management is most crucial successful management of health and safety. In here hazards are identified and then implement the control measures. Carrying out risk assessment of the workplace is necessary in order to examine what could cause harm, and who might be affected. They are 5 steps necessary steps to conduct a risk assessment which are look for hazards, decide who may be harmed and how, evaluate the risks, record the findings and finally review the assessment. Implementing suitable control measures can eliminate the risks to an acceptable or tolerable level, which therefore accidents and losses can be reduced.
Active monitoring is before an accident occurs. Identifying the defects by observing the workplace to ensure that the standards are maintained and risk control are effective. The results of active monitoring will affect risk assessments and will also prevent accidents depending on whether corrective actions are implemented. Methods of active monitoring include sampling which means systematic sampling of a particular dangerous activities, processes or areas. Tour which means general inspection, coaching and mentoring of the workplace, survey which means gathering the opinions of employees can be a useful indicator of the health of your organisation, and potential sources of work related stress. Inspection includes what to examine through planning and preparing, conducting the inspection itself, reporting and recording the outcome. And finally audit is gathering information followed by evaluation and validation of internal control these are the main steps of auditing.

Reactive monitoring is after an accident has occurred. Investigating all the accidents and finding out the root cause of it in order for the company to learn from the mistakes. Re-active monitoring measures failures or what has gone wrong that have been ignored and it’s caused by an accident or injury. By reporting all accidents and incidents, the data gathered will give a better understanding of what is improper and allows the cause to be assessed which accordingly helps lower the accidents and incident rates.
Health and safety training involves developing an adequate staff who can deal with any situation that can be expected to experience. Training is an adequate performance on how to manage a task and achieve an acceptable level of competence. Training ensures that people have the necessary knowledge to undertake their expected work duties safely without endangering themselves or others. Competence of the workforce is crucial for every worker in order to perform their job properly and safely. Induction training is required for every new employee when starting their new job or task to familiarize with the procedures and the risks related to the job.

Risk ManagementIt is more preferable to keep the risk assessment simple and uncomplicated so that the workforce can understand it and control measures can be implemented. One of the main problems with complicated risk assessment is that when there has been a serious accident or injury, that’s the only time supervisors review them when it should be reviewed all the time. Once the company identifies all of the possible risks that might jeopardize the success of the work, they must choose the hazard with the high risk that is most likely to occur. Once the company spots the hazard, training should be required for the assessment team to look for hazards concerning materials, equipment, environment, people and arrangements. The workforce then should develop appropriate control measures then decide on a suitable review date depending upon the severity of the risk. The steps of a risk assessment is look for the hazards, in this stage they identify the potential hazards in the workplace and then carry out inspection of all the hazards associated with the workplace. Decide who might be harmed and how, asking the employees what are the hazards in the workplace is a good idea because they might notice things that are not obvious to employer and ways to control it. Evaluate the risk means identifying the risk in order to know the level of the risk and what to do about it. The company should maintain the risk by balancing the level of risk against measures that is needed to control it. Recording the findings is important to keep it simple and focused on controls. Putting them in order of importance and addressing the most serious risks at first. Lastly, reviewing it when bringing new equipments to the workplace can lead to new hazards also reviewing what the worker is doing on a regular basis and keeping the risk assessment up to date.

When it comes to evaluating the risk, each hazard is examined and the initial risk rating is established. Then the company determines to whether to eliminate or reduce the hazards and put in suitable control measures if they are necessary. In estimating the risk, we calculate the likelihood that harm will occur and the consequences of that harm. One of the main methods of risk rating is risk matrix. There are two elements to a risk matrix which are the likelihood of it happening and the severity. The company should always aim for towards acceptable risk. Hazards with trivial risk do not need control measures but severe hazards needs control measures to reduce their risk as far as reasonably practicable. Everyone in the company should know about reasonably practicable and how it is important because it is fundamental to the work of the whole organisation. Reasonably practicable is a cost benefit analysis that compares the cost of risk reduction against the benefits in reduced risk. The realistic risk management depends upon a balance between cost and risk reduction. The perfect scenario is for a maximum risk reduction for the minimum cost, but that is not always possible so a balance of acceptability or tolerability must be reached.

Control measures are developed to eliminate, prevent or reduce the risk from potential major accidents and incidents. After evaluating the risk, control measures should be established for each hazard in order to reduce the risk. Risk control systems include policies, procedures, training and supervision designed to prevent and minimise exposure to hazards also to deal with foreseeable injuries. Classify risk control by prioritising the control measures with providing a series of measures in order of priority. The hierarchy of risk control is to discipline the workers to wear their PPE so they can control the level of exposure or contact by isolating people from the hazards which is reducing the risk or eliminate the hazards. It is more frequent that each hazard has several control measures that work in harmony with each other to reduce the risk rating.
An action plan is important to be developed in order to prioritise the implementation of the control measures once they have been established. Train the workers to recognise hazards associated with their work and the required control measures provided from the risk assessment. Preferably every control measures should be implemented before the activity being undertaken, but because of time limitation there must be temporary control measures in place until the recommended measures are completed as soon as possible. It also assures that guidance is available to ensure the correct actions are taken within a reasonable period. Permit to work forms an essential part of safe systems of work due to many maintenance and breakdown activities. It is a formal documented authority and control system to confirm that specific actions have been carried out to eliminate or control hazards and risk. The permit is only required if there are high-risk issues or existing controls are not sufficient to control risks.
Active MonitoringHealth and safety performance should be monitored by the company so they can identify if the policy is implemented or not and if the control measures serves its purpose, if not then it needs to be fixed. Monitoring means measuring and checking the progress to see if the control is adequate. They are two types of monitoring. Active monitoring also called as proactive monitoring that happens before an accident occurs and also to check standards. This monitoring is vital because they can prevent incidents from happening. When defect has been identified, there must put in place corrective measures and observe the workplace for any hazards that could cause harm to the workers. Active monitoring evaluates the accomplishments of goals, complying with guidelines, work state inspection, also health and environment checking. Reactive monitoring happens after an accident has occurred to investigate and learn from mistakes.
Active monitoring is an important aspect of modern health and safety management because they can keep employees from harm. Keeping records and documents can help protect the company. The objective is to ensure health and safety strategy is implemented and check for internal and external compliance. They are 5 types of active monitoring which are sampling, survey, inspection, audit and tours. Sampling is the random and regularly procedure. Survey is more specific issue to determine strength and weakness of a problem. Inspection is an organized, formal, and more physical on site work that is mostly conducted by a team which then creates a report Therefore have a result and conclusion for that problem. Audit is collecting independent information and developing proper corrective action plan.
As claimed by (CCOHS, 2016) inspection has enhanced health and safety result by developing health and safety standard ; procedures, initiate control precautions and monitoring the successful of controls. Firstly, there’s a general workplace health and safety inspection that consist of normal daily basic examination and observation of the workplace including the equipment, plants and people.
Secondly, statutory inspection is checking if the company is complying with the laws and regulation of the health and safety policy & procedure. thirdly, compliance or mandatory inspection is examine all the tools that may cause harm for staff like lifting equipment that involves people working in them, will need to be inspected every 6 months while other tools has to be inspected every 12 months. And lastly, commission inspection has to be done when brand new equipment arrives in the workplace which has to be examined to see if it works the way it’s supposed to. A checklist is important to clear up any observation obligations, controls examination actions and gives a report of the investigation. Checklist allows on the spot recording of data which then the documents can be recorded to be used as a guide to develop a checklist for the workplace
In the opinion of (Burgon, 2013) audit is a the systematic examination to determine whether activities and related results conform to planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable for achieving the organisation’s policy and objectives. By conducting this auditing activity it will highlight the effectiveness of your health and safety management control systems and identify areas of weaknesses within your organisation. The company must regularly examine the quality and effectiveness of your health and safety management systems. When HSE conduct their investigations into major accidents, it usually highlights health and safety management failures as being the root cause of the problem.

Safety sampling is a standard test of specific dangerous activities, tasks or areas. Safety sampling is a technique performed in a workplace or hazardous area that is used to measure potential hazards in an accident. This is done using a list of standards or regulations from the occupational health and safety.

Survey is gathering information from individuals like a questioner about any hazards and how to amend them. Workplaces often use a survey to determine what’s happening in the site and office aspects of a workplace health and safety program.

Health and safety tour is a safety visit refers to walking around the work office to get a general evaluation of the working environment and safety utilization. This is usually done by the manager or supervisor to monitor the compliance of the rules, finding the defects or acts of neglects, and taking proper remedial actions to make things fill in according to the set standards and procedures.

