Broad Topic

Broad Topic: Diabetes
Narrowed Topic: Risk factors of Diabetes
Research Question: What are the risk factors that increases the chance of an individual developing diabetes mellitus type 2?
What if you had to use a needle on yourself every day to inject medicine? This is a reality for some individuals living with the disease Diabetes Mellitus. According to the Centre of Disease Control (CDC) diabetes can be described as an epidemic. Everyone knows at least one person or will know one person that has this illness. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the USA. There are two types of diabetes type 1 and type 2. Diabetes type 2 is a disease that affects the pancreas which leads to an increase the blood glucose level stated by American Diabetes Association ADA (2018). This suggests that effects on the pancreas lead to either a deficiency of the production of insulin or the body is using the insulin ineffectively, the glucose in turn builds up in the blood stream which causes an individual to be hyperglycaemic leading to a diagnosis. Diabetes is referred as a lifestyle disease showing that how we live contributes to being diagnosed. Three risk factors that increases the chance of an individual developing diabetes type 2 are obesity, increased age and family history.

Obesity is one of the main risk factors that aids in the increase of diabetes type 2 in an individual. Obesity begins at any age in today’s society, and has become a huge issue. In the past three decades over all age groups obesity has doubled in numbers according to the World health Organization WHO (2017). The ADA has updated recommendations that has placed emphasis on prediabetes stating that children and adolescents under the age of 18 years of age who are overweight or obese be considered as prediabetic. The WHO has estimated that there are more than 155 million children and adolescents who are overweight around the world with an approximate of 40 million being obese. Shivpuri A, Shivpuri A( 2012) states that there is an imbalance between expenditure and energy intake . Many children in society are overweight as we live in a world where technology play an important role in an individual’s life. Many children and adolescents spend their time on gadgets such as their tv, phones, tablets, Xbox and also a great deal on social media sites. All these activities do not require physical activity of any sort. This has made it very harmful for the children and adolescents as they are sitting around all day watching tv or on other gadgets with little physical movement can lead to diabetes and other heart related diseases ( ).

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In addition to lack of physical activity, what is being consumed by children and adults is another factor that contributes to obesity. This type of food can be termed as junk food. Junk food can be defined as food with high percentage of chemicals, sugar, sodium(). According to the CDC sugar drinks is the leading cause of childhood obesity .Many high sugar content drinks are being markets as healthy for consumption (). This is negatively impacting the health of both children and adults . The same sugar content that is in a pepsi soda has the same sugar content as a juice box such as Delight that has been designed primarily for children consumption .This shows that many parents have not stop to read the labels on the drink of choice for their child . While parents may think it’s a good drink for their children to have based on marketing , on the nutritional facts presented it shows the high sugar content
While diabetes is affects all age groups, aging plays an important role in an individual developing the disease. As one ages the body functionality tends to decrease. It has been observed that as one ages the body may become insulin resistant which can be associated with sarcopenia which is the loss of skeletal muscle mass . Among the older population type 2 diabetes is a major problem as it affects their health and overall wellbeing severely. The complications of diabetes are many, however when it comes to the elderly the complications poses a higher risk for individuals aged 64-74 . The cases of death from diabetes is significantly higher for persons belonging to the above mentioned age group. In addition to deaths the admission rate due to diabetic emergencies has doubled among elders who are aged more than 75 years when compared to other age groups suffering from diabetes .
Shivpuri A, Shivpuri A ,Sharma S. Childhood Obesity : Review a growing problem International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry 2012; 5(3) : 237-241
Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010. JAMA. 2012;307:483-90.


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