Before antibiotics were discovered, there was a time that we had no cure for most infections. Antibiotics were a huge discovery used to treat many diseases, and infections.The process of making an antibiotic is called Fermentation, and it’s what is used for mass production. For about 90 years we have been using antibiotics to help treat diseases, and infections. Antibiotic resistance is becoming more and more of a problem. There are ways to help stop antibiotic resistance.
Antibiotics kill the bacteria, or stop the bacteria from reproducing. Before antibiotics were discovered many people died from small infections, that we now wouldn’t be too concerned about. Bacteria can infect any organ in the body, but most antibiotics can help. Bacterial infections are the only thing that can be killed by antibiotics. The first antibiotic was discovered in 1928. The first antibiotic discovered was Penicillin, this antibiotic was discovered by the British bacteriologist Sir Alexander Fleming. When Fleming was studying Staphylococcus bacteria, he accidentally discovered Penicillin. As he was studying, he realized that the bacteria was being destroyed, it turned out that the culture he was studying had been contaminated by mold from the air that belonged to Penicillium. Although, Fleming discovered this antibiotic, he never tested it on animals or humans. Instead, he showed the effectiveness by using cultures in the lab. Penicillin was first used in 1940.
Penicillin was the first antibiotic used. There are multiple types of penicillin. Penicillin works by breaking the cell walls. Fleming discovered the first antibiotic but there had to be a lot of work done before it could be used. Early on Fleming warned that antibiotic resistance could happen if Penicillin is overused.
The first antibiotic was used was Tyrothricin. It was discovered in 1939, by the American microbiologist Rene J. Dubos. This antibiotic was used for certain infections, but is too toxic for extensive use. Streptomycin came from Streptomyces griseus, and was an important discovery made by, the American microbiologist Selman A. Waksman in 1944. Streptomycin can treat many diseases, including diseases Penicillin cannot treat. Later on, many new antibiotics were discovered including, Cephalosporins that were developed into four generations.
There are different antibiotics to fight each bacteria. There are three different ways antibiotics can be used, antibiotics can block vital processes in bacteria, kill the bacteria, or stop the bacteria from multiplying. Broad spectrum antibiotics kill harmful or disease causing bacteria. Narrow spectrum antibiotics are used for certain types of bacteria.
Antibiotics are used to kill bacterias, in some cases the bacteria multiplies. This is called antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance is when the antibiotic can no longer kill the bacteria or control the bacteria. Bacteria can be unaffected by some types of antibiotics. There are two ways that bacteria can become resistant. The first way is by genetic mutation, and the second way is by gaining resistance from another microbe. Mutations can produce different types of resistance. The cause of the antibiotics to resist are the mutations giving off chemicals. Other mutations can break what the antibiotics attacks, which is the cell target. The mutation close the entry ports, which never allows antibiotic to get back in. Bacteria can go through a mating process, called conjugation, where the bacteria can transport genetic material to other bacterium. Viruses can also be the cause of antibiotic resistance. The traits from the bacteria are located in the head of the virus. The virus will inject the traits into any new bacteria it attacks. Since bacteria can collect many resistance traits, they can be resistant to many antibiotics.
There are many ways to stop antibiotic resistance. The more antibiotics are used the less effective they become. Only taking antibiotics when needed, meaning that overusing and improper use can cause drug resistance in bacteria. Antibiotics aren’t always the answer when you are sick. When patients feel better they sometimes quit taking the drug. In order for the disease to fully go away you need to finish the antibiotics. If it is not finished, there’s a chance of antibiotic resistance because, the bacteria will find a way to avoid the drug. Taking antibiotics for a viral infection can lead to antibiotic resistance. Washing your hands, and new antibiotic discoveries can be enough to help stop antibiotic resistant bacteria from spreading.
Antibiotics mostly occur in nature, but are not available in the amount needed to mass produce. The Fermentation process was developed so antibiotics could be mass produced. It starts with isolating a microorganism, fueling the growth of a culture, and finally isolating the final product. In order for the fermentation to begin, the culture needs to be started. First, a culture is made by isolated and cold stored organisms. The culture is put into a shake flask, with all other things needed to help growth. Then, it is transferred to a seed tank to help further the growth of the organisms. Seed tanks are filled with everything the microorganism needs to survive. The microorganism stays in the seed tank for twenty four to forty eight hours and is then transported for fermentation.
The fermentation tank is just like the steel, seed tank, but much bigger. It can hold up to 30,000 gallons. It is filled with the same things found in the seed tank to also help the growth. In the fermentation tank the microorganisms grow, and multiply. The tanks are kept between, 73 to 81 degrees. There is agitation so the tank is pumped with sterilized air, and other agents to keep the pH balanced. Three to five days later the isolation process can occur, because the antibiotics have reached maximum production. An extraction process is used to isolate the antibiotic. Organic solvents are used to dissolve the antibiotic, which leaves a purified powdered form of the antibiotic. Antibiotics can be produce in multiple forms including, solutions for intravenous bags, syringes, pill or gel capsule, powders, and ointments. There are different ways to refine the antibiotic, depending on the form. Intravenous bags are dissolved in a solution, put in a bag, and sealed. Gel capsules are half filled with powder and then the bottom half is mechanically sealed. To refine ointment the antibiotics are mixed into the ointment. Finally, the antibiotics are ready to be transported and used. The entire fermentation process takes about five to eight days.
The accidental discovery of penicillin was the start of antibiotics. There are many different types of antibiotics that treat many different types of diseases, and infections. The process of making antibiotics is called fermentation. Although, antibiotics help fight off these things, new strategies are needing to be made to help fight off antibiotic resistance.