Reactive MonitoringSafe working procedures and risk assessment has to be reviewed after an incident to make sure the accident didn’t happen because of it. It is important to check the findings from the investigation to see if they are really suitable and sufficient. As stated by (Hughes and Ferrett, 2013) any accident or incidence of ill-health will cause direct or indirect causes and that maybe be insured or not. The injured staff could sue their employer and file claim that they weren’t being safe and protected in the workplace therefore get compensation. When a worker has been injured from an accident, before anyone can help the worker, they need to check their surrounding making sure that the situation is safe and the casualty is not in any danger. Then assess the casualty, call an ambulance and carry out basic first aid. Organize a formal investigation as soon as possible to find out exactly why the accident happened and how it can be prevented.  Based on (GO2HR, 2016) employers have to take the reasonable steps to ensure health, safety and welfare of their staff at work. Failure to do so could lead to a criminal prosecution and suing for personal injury. The employer has the responsibility to not put their employees at risk that includes providing safe plant, machinery, safe premises, and safe system of work. Procedures should be established and implement when necessary to deal with serious and threatening danger to staff at work. First-aid, emergency medical care and rescue should be provided in the workplace. In the opinion of (Hughes and Ferrett, 2013) to give information and training for employees will develop their awareness and understand the specific hazard and risk associated with their job. It also notifies them of the control measures that are in place and any link with safe procedures that must be followed. By providing training and knowledge to the employees will reduce the rate of accident, severity, absence, and compensation claim. First aiders who help the workers that are injured needs to trained and competent. Employees should be informed of the first aid arrangement by putting up notices notifying them who and where the first aider is.
Mentioned by (Healthy working lives, 2016) recording and reporting accidents and ill-health at work is a legal requirement. The company has to record and report accidents, incidents and also near-misses. Near-misses are important to report because in this way we can learn from it and prevent from anyone getting hurt in the future. By giving the provided information enables the authorities to identify where and how risks arise and to investigate serious accidents. Also provide advice on how to reduce injuries and ill-health in the workplace. Workers needs to know the arrangement of reporting and should be kept available and easily accessible at all reasonable time As reported by (Hughes and Ferrett, 2013) usually accidents are caused from unsafe acts or unsafe conditions; therefore the manager in an organization will attempt to find the human error that is caused. Immediate causes are events that results in the loss. Errors and mistakes can be reduced by the use of instruction, training and relevant information. Root cause is a more thorough investigation that falls under management, planning, or organisational failings. An organisational failing includes the quality of health and safety policy and procedure which are written statement that includes all the rules and guidelines the workers should follow. Risk assessments, plans and control system is important because it priorities the risks and implements corrective control measures. Based on (Healthy working lives, 2016) once an accident investigation has taken place, it is critical for the staff to learn from the report information to make changes to health and safety policy or procedures in order to prevent similar incidents from occurring again. It is important that any changes happen because of an accident, investigation information are closely monitored and evaluated soon after checking their effectiveness. As claimed by (Wiki.bath.ac.uk, 2016) some remedial actions may be relatively simple ; can be completed. Most remedial actions will be more complicated and will require more time to complete then generate a recommendation and risk matrix. Remedial actions should be regularly reviewed and checked if they are on track and take action if they are not. The depth of the investigation depends on their outcome or consequences. When a catastrophe happens in the workplace and many employees got injured or died. They ask for compensation either by the injured staff or their family, so then the external source such as the ministry of health would gather all the information and make a report to know the reason of the error.
Health and Safety TrainingThe opinion of (Business.gov.au, 2016) workplace health and safety is the training concerned with protecting the health and safety of all the people in the workplace from exposure to hazards and risks happening from work activities. Everyone who works for the company needs to know how to work safely and without risks to health. The employer must provide clear instructions, information, and adequate training, for the employees. Training should be provided on recruitment, at induction or introduction to new equipment or being transferred to another job which involves change in the workplace will result in the need to review training courses. There are different types of training which includes induction, job-specific, supervisory and management, also specialist. All the contractors, employees and self-employed people who are working for the company has to have the right level of information on the hazards and risks they may face, control measures in place to deal with those hazards, and how to follow any emergency procedures. Induction training should always be provided to new employees, trainees, and contractors. Job-specific training ensures that employees undertake their job in a safe manner sometimes known as toolbox training. They should cover details of safe system of work, permit to work system, normal safety procedures, emergency procedures and correct use of PPE. Supervisory and management training covers similar topics as induction training but topics are more in-depth. Specialist training is needed for an activity like first-aid, fire prevention and overhead crane operation.

Making a safe working system environment is very important to the achievement of the company, and one of the ideal actions is to maintain their employees and to expand their efficiency. Although it is a high cost to perform safety operation and put in place safety equipment’s, but the impact of not making a move can be serious. As a health and safety manager, the manager has the responsibility to take care of their staff regardless of the health and safety in the workplace to make sure the organization is safe to work in for the employees, customers and the public. A person can only be competent by training, qualification, and experience. Competence people who know what they are doing and have the necessarily expertise to do the job properly and safely, will make the organisation effective. (HSENI, 2018) states that Personal protective equipment is equipment that will protect the people from health and safety risks at work; it includes safety helmet, gloves, safety footwear, safety harnesses, eye protection, high visibility clothing, and respiratory protective equipment. PPE should be the last resort and when all measures have been considered as it provides limited protection. Wearing PPE is important as it can avoid and reduce workplace accidents and sickness.  Looking after the health, safety and welfare of your employees will promote a happy workforce, boost productivity and the business reputation. Employers should make sure employees are aware as to why PPE is needed, when to use it, how it can be replaced and who to report it to if it’s damaged.   Employers should continuously check that PPE is being worn. Safety signs can be a useful reminder that PPE is required.  Make sure that employees understand these signs, what they mean and where they can get PPE for visitors.

