Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.), has become one of the major exportable food commodities in recent years. One of the possible measures for sustaining rice production and grain quality of rice, particularly of scented rice is organic manure. Integrated use of organic materials along with chemical fertilizers may be an effective alternative approach for further improving levels of the crop yields without deteriorating soil health. Weeds are the major problem in scented rice of its early slow growth rate where herbicides have commonly used by farmer in rice culture but their continuous usage at higher quantity cause environmental pollution. There is thus a need to develop the effective and economical integrated nutrient and weed management for obtaining higher yields, profitability, and quality of crop.
The present study was initiated to assess the improvement in production potential and quality of aromatic rice with integrated nutrient and weed management. The literature pertaining to integrated nutrient and weed management practices on growth yield and quality of aromatic rice has been reviewed in this chapter.
2.1. Integrated Nutrient Management
2.1.1. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management practices on growth, yield attributes and yield of rice
Harikesh et al. (2017) A field experiment was carried out at Agronomy Farm of Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Narendra Nagar (Kumarganj), Faizabad (U.P.) during Kharif 2015 and 2016,they reported that among integrated nutrient management practices, growth attributes viz., plant height (cm), number of tillers (per m2), dry matter accumulation (g/m2) at 30, 60, 90 DAT and at harvest were recorded significantly higher with the application of 50% RDF(Recommended dose of fertilizer) + 50% N through vermicompost treatment during both the years and in pooled analysis.
Mahmud et al. (2016) were found that the effect of vermicompost and chemical fertilizers on the growth and yield components in rice, an experiment was carried out during December 2013 to June 2014, Results showed that the highest plant height, effective tillers per hill, panicle length, filled grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, straw yield and biological yield were obtained from the combination of 4 t ha-1 vermicompost with 100 kg /ha N, 16 kg/ ha P, 66 kg/ ha K, 12 kg/ ha S. It was observed that yield of rice can be increased substantially with the judicious application of organic fertilizer with chemical fertilizer.
Kumar et al. (2014) were found that combined application of organic and inorganic sources of nutrient in combination remarkably increased yield and yield attributes of rice than alone. 125% RDF + 5 t/ha vermicompost recorded significantly higher yield and yield attributes in comparison to other treatments and this was followed by 100% RDF + 5 t/ha vermicompost. 125% RDF + 5 t/ha vermicompost was increased the number of panicles (20.50%), panicle length (23.12%), panicle wt. (13.02%), 1000 grain wt. (12.90%), grain yield (31.15%), straw yield (37.12%) over control. The lower yield and yield attributes was recorded in control plot.
Mohanty et al. (2014), were found the effect of different nutrient management practices on rice reported that integrated nutrient management i.e.50% R.D.F. + 50% R.D.F. through organic sources (based on nitrogen requirement) gave the highest grain yield of 6.43 t /ha which was higher by 11.9 and 19.2% over recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) and organic management (OM), respectively.
Dekhane et al, (2014) stated that performance of different organic and inorganic fertilizer on growth and yield of paddy crop during Kharif season. Application of 50 % N through RDF + 50% N through vermicompost recorded highest growth attributes like plant height was 42.2 cm and 118.1 cm, No. of tillers per plant was 8.7 and 12.1 at 45 DAT and at harvest time respectively, panicle length (22.3 cm), grains per panicle (128.0), 1000-grain weight (19.7 g) and grain yield (4.97 t/ha.) and straw yield (5.77 t/ha.) of rice than all other treatments.
Ranjitha et al. (2013) stated that the different nutrient management options, application of 50 % recommended dose of nitrogen (through urea) and remaining 50 % RDN through vermicompost resulted in significantly higher grain (5520.8 kg /ha) and straw yield (6264.9 kg /ha) followed by 100 % RDN (through urea) application.
Balasubramanian and Wahab (2012) found that growth and yield attributes of rice crop viz. productive tillers/ hill, dry matter production at harvest, filled grains/ panicle, 1000 grain weight, grain and straw yield were favourably influenced by combined application of inorganic fertilizers and organic manures.
Masciandaro et al. (2010) revealed that an increase of plant productivity (expressed as kg of seeds produced per plot) in the treatment with vermicompost and inorganic fertilizer i.e. Mixture of organic and inorganic (vermicompost +NPK) treatment plot.
Manivannan and Sriramachandrasekharan (2009) stated that Combined application of vermicompost (50% N) and urea (50% N) resulted in the highest 1000 grain weight which was at par with that of poultry manure (50% N) and urea (50% N) in Annamalainagar
Prabhakara et al. (2007) stated that application of 50 percent recommended dose of nitrogen through organic manure and remaining 50 percent RDN through inorganic fertilizers resulted in significantly taller plants