The law requires managers and the employees to perform their business in a way to ensure that is safe as far as is reasonably practicable, and that people involved are not presented to any dangers to their wellbeing or security. This involves giving them fundamental welfare equipment’s to staff. It is necessary that workers have the guidance and information to utilize devices to take care of equipment’s appropriately and that protected work practices are recognised at the industrial company. When an employee is using a chemical substance, a competent supervisor needs to be there with them to make sure they are doing the job properly and safely. Keeping training records will help to identify when refresher training might be needed. Every worker should know what they are expected to do. Health and safety training should take place during working hours and it must not be paid for by employees. 
Fire and Emergency PreparednessThere are many types of emergency that could occur in the workplace such as fire, terrorist attack, flood, water leaks, hurricane, strong winds, tornadoes, chemical leak, earthquake, and thunderstorm. Fire is one of the most common disasters. Fire causes more deaths than any other type of disaster. When fire occurs there’s a high possibility of injuries, deaths, property damage and reputation damage. Smoke and other gaseous combustion products are the most cause of death in fires. The fire produces heat and smoke which is a result of incomplete combustion. Smoke contains carbon-monoxide which is lethal to the environment and people. Inhaling carbon monoxide decreases the body oxygen supply. Exposure to high level of smoke should be avoided or it can cause immediate acute effects such as coughing, burning eyes, runny eyes, wheezing, nausea and difficulty breathing. The earlier the fire is discovered, the more likely it is possible for people to be able to evacuate before the fire blocks the escape route and make escaping difficult. Accidents can easily happen without the proper training in place therefore workers need to have training to know what to do in case of fire and even preventing it from happening in the first place by setting up fire and emergency plan in place which includes identifying the hazards, decide who may be harm and how, evaluate the risk, record the findings and review it. A competent person has to do the risk assessment like a professional risk assessor.
In agreement with (Hughes and Ferrett, 2013) stated that first identify the hazard which goes under three categories fuel source, ignition source, and oxygen source. Fuel source has three types which are solid combustibles materials such as wood, paper, fabric, and most kinds of trash. The second type is combustible liquids such as oil, solvent and gasoline. Most combustible liquids give off vapours which are heavier than air and ignite more rabidly which produces large amounts of heat and toxic smoke. And combustible gasses such as butane, acetylene, propane and LPG. An explosion can happen if the gas mixture is within the explosive area. Combustible materials should be stored away from the workplace or in fire-resistance stores. Workplaces have many sources of ignition, some of which are seen but others may be hidden inside equipment. Ignition sources include electricity, naked flames, sunlight, spark and friction. If possible, ignition sources should be removed from the workplace or replaced with a safer form. If it’s not possible, then they should keep the ignition source away from combustible materials. Oxygen is provided by the air but it can be enhanced by wind, or ventilation system. Some chemicals such as nitrates chlorate and peroxides can release oxygen as they burn which is called oxidizing agent. For a fire to happen, it needs sources of heat, and fuel. If these hazards can be kept apart, removed, or reduced then the risks to people and the organisation can be minimized. Consider the risk to any people who may be present. If a fire occurs, people will be at risk so the company should provide proper means of escape from it because a fire can spread throughout the workplace quickly. Ensure that people who could be affected are made aware of the danger and the action they should do to secure their safety and others. They include even structure of the building, the type of material they used in the building like brick, concrete, steel, cement, glass, wood, clay bricks, tiles, sand, plastics and ceramic. Every building should have control measures such as the different types of extinguishers, fire blanket, and detectors like smoke, heat and CO. There are four main process of extinguishing fire which includes cooling it reduces the ignition temperature by taking the heat out of the fire such as water. Smothering is to limit the oxygen available and preventing the mixture of oxygen with combustible gasses such as foam or fire blanket. Starving is to limit the fuel supply by removing the source of fuel such as isolating the flammable liquids. Lastly is the chemical reaction which is interrupting the chain of combustible. Alarm that either includes break glass, automatic, verbal, or manual. The fire alarms should be kept in the exits route and should be clearly heard throughout the workplace. Providing signs and emergency lights to show where the way out for safe is exist. The consequences of fire in the health effects include fatality, coughing, burning eyes, runny eyes, wheezing, nausea and difficulty breathing. Also causes cardiovascular effects and carbon monoxide poisoning. Besides loss of lives, fires can cause huge economic losses such as damage to equipment ; plants, loss of businesses and insurance payment which leads to reputation damage.
Evaluate the risks of each hazard with the initial risk rating by looking at the likelihood, outcome and then rating based on the company’s history then put them in order by priority. The high risk, put in place control measure by either eliminate, substitute, isolate, engineering control like barrier and guarding, administrative control like training and lastly PPE. Then a second risk rating happens it’s called residual to see if the control measures that they put in the initial risk rating is working or not. The common person to put these control measures in place is the manager. In the overall risk, they will take the highest rating either the initial or residual. The severity of the hazard depends on when they will review it, if it’s a high risk then every 6 months, medium risk between 3 to 9 months, and low risk is annually. The risk assessment should be in the fire emergency file located in each main building door so when the key people which are the emergency team ask for it, they are easily reached.
(Philips, 2017) stated that in the file of fire and emergency plan will include key personnel and contacts, evacuation checklist, utility isolating & emergency shut-off valves, evacuation plans, location of assembly points, location of safe refuges like disability, location and quantity of hazardous substance, emergency contractor call out details, contingency plan, forms to record sequence of events, initial report form template, current fire risk rating assessment, floor plans, and evacuation procedure flow charts. In another file should contain equipment operating instruction, record of equipment maintenance, record of detector and alarm maintenance which is every 6 months, record of alarm test, record of fire training, and record of evacuation drills. The key people are the emergency team which includes ROP, trained professional to talk to the family, HR to contact the family, fire Marshall, fire stewards, fire wardens, first aiders, civil defence, and authority. The emergency team directs people outside the building for safe evacuation and sweeps the building to make sure no one is inside. Fire evacuation plan should be produced and placed to the fire risk assessment that needs to show the escape root, number of exits, number of stairs, places of safety, fire safety signs that shows the exit signs, location of emergency lights and the location of the fire-fighting equipments. Safe working system is important in high hazards places where dangerous materials are being utilized. It involves jobs like welding, cutting, or burning materials.

Hazardous Agents and ToxicologyOccupational Health and Industrial HygieneOccupational health and hygiene focuses on the mental and physical health of employees in the workplace, including exposure to noise, vibration, hazardous substances and chemicals. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2016) states that occupational health concerns the recognition and management of the hazard which results from physical, chemical and other work-related hazards in order to organize and control to make sure it’s a safe and healthy working area. It is about the effects of work on a person’s health, and of a person’s health on their ability to work. Based on (Gov.gg, 2018) the goal of occupational health is to prevent work-related illness and injury by encouraging safe working practices, ergonomics, monitoring the health of the workers, supporting the management of sickness absence. Also, encourage to work with each other to implement policies and ensure health and safety is complied, provide health education programmers, and employees should provide the employers with idea suggestion on how to make reasonable adjustment to working conditions.
Occupational hygiene is the expectation, acknowledgment, assessment, control and avoidance of risks from work that might have the outcome of damage, illness, or influence the workers’ health. It helps workers to understand the risks and ways to improve working conditions & working practices. These hazards are usually divided into five type’s biological, physical, ergonomics, and psychosocial. Industrial hygiene is the anticipating, recognizing, and controlling health hazards in the working environment with the aim of protecting workers health and well-being. It is important because it ensures the workers are healthy and increases life expectation. Reduction of the numbers of work-injuries or illness lowers healthcare costs and improves efficient work therefore increases productivity. As claimed by (IOHA – International Occupational Hygiene Association, 2018) occupational hygienist implements the hierarchy of hazard control to reduce and manage the hazards in the workplace and is committed to protect the health and safety of people in the workplace and the community. They assess the health risk in the work environment by sampling air to determine if threes harmful substance present, measuring noise levels in the workplace, supervise the safe removal from asbestos from building, and provide advice on how workers can be protected from job-related risks.
The goal of Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene workers is to protect the health of workers and the community through the identification, evaluation and control of potential workplace exposures.  Each company should develop and implement an exposure assessment plan that identifies potential hazards exposures, and implements controls to prevent workers exposures. Health assessments are conducted to ensure that control measures are protecting the health of potentially exposed workers. Occupational health and industrial hygiene matter because as well as the human cost, there are production costs from sickness absence, staff turnover, dealing with medical emergencies and compensation claims.

ToxicologyHazard is the potential source to cause harm and effect individual’s health. They are different types of hazardous agents that include chemical, biological, physical, and psychological agents. One major idea in recognizing a danger is through the presence of stored energy that when released it can cause harm. Stored energy can occur in different structures like radiation, chemical, mechanical and electrical. Exposure to hazard agents in any form can affect the body in many ways like skin contact, ingestion, inhalation, injection which can cause major damage.
A chemical hazard is one of the types of occupational health created by being vulnerable to chemicals in the work environment. Exposure to chemicals in the organization can create short or long-term harmful side effects. There are many types of dangerous chemical which are irritant, systematic poison, asphyxiate, carcinogens and teratogen. Irritant is a chemical that is not corrosive but produces reversible inflammation when contacting the surface of the skin. Irritation affects the eyes, lung, and skin. Examples of irritants are acetic acid, ammonia, and sulphur dioxide. Systematic poison targets the digestive central system, reproductive system, liver and kidney that can cause illness or death when taken in small amounts. Examples of poison are lead and carbon disulphide. Asphyxiant is a type of gas that replaces the normal gas which can lead to death because it prevents oxygen from reaching the body cells. Because Asphyxiant gases are odourless their existence in high concentration can be not noticed that’s why it could lead to death straight away. Examples of Asphyxiate are nitrogen, argon and carbon monoxide.
Biological hazard is any agent that can cause infection, allergy or toxicity or create a hazard to human health. This includes micro-organisms which include bacteria and fungi, virus, or toxin. (Take one step, 2008) says that these agents enter the body by inhalation, ingestion or absorption. Once they are inside the body, they multiply quickly and can be passed to another person. Pathogens are biological hazards that have the ability to cause diseases. The people who are in higher risk for these hazards are the ones who work with animals or plants, or occupational health or child care. Diseases that are caused by biological hazards are bacterial diseases such as blood poisoning, fungal diseases such as ringworm, viral disease such as hepatitis, and parasitic worms which is entered through the body when their eggs are ingested.

Physical hazard is a type of occupational agent that is within an environment which can cause harm to the body with or without having contact. The examples are radiation, noise, electricity heat and cold, stress, and ergonomics. Exposure to high quantity of noise every day can cause permanent hearing loss or damage. (Wikipedia, 2017) claims that mine and construction workers are more vulnerable to higher constant levels of noise that’s why it has a higher risk of establishing hearing loss. Temperature can also create harm to workers which can cause heat stroke, exhaustion and rash. Heat causes glasses to steam up or makes the hands sweaty or dizziness which increases the risk of other damage like burns and dehydration. And exposure to extreme cold can cause hypothermia, frostbite or chilblains. Industries like manufacturing, mining and construction deals with so many machines that can be dangerous to workers. Machines can crush, burn, cut or wound workers if used unsafely. The machines can cause death to workers by slip and fall to sharp or pointed edges.

Psychosocial agent is any occupational factors that have the potential to have an effect on the psychological wellbeing of workers. That includes their capability of doing their work and interacting with other workers. Psychosocial risks and stress are one of the difficult issues because it effects crucially on the health of the workers and organization. The causes of psychological hazards are poor-life balance, long working hours, and lack of responsibility which effects their work organization, work load, and stress. Psychosocial hazards increases due to bad management of risk factors such as work design, and lack of strategies of implementation management. When the demand of their jobs is extreme, and it’s difficult for them to handle and cope that’s when the workers experience stress. Stress can also develop to mental and physical health problems such as cardiovascular disease or musculoskeletal problems. When a mental health is continued for a long time, the body will eventually breakdown which causes major health problems. Exposure of workplace hazards leads to unhealthy behaviour such as lack of productivity, increase consumption of alcohol and drugs, and sleep deficiency.

Occupational Diseases and Ill-HealthIn the oil and gas industry, workers frequently come in contact with heavy machinery, hazardous materials, and chemical by-products that expose them and put them at risk for occupational disease. According to (Worksafebc.com, 2017) occupational diseases such as Respiratory disease, skin disease, Upper limb and neck disorder, back problems and lower limb disorder, Cancers and malignant blood disease, poisoning, noise results in hearing loss, mental ill-health. These are the most common diseases that happen at work. The four main routes that can enter the body of agents which can cause diseases are inhalation, absorption, ingestion, and injection. Inhalation is breathing in hazardous chemicals into the body which is the most common route of entry of health hazards. Chemical hazards are breathed in through the nose or mouth and reach the lung which therefore damages it. These hazards substance are dust, fumes, gas, mist and vapours. Absorption is coming into direct contact with the skin or eyes which is absorbed into the body. These chemicals are dusts, smoke, liquids, vapour, and gases. Ingestion is the entry of chemicals through the mouth like drinks and food which are often contaminated through contact with unwashed hands, clothing or gloves, or when left exposed in the workplace. Injection is injuries caused by broken objects that can penetrate the skin and allows harmful substance into the body. The most common hazards found in occupational diseases like hydrogen sulphide which is a really toxic gas without colour and an egg-rotten smell. This gas can irritate lungs, throat, nose, eyes. With high exposure of it, poisoning can be quick and fatal with little warning. Silicosis disease is caused by prolonged breathing of fine crystalline silica dust. The particles are deposited in the lungs, causing thickening and scarring of the lung tissue. As the disease progresses, they may experience shortness of breathing, severe cough, and weakness. These symptoms can worsen over time and lead to death and lung cancer. Mercury is a natural component of oil and gas and too much of exposure of mercury vapour can affect the central nervous system and can cause nervousness, personality changes, and vision and hearing problems. Contact with mercury can also affect the kidneys and cause irritation and burning to the skin and eyes.

They are different type of sources of occupational disease that includes chemicals, biological, physical, ergonomics, and psychological agents. A physical agent has many types which include noise, vibration, thermal environment, and radiation. Thermal environment has two types’ which are extreme cold and extreme hot. Sources of extreme cold are hypothermia that has symptoms which includes shivering, pale skin, increased heartbeat, and dizziness. Frostbite is an injury that is caused by exposure of parts of the body to the cold and its symptoms include numbness, losing sensation, tingling pain, and lose of body parts. Freezing of the body parts like the ear, nose and fingers. Sources of extreme hot are heat stroke that has symptoms which includes loss of consciousness, fainting, sweating, dry skin, increase body temperature. Cancer, rashes, cramps and heat exhaustion includes symptom of headache, dizziness, nausea and thirst. Noise causes temporary hearing loss and permanent hearing loss. Symptoms include difficulty in hearing, pain and headache. Vibration can cause hand-arm vibration syndrome that includes so many symptoms such as numbness in the hand, losing the grip or losing sensation, pale skin, damaging in joint and muscles, and pain. Radiation has two types which are ionizing radiation that cause’s leukaemia and genetic disorder. And non-ionizing radiation such as ultraviolet can cause burns, mutation and skin cancer. Symptoms of leukaemia are fever, weakness, frequent infections, loss of weight, and easy bruising. Symptoms of burns are blisters, pain, peeling of skin, and redness. Ergonomics involves diseases such as musculoskeletal disorder that includes symptoms like back pain, leg pain, numbness and tingling. And carpal tunnel syndrome has signs of pain in hand and finger, dry skin, swelling, and burning sensation
HAZMAT ManagementBased on (Lonestar.edu, 2017) hazardous waste is any substance or material in any form or quantity that poses an unreasonable risk to safety, health property and environment. Examples of hazardous waste include asbestos, chemicals, batteries, pesticides and oils. The characteristics of hazardous waste are ignitability, corrosively, reactivity, toxicity and radioactivity. The hazardous health care waste are infectious that consists of sharps and pathological. Chemical waste has two types which are pharmaceutical and cytotoxic waste. And last hazardous waste is the radioactive waste. Infectious waste is residual waste generated in the diagnosis, treatment, immunization or autopsy of human beings such as blood or body fluids, and IV fluid lines. Sharps waste is a form of biomedical waste composed of used sharp such as needles, syringes, blades and contaminated glass. Pathological waste is anatomical waste that includes tissues, organs, pathogens and disposable items contaminated with human blood or body fluids. Chemical waste that are solvents used for laboratory preparation, disinfectants, and heavy metals contained in medical devices. Example like pharmaceutical waste includes laboratory reagents, expired disinfectants, and batteries. Radioactive waste is products contaminated by radionuclide that includes radioactive diagnostic material such as unused liquids from radiotherapy. Firstly identifying each hazardous waste the hospital generates. Managing and segregate them into different categories. Put them into containers with their specific colour. Infectious waste is put in a yellow bag which is leak proof, and chorine free. Sharps are also put in yellow containers that has to be puncture proof and pathological waste are put in a red bag that is also leak proof. All these containers needs to be sealed on top and labelled with universal hazard sign. Chemical waste puts in metal containers with a brown colour bag that is high density polyethylene, and corrosive resistant. Radioactive waste are placed in proper lead boxes and stored during radioactive decay. (Biomedical Waste Services, 2017) suggested that biomedical waste is often incinerated. The treatment of infectious waste and sharps are shredding, autoclaving and then disposal in landfill, even incineration. Pathological waste is burying the body parts. Chemical waste is incineration or landfill and pharmaceutical wastes are usually return to the supplier or incineration or landfill. Radioactive wastes are allowed to decay to a safe level then disposed at a hazardous waste sites.

  According to (The Balance, 2017) there are two types of non-hazardous waste which include municipal solid waste like trash or garbage and industrial waste. The primary goal of solid waste management is reducing and eliminating adverse impacts of waste materials on human health and environment to support economic development and superior quality of life. (Lonestar.edu, 2017) suggested that Non-hazardous wastes are classified as class1, class2, and class 3. Class 1 wastes if not properly managed and maintained, can be threatening to human health and environment. Examples are water contaminated with ethylene glycol or solids when contaminated with water it exhibits corrosive materials. Class 2 wastes are often dumped in local landfills. Examples are non-surgical non-radioactive medical waste, or laboratory operations. Class 3 wastes are insoluble that does not react with other materials and do not decompose. Examples are chemically inert and insoluble substances that do not pose any threat to the human health or environment. Solid non-hazardous waste are collected in disposable, non-leaking containers, labelled with contents, clearly marked as non-hazardous and prepared for disposable. Liquid non-hazardous waste that has a pH range from 6 to 9.5 are then disposed through the sewer system. Non-hazardous waste are placed in black bags and be sealed from the top. It should be kept in a specific storage area that has secured authorized access with sufficient ventilation, and clearly shown biohazard labels. However, improper storage of those materials might cause spills, leaks, fires, and contamination. As stated as (En.wikipedia.org, 2017) the disposal of non-hazardous wastes by land filling or land. Another disposal is recycling refers to the collection and reuse of waste materials such as empty cans. Municipal solid waste can be used to generate energy which is called waste-to-energy. Using energy recovery to convert non-recyclable waste materials into electricity and heat, generates a renewable energy source and can reduce carbon emissions by offsetting the need for energy from fossil sources as well as reduce methane generation from landfills.
Workplace Hazards and ControlsErgonomics and Anthropometrics(Osha.gov, 2017) states that ergonomics is the study of people’s efficiency in their working environment. It is the process of designing or arranging workplace, products and system so that they fit the people who use them. Proper ergonomic design is a must in order to prevent repeatedly strain and musculoskeletal disorders which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability. The main cause of ergonomics is Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) that affects the muscles, nerves, blood vessels, and ligaments. Examples of MSDs are carpal tunnel syndrome, tendinitis, trigger finger, and muscle strains. These are the most common risk factors at work that can increase the exposure to MSDs such as lifting heavy materials, bending, working in awkward body postures and doing same tasks repeatedly. Ergonomics which is fitting a job to a person helps lessen muscle fatigue, increase productivity, and reduce the severity of MSDs.
Anthropometrics is a measurement of the human individual, especially measurements of body size, shape, strength and working capacity. For the purpose of ergonomic design, it offers information data on the average human to build comfortable chairs, and keyboard suitable for them in order to reduce the likelihood of stress injuries such as carpal tunnel syndrome. Designers should make their products the right size for the user and comfortable to sit on. It is important to use the concept of population in anthropometrics because there is difference in size and body segment proportion due to age, gender, and race. There are diverse workforces with different sizes, shapes and heights that needs to require body-size data in order to design adequate workplaces, systems, and PPE.

Indoor Air Quality (ThoughtCo, 2017) states that finding the ideal office temperature is important to work productivity. A difference of a few degrees can have an important impact on how focused and engaged employees are. The human body is very sensitive to any small changes in the temperature. Many offices have difficulty finding a temperature setting that all workers find comfortable. The preferable range is 22 to 26 degrees Celsius, and an airflow rate of 0.1 metres per second. According to (Hughes and Ferrett, 2013) the temperature of the human body is normally around 37 degrees. If the surrounding is hot, workers can sweat and therefore heat will be lost by evaporation. In summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is better to keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to reduce the temperature difference between indoors and outdoors and make sure it reaches all areas in the office. When the temperature is too high then it causes heat stress, and dehydration. Also involves risk of heat strain that includes dizziness, fatigue, headache, nausea, breathlessness, and clammy skin. At high temperature the body is losing water by sweating that’s why they need to replace it by drinking plenty of water. If the humidity is high, then sufficient ventilation needs to be provided. Every room in the workplace should be ventilated with enough quantity of fresh or purified air and it should be free of contaminants like fumes, unpleasant smell, excessive heat, and smoke. Poor ventilation can result to extreme temperature in the workplace which can cause dry throat, fatigue, bacteria growth, and discomfort. All of these symptoms can lead to increase of sickness between workers and therefore increase accidents rate in the workplace. If the surroundings are cold, shivering causes internal muscular activity which generates body heat. When the temperature is too cold, it increases the risk of slip and trip, frostbite, loss of limbs and hypothermia. There are many factors that affect the indoor air quality in a building. Under cold conditions, employers should provide facilities for face and eye protection, warming the hands, and protective clothing. Poor IAQ is caused by volatile organic compounds which are present in cleaning, maintenance, vehicle exhaust, or lack of sufficient air flow in the workplace. In the opinion of (Duke Occupational & Environmental Safety Office, 2018) to maintain a good indoor air quality they need to keep the materials dry by recognizing new water leaks and notify maintenance and housekeeping to take corrective action. Keep windows closed because outdoor air carries pollen, mold and humidity which cause indoor air problems. If workers notice mold growing, remove it as soon as possible before it grows. Employers should evaluate the risks to the safety of the workers from extreme temperatures and determine the control measures to eliminate or reduce the hazards to the lowest practicable level.
ElectricityBased on (Hughes and Ferrett, 2013) electricity is widely used, convenient but possibly hazardous method of transmitting and using energy which has the possibility to be fatal. Electrocution incidents can be fatal, while non-fatal shocks can result in serious and permanent burn injuries to skin, internal tissues and damage to the heart depending on the length and severity of the shock. A conductor is a material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions. A good conductor is copper, silver, aluminium, and water. Insulators are known as poor conductors such as rubber, timber, glass and plastics. Insulating materials is used to protect workers from some of the hazards that involve electricity. Most incidents of electric shock happen when the worker becomes the route to earth for a live conductor. The effect of electric current on the human body depends on its route through the body such as hand to hand or hand to feet, frequency of the current, the length of time of the shock and the size of the current. Electric burns are usually more severe than heat burns, given that electric can penetrate deep into the tissue of the body. Overheating of cables and equipment will arise if they become overloaded. The source of risks that are related to the use of electricity include working with poorly maintained electrical equipment, using electrical equipment in a hazardous environment, and contact with underground cables during excavation work.

(Comcare, 2017) states that wires and cables should not be lying on the office floor but should be covered to prevent injuries like tripping. The company should use tools to cover it up such as cord cable concealer or ducts to be hidden and out of the way. The other equipment is cord cable organisers to manage the wires and therefore it makes the office tidy. According to (HSA, 2018) if a worker touches electricity by mistake; they will not be able to remove themselves from the electrical source. Due to the fact that human body is a good conductor of electricity, the person who came into contact with electricity will flow through their body which will lead to electrical shock. First try to disconnect the source of the power and then use a non-conducting object like fibreglass or wood to remove the person from the electrical source. If you can’t remove the person, then raise the alarm by calling for help from colleagues and trained first aider. Extension cables are more prone to damaging the sockets due to their high voltage. That’s why it is vital to regularly check, maintain, and if necessarily replace. Electrical installations are installed and maintained by a competent person and checked regularly. The voltage can be controlled by reducing the voltage power and ensuring that the fuses are correctly fitted accordingly. The fuse protects the device from over current and it’s designed to turn off the electricity when the current goes beyond its estimate capacity. To ensure the correct fuse is used for the appliance, there needs to be regular inspection and is done by competent people whether it’s a largest installation or smallest installation. The risk of injury and damage associated in the use of electricity can be controlled by effectively introduce workers to training, safe operation procedure, and guidance to cover specific job.
NoiseAccording to (Osha.gov, 2017) most workplaces expose the workers to noise. Hearing and touch can be severely affected by excess exposure level of noise and vibration. Sound is transmitted through the air by sound waves which are produced by vibrating object. The louder the noise, the more damage it can cause. The sound pressure wave passes into and through the outer ear and strikes the ear drum causing it to vibrate. Noise and vibration can cause long-term damage to our senses such as ringing in the ears, increase risk of hearing loss, stress, sleep disturbances, and heart disease. As claimed by (Hughes and Ferrett, 2013) noise can cause ear damage on a temporary or permanent effect such as temporary threshold shift which results in slight deafness or sensitivity, and ear ringing. Tinnitus means ringing in the ears which is caused by intense high level. Acute acoustic trauma is caused by a very loud peak noise like an explosion; it affects either the eardrum or the bones of the middle ear. And lastly noise-induced hearing loss it affects the ability to hear speech clearly. Loud noise can cause physical and psychological stress such as decrease in productivity disturbs communication and concentration, even increase workplace accidents rate. The control measures are changing the process or equipment, change the speed of the machine, surrounding the machine with a good sound-insulator, isolation of the workers and providing ear protection. Selection of suitable ear protection is very essential because it reduces sound intensity at particular frequencies. (Comcare.gov.au, 2017) wrote that vibration are two types Hand-Arm Vibration and Whole-Body Vibration. The most common disorder caused from vibration is lower-back pain and lumbar spine.  Hand arm vibration damages the fingers, hands and arms when working with vibrating tools or machinery.  Symptom of hand arm vibration is tingling, numbness of the fingers, discolouration, enlargement of the fingers, and sometimes can lead to amputation. Whole body vibration is caused by vibration from machinery passing into the body either from the feet or backside. The common health effects is back pain, reduced visual and manual control, increased heart rate and blood pressure. Other health effect includes cardiovascular, respiratory, balance and metabolic changes, digestive problems, hearing loss, damage to the nervous system, spinal damage and reproductive organ damage. The problem is workers use more force and awkward body position because vibration hand tools are hard to control which can cause them to lose sensation to their hands and arms. The control measures involve proper use of equipments that includes the correct measurement of air pressure, and seating. The vehicle should have the correct suspension, tyre pressure, and proper speed to suit the ground. Other control measures involve proper selection of equipment with low vibration quality, work rotation, good maintenance, and fault reporting procedure.
LightWhether it’s in the office or industrial area, proper lighting can make the entire job easier. According to (WCF, 2017) states that if the work office has insufficient lighting it can lead to glaring to the computer screen and can cause eye and neck strain, even headaches.  Poor lighting can affect the quality of the work and productivity. In the opinion of (CCOHS, 2018) sufficient lighting can reduce eye fatigue, headaches, prevent workplace accidents by increasing the visibility of moving machinery and other safety hazards. The ability to see at the workplace doesn’t depend on lighting only but also the time to focus on a subject, the size of an object, brightness, even contrast between an object and its immediate background. The office work should have lighting range of 500-700 lux and is measured by light meter. Instead of using artificial light that causes glare and flickering, it is better to use natural light from the sun. Flicker is quick, repeated changes in light intensity. To adjust flicker replace the bulbs on a regular basis, ensure that all part of the lights are functioning properly, and upgrade to fluorescent lighting when lights needs to be replaced. The two different source of light are delight which will depend on how much sunlight reaches inside the building and the amount of sunlight entering the building can be controlled by putting tinted glass, window blinds, and curtains. The other source is electric lighting which will depend on the amount of light, the colour of the light, and the colour of the objects show will vary with the type of electric lighting. The lighting should match the work environment and the job. If the monitor screen is too bright then we should install monitor filters to reduce glaring. Importance of proper lighting is making tasks easier, reduce eye fatigue and headaches, reduce awkward posture and MSDs, avoid momentary blindness and increase productivity. Windows and skylights should be kept clean and free from obstruction in order to prevent the shading of windows, and preventing excessive heat or glare.
Display Screen EquipmentThe most common work activity is using the display screen equipment and visual display units. According to (Petty, 2017) display screen equipment like computers and laptops are related to neck, back or arm, shoulder pain, fatigue and eyestrain. DSE workers complain from aches, pains or eye discomfort which is called upper limb disorder. Workers need to improve needs ergonomics DSE with positioning the screen at eye level to prevent straining the neck, users should use the mouse and keyboard without stretching plus their forearms which should be supported by the desk, thighs need to be parallel with the desk and feet should be resting flat on the floor. Avoid positioning DSE close to the window or any direct source that can reflect the screen, working in an environment with not enough lighting can lead to eye strain, and sitting in the same position for a long duration can cause aches and pains. The chair should be adjustable in height, stable and have an adjustable backrest. If the knees of the worker are lower than the hips when seating down, then they should provide a footrest also equipments like telephone and printer should be easily accessible. Users of DSE should take frequent breaks to avoid the injuries that come from sitting for too long and in one position. Tenosynovitis is the most common and widely known problem which affects the wrist of the worker. It is caused by continuous use of the key board and can be relieved by the use of wrist support. Other work related neck and upper limb disorders are caused by poor posture and can produce pains in the back, shoulders, neck or arms. These problems can be reduced by implementing ergonomics concept in the working desks, chairs, foot rests and document holder. Doing exercise like neck circles, shoulder lifting, and stretching will lead to reduction of muscular fatigue.

Machinery Hazards and ControlsAccording to (Hughes and Ferrett, 2013) most machinery has the potential to cause harm to the workers. Moving machine parts can possibly bring about serious working environment damage, for example crushed fingers or hands, amputations, burns, and blindness. These movements can cause injury by entanglement, friction, abrasion, cutting, shearing, stabbing, puncture, impact, or crushing. The employer needs to implement fixed enclosed guarding, protection appliance such as jigs, holders and push sticks, even providing information, instruction, training and supervision. Protection guard is fundamental for securing employees from this preventable damage. Any device that may cause harm either by its piece, function or procedure needs to be secured. By selecting correct hardware, preserving it nicely, and preparing workers to use the hardware accurately, so danger to workers and others can be reduced. A risk assessment has to be performed in order to identify any control measures expected to decrease the dangers shown by the activities involving utilization, preserving, and installation of work appliances. Any risks developed by the use of the appliance should be eliminated where possible, or controlled. The manager should select the equipment’s that is suitable for that specific job. Correctly selecting the device will decrease the possibility of loss, damage to plants, equipment’s and people. Welding, cutting, brazing are especially hazardous because it produces fumes, radiation and other different risks. The control measure is providing guards and protective devices to protect people whenever it’s not possible to remove or reduce the hazard. Separation is a simple and effective machinery and equipment risk control which also could be achieved by distance, barrier or time. Distance means a person cannot reach the hazard because of distance. Barrier means a barrier or guard denies access and controls release of parts, products or waste. Time means at the time of access, the machinery equipment is disabled. Having a professional inspect the equipment’s on a daily basis and making sure that the employees know how to perform a quick inspection before and after using each piece of machinery. The warning signs for faulty equipment’s are exposed wire, burning electrical smells, abnormal wobbles, grinding or scrapping noise. If a machine is unsafe, it should be shut down straight away and repair it. Workers shouldn’t try and fix equipment’s on their own without notifying the supervisor. Where guards cannot give full protection, use jigs, holders, or push sticks. Guards must be well designed to give good clarity, entry to controls, and do not prevent operation, setting or maintenance of the machine. The scope of the information and instructions will depend on the complexity of the equipment and the risks involved with its use. The information should be in plain, local language, but other languages could be needed. Everyone who handles and maintains work tools should be properly trained. The amount of training required will depend on the complexity and level of risk involved in using or maintaining the equipment.
Pedestrian and Vehicle Route In the opinion of (Hsa.ie, 2018) one of the main reasons of workplace fatalities is people getting hit or run over by vehicles. The law states that pedestrians and vehicles must be able to move safely in the workplace. Visitors are the ones with a high risk due to their unawareness with the area and work activity that’s why they should be escorted at all times. The company should ensure that pedestrians and vehicle routes are separated from each other. Pedestrians should always remember to stick to appointed walkways and crossing points, not entering ‘No pedestrians zones’, never walk beside a moving vehicle, do not approach a moving vehicle, and never walk behind a reversing vehicle. Also, always wear high visibility clothing when working in a workplace transport area. Extra precautions measures are needed where people with disability are present like wheelchair users, and sight or hearing difficulties. As claimed by (Simply-docs, 2018) the control measures are banning vehicles from shared route as pedestrians when the number of pedestrians increases; this is called safe working system to ensure that the people are out of harm’s way. Provide the vehicles with reversing alarm, speed limiters, detection tool to warn the driver that threes an obstacle then they will apply the brakes. As well as implementation of safe working procedure like supervision of safe movement of vehicles from one area to another. Based on (Seton, 2018) vehicles is essential for running a company but it can have extremely dangerous consequences including death, injury and collision causing significant damage to other vehicles, building, plant, equipments or people. The risks of workplace transport accident occur when moving vehicles comes into contact with people, workers falling from vehicles during loading and unloading operations, vehicles turned over due to exceeding the speed limit or unsafe load, and goods that have fallen over from a vehicle that falls on people. The main risks to pedestrians result from pedestrians sharing the same route as vehicles, drivers not able to see the pedestrians, reversing vehicles, and workplace rules not being followed.  Whenever possible, the vehicle route and pedestrian route should be separate and, if this is not possible, proper warnings must be in place. Speeding, pedestrian crossing where there not suppose to, and vehicles not driving at the route designated for them can be a consequence of failure to follow site rules or lack of training. And lack of knowledge or misunderstanding of rules can lead to accidents involving vehicles and people.
Environmental FactorsModes of Pollution and CyclesStated by (En.wikipedia.org, 2017) pollution is the introduction of contamination into the natural atmosphere that causes adverse change. It is highly toxic on the effect on health and environment which can be widespread and severe. The three main types of pollutions are land, air, and water. Air pollution is the release of chemicals into the environment such as carbon monoxide and sulphur. Land pollution or soil contamination happens when chemicals are released by leakage or spillage like heavy materials and hydrocarbon. Water pollution is the discharge of waste water and chemical contamination into the surface water which might contain fertilizers, and waste disposal. (La Rovere and Mariano, 2017) both mentioned that environment pollution is any desirable change in physical, chemicals, or biological substances of any components of the atmosphere examples like air, soil, water which can cause harmful effects of different forms of life. Biogeochemical cycle means any of the natural pathways by which essential elements of living matter are circulated. In the opinion of (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2018) Biogeochemical cycle’s elements flow in different forms from the abiotic components of the atmosphere to the biotic components and back. In order for the living components of a major ecosystem like lake or a forest to survive, all the chemical elements that make up living cells must be recycled regularly. Biogeochemical cycles are important to living organisms which include water, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur cycles. The water cycle means continues circulation of water in the earth atmosphere system. The process involves evaporation, sublimation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. Evaporation is the transfer of water from the surface of the earth atmosphere. In this stage the water in the liquid state is transferred to gaseous or vapours state. The main features that affect evaporation are solar radiation, temperature, wind speed and humidity. Condensation is the transition process from gaseous state to liquid state. Aside from evaporation, sublimation is a process where ice directly converts to water vapour without converting to liquid water. Condensation is important to the water cycle because it is responsible for the formation of clouds. It is opposite of evaporation. Cool temperatures are essential for condensation to happen. The clouds then pour down as precipitation because of wind or temperature change. When the air cannot hold any more water, it precipitates as snow, rain, sleet and hail. As water precipitates, some of it is absorbed by the soil. Transpiration is a process where liquid water is turned into water vapour by the plants. The roots of the plants absorb the water and push it toward leaves where it is used for photosynthesis. As the water pours down it leads to runoff. Runoff is the process where water runs over the surface of earth. This runoff combines to form channels and then rivers and ends up into lakes, seas and oceans. Infiltration is the process by which precipitation or water soaks into subsurface soils and moves into rocks through cracks and pore spaces.

The carbon cycle is important in life because all living things are made of carbon. Plants use carbon dioxide and sunlight to make their own food and grow. Carbon is needed in the atmosphere as well because it helps to keep the Earth warm. When humans burn fossil fuels, most of the carbon quickly enters the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. By burning fossil fuels like coal, gas, and oil lots of carbon is released into the air. Also, cutting down trees reduces the amount of plants available to remove carbon from the air. This is releasing the carbon stored in the fuels into the atmosphere and upsetting the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is responsible for the enhanced greenhouse effect. Greenhouse house effect acts as an extra blanket wrapped around Earth to trap additional warmth. The greenhouse effect does eventually allow the heat to escape, but more slowly.

AspectsEnvironmental aspect is an element of an organizations activities, products or services that can interact with the environment. Which are emission to air, discharges to sea, and seismic surveys. One of the main sources of environment pollution is combustion of fossil fuel which produces extremely high rates of air pollution and needs to be reduced immediately. Fossil fuel also contributes to land contamination and water pollution because when oil is transported from site of production to the destination, an oil spill can occur either from groundwater or ocean water. Oil industries are major polluters because they consume large quantity of energy, and water, producing large number of wastewaters, releasing chemicals to the environment, and generating solid waste that are difficult to treat and dispose. The drilling and extraction of natural gas from wells and its transportation in pipelines results in the leakage of methane contributes to climate change which therefore causes global warming. Stated by (Avens Blog, 2017) says Hazardous waste is any liquid, solid or sludge waste that contain properties that are dangerous of potentially harmful to human health or the environment. Land pollution is when human introducing harmful objects either chemicals or substances into the soil that can cause harm to the ecosystem. Industries generate hazardous waste from mining, petroleum refining, pesticide manufacturing and other chemical production. Households generate hazardous waste as well, including paints and solvents, motor oil, fluorescent lights, aerosol cans, and ammunition. The environmental impacts of land pollution are soil pollution, and change in climate patterns. Another form of land pollution is soil pollution where the upper layer of soil is damaged that is caused by over use of chemicals fertilizers. Land pollution aspect is oil spill that may contain toxic or smothering effects for some species in contact. The effects of land pollution are very dangerous and can cause loss of ecosystem that can lead to climate change. The health impacts are organ damage, carcinogenic, and chronic disease.

(Science and Earth, 2017) has published that air pollution happen when particles are released into the air from burning fuels or when dangerous gases such as carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide are released into the air and take part further chemicals reactions like creating acid rain and smog. Another form is greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide or sulphur dioxide which are warming the earth by greenhouse effect. Air pollution aspect is gas flaring it is used in burning off flammable gas. According to the environmental protection agency, the greenhouse effect is when gases absorb the infrared radiation that is released from the Earth, preventing the heat from escaping. This is a natural process that keeps our atmosphere warm. If too many gasses are introduced into the atmosphere, then more heat is trapped and this can make the planet artificially warm. Air pollutants have many health impacts like causing cancer and viruses.
(Science and Earth, 2017) has shown that water pollution occurs when dangerous particles are introduced to the water that includes chemicals, sewage, pesticides and bacteria. These come from contamination such as air deposition and water diversion. Aspect of water pollution is the risk of an oil spill to the water that could contain toxic or smothering effects for some species on contact. Another aspect is seismic surveys which is air based energy sources in seismic arrays that generate sounds and may have potential impacts on organisms within range. Thermal pollution is artificially warming of water. It happens when a company is using the water to cool its machines that ends up discharging hot water. This makes the water have less oxygen which therefore kills fish and wildlife. Another type of pollution is called nutrient pollution that when nutrients like nitrogen are included into the water that acts like a fertilizer and makes algae grow at a faster rate. Algae blocks the light from other plants which then the plants die that leads to less oxygen in the water and aquatic animals die.
ImpactsEnvironmental impact is any change to the environment whether adverse or beneficial resulting from an organizations activities products or service. When the company burns large amount of petroleum it creates large amount of CO2 gas that traps heat in the earth’s atmosphere which increases the greenhouse effect and global warming. When oil is burned, it’s usually isn’t burnt completely which causes health problems to the workers. The activities that cause environmental problems are due to drilling of wells, treatment of oil and gas extraction. When transforming crude oil into petrochemicals it releases toxins into the environment that endangers the human and environment health.
Based on (Union of Concerned Scientists, 2018) the risks of contamination of drinking water sources with hazardous chemicals are used in drilling processing and refining the oil or gas, or disposing of wastewater. Naturally occurring radioactive materials, methane, and other underground gases have sometimes leaked into drinking water supplies. One major cause of gas contamination is improperly constructed wells that allow gas to leak from the well into groundwater. Oil and gas development also poses contamination risks to waters through spills and leaks of chemical, diesel or other fluids from equipment on-site, and leaks of wastewater.  The pollutants can raise the temperature of the water enough to force fish out in search of cooler waters which causes ecological dead zone. Water pollution can also significantly increase the rate of algal blooms. These blooms create high rate of fish to die as the oxygen in the water and the fish suffocate. Fish can also be killed when excessive algae get caught in their gills. Toxins in industrial waste are the major cause of immune suppression, reproductive failure and acute poisoning. Infectious diseases, like cholera, typhoid fever and other diseases such as diarrhea, vomiting, skin and kidney problem. Water pollutants are killing sea weeds, marine birds, fishes, and other sea organisms that serve as food for human. The health impacts on water pollution are skin rashes, allergies, vomiting, stomach aches, and malfunction of central nervous system.
Combustion of natural gas produces large amounts of sulfur, mercury, and particulates, nitrogen oxides. Exposure to high levels of air pollutants can lead to harmful health outcomes such as respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. They have also been linked with problems such as asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer, and heart disease. Gas flaring is burning off of uncaptured methane. . Flaring releases carbon dioxide and methane, the two major greenhouse gases. Flaring releases toxins includes carcinogens such as benzopyrene, benzene and carbon disulphide. Exposure to benzene can cause acute leukaemia and a variety of other blood related disorders in humans. Impacts of flaring to the environment are acid rain which impact agriculture, forests and ocean. The acid rain results in environmental degradation including soil and water contamination, and roof erosion. The health impacts on air pollution are asthma, cancer, irritation of eyes, and malfunction of central nervous system.

When oil and gas operators build pipelines, the construction process can cause erosion of dirt, minerals, and other harmful pollutants. Oil spill have environmental impacts that include increased erosion, increased risk of water contamination from chemical spills or equipment runoff. According to (Madaan, 2016) when plants and grasses absorb the oil, it can damage the plants and make the whole area unsuitable as wildlife habitat. It can also kill or contaminate many fish and smaller organisms that are important in the global food chain. Oil spill can cause damage to marine mammals by contaminating their food supply because they eat fish or which have been exposed to an oil spill then they can be poisoned by the oil and die. Health impacts cancers, skin diseases, respiratory disorders, and birth defects for pregnant women. Fertilizer industrial wastes have devastating effects on human health because they have cancer causing elements which can also lead to lung and kidney disease as well as liver damage. Landfills also become breeding grounds for mice, flies, and birds that can transfer diseases. These landfills are contaminated with toxic chemicals that they can reach the human body through food. Landfills reduce air quality and can even threaten human health. The health impacts on soil pollution are cancer, headaches, fatigue, and skin rashes.
Control of WasteThe environmental consequences of increase in industrialization growth have lead to many incidents of land, air and water resources sites being contaminated with toxic materials and pollutants that threatens humans and ecosystems with serious health risks. Pollution Control Strategy involves prevention which is procedures and systems of work, reduce by changing processes, respond by reacting rapidly to pollution incidents and review by revising systems after incidents. Manage the waste in order to prevent harm to people and the environment, dispose of close to the point of production and Promoting waste reduction such as reuse ; recycle. To reduce pollution, implement proper waste management, improve water and air quality, and promote clean development for healthier lives and ecosystem
According to (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2017) states that the first main aspect is air emission that release of carbon dioxide, oxides of sulphur and nitrogen. During the activity exhaust gases from the combustion of fuels can emit heat and steam. The control measures are storage tanks should allow leaks or spills to be detected easily. Materials in the tanks should be sealed using tools like double walled tanks. Substitute ethanol to ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) because it doesn’t evaporate gasoline which therefore doesn’t produce smog and doesn’t absorb moisture from the environment. Install an internal or external floating roof tank to reduce evaporation losses of the product that’s being stored. In the opinion of (Aregbe, 2017) improving air quality in the environment is by reducing the amount of sulfur in diesel, converting vehicles so they can run on natural gas instead of other polluting fuels. Another alternative solution to gas flaring is to liquefy the gas and store it in vessels as liquid natural gas and it’s to liquefy methane. This is much safer and more economical compared to flaring of gases. The natural gas produced from either a gas well or crude oil production can be liquefied in series of processes.

The second main aspect is discharge of waste water which includes draining of tank products, washing tanker vehicles, and leaks and spills. The environmental impacts are damage to the tanks because of increase corrosion from wastewater, water contamination from wastewater runoff. The control measures are selecting proper oil interceptor, an API oil-water separator should be used to separate large amounts of oil and solids from waste water runoff. Industrial wastewater treatment is the processes used for treating wastewater that is produced by industries as an undesirable by-product which can either be reused or safely discharged to the environment. Bioremediation treatment uses naturally occurring organisms to break down hazardous substances into less toxic substances. Once the waste is treated and the contamination neutralized or removed, the waste itself can then be recycled. Oxidation reduces the biochemical oxygen demand of wastewater, and may reduce the toxicity of some impurities. It converts organic compounds into carbon dioxide, water, and bio-solids. Chemical oxidation is widely used for disinfection. Industrial wastewater treatment describes the processes used for treating wastewater that is produced by industries as an undesirable by-product can either be reused or safely discharged to the environment or municipal treatment facility.

The third main aspect is hazardous and non-hazardous materials that includes tank composed of water and oil residual product, contaminated equipment and protective clothing, and spill clean-up materials. The environmental impacts are risk of fire and explosions due to flammable nature of gasoline products, risks of leaks from equipment, and risk of site contamination. The control measures are using better designed equipment, recycling of wastes and sewage, training workers to recognize and respond to potential emergencies. Conduct a spill risk assessment for the facility to reduce the risk of major uncontrolled leaks and develop automatic shutdowns to allow isolation of spills in order for the workers to be in a safe condition. Install an oil safety valve on the supply line; this will automatically shut off the oil supply if the line breaks. Ensuring proper staff training in oil and gas leak prevention, containment and response.  Waste disposal can be recycled which can reduce the need for sending waste to landfills, therefore reduces the need for incineration that releases toxic gasses in the environment. Phytoremediation refers to the technologies that use living plants to clean up soil, air, and water contaminated with hazardous contaminants.

Operational Security ManagementThe most visible role of the security in any organisation is to protect the company’s property, assets, equipment’s, reputation and workers. (Kymodo Blue, 2016) claims that hacking is one of the most dangerous thing a company could confront in a world of today. The preventative measures is having round the clock monitoring and preventative maintain to prevent your computers from hackers. Computer virus is a program that has a piece of code that is installed into your laptop without the user’s knowledge and operates without their consent. Phishing attacks aims to get delicate data, such as credit card details, password or usernames by sending out an email that pretends to be a well-known organisation. This email will divert into a page where the user is requested to give sensitive information. To prevent this from happening, the customer’s needs to maintain a template for the company’s email and the manager should inform the customers they will never ask delicate information via email. In handling such threats, having a proactive monitoring and data backup system in place is the best way to handle threats. (solutionary Inc, 2016) says that the employer should use encrypted and password protection, perform audits of devices, regular review data on devices and delete unneeded data in order to keep the workplace secure. Keeping security guards in the main entrance to have an eye on the place and keeping track with who’s coming in and out. Employers should not share their password with others, and not leaving their laptop unsupervised. Training and providing security awareness is a must in the workplace and educating the employers on how to act on these security threats situations. Downloading user lock can stop unauthorized access, prevent attacks, and even warn users when their documents are being used. The client should put in place a reliable security measures like anti-virus and firewalls so they can protect themselves from known attacks that can restrict anything coming into and leaving the computer. Create a strong, secure password. Install security software like Zero FOX that automatically scans and sends alerts of any brand impersonations, scams, fraud, malware, viruses, and other cyber risks. Install. Avoid opening email attachments, especially from unknown senders and put on email filters could help manage unwanted emails clients should never answer to pop-up email claiming to be from a business that you might deal with. Important files and documents and store them in an external hard drive in case for an emergency.

Visitor’s should not enter the organisation unless they have a badge, and the guards should make sure that the visitor’s shouldn’t leave with equipment’s, materials, or supplies taken from organisation. If a visitor wishes to see an employer, the guard should call the employer to ask then give the visitor a visiting badge and record his name in the register box. Install camera surveillance for records and investigating. In the ID card given to the visitor should have a picture of them in order for people to identify them or use time restricted pass. It is not allowed for visitors to take photograph in the workplace.

ConclusionsIn conclusion, occupational health and safety is about looking after people in the workplace. Occupational health is an important strategy not only to ensure the health of workers but also to contribute positively to productivity. The purpose for health and safety is to manage and to be committed in protecting people from injury and ill health. Workers have to build up and perform Health, Safety and Environment Management System intended to obey health, safety and environment rules and obligations of the Sultanate of Oman to provide vital assets to keep up a compelling management system. ILO has published key occupational safety and health conventions, recommendations and code of practice that are enforced through national legislation by many members of the United Nations and non members. Complying with legislation has helped reduce the number of work-related accidents and ill-health. Every industry has their own hazards, risks and control measures. That they need to apply health and safety management system in order to identify and control risk, ensure proactive and reactive monitoring of performance, and staff competence. Health and safety policy is the foundation of good health and safety management in an organisation. The policy gives an organisation a clear direction with setting out aims for health and safety, identifying who’s responsible for achieving it, and how the organisation can achieve the aims. The policy contains three main components which include statement of intent, organising, and arrangement. In risk management, hazards are identified and then implemented control measures. The company should prepare a risk assessment of the workplace to examine what could cause harm and who might be affected by it. By implementing the right control measures, the organization can eliminate the risk to an acceptable or tolerable level. Active monitoring is there to ensure that health and safety standards are suitable in the workplace before accidents, incidents or ill-health is caused. They are methods proactive use to measure performance as such sampling, survey, inspection, audit, tours. Re-active monitoring is responding to events after they have happened and measuring failures by doing a risk corrective action. This also provides opportunities to check performance, learn from failures, and improve the health and safety management system. Health and safety training concerns the development of competent wok staff who can manage any situation that can reasonably be expected to experience.
Fire risk management includes fire prevention in workplace and to ensure that people are properly protected if a fire does occur. All workers should be competent and trained to be capable in dealing with work-related health problems. It is important to manage health at the workplace to provide a safe working environment in terms of health, ensuring workers health is not affected by harm’s way and legal regulations to detect early signs of work related ill-health in order to minimize the hazards. The primary focus of occupational health is the prevention of hazards because the workplace has many risks that could lead to accidents, cancers, hearing loss, diseases, and stress related disorders. All employees who deal with wastes should be properly trained and should know the roles and responsibilities of each employee, the potential risks, the importance of PPE, and procedures when an accident occurs. Pollutions happen in three areas such as emission to air that affects the air, discharge of waste water that affects the water, and hazardous and non-hazardous waste that affects the land.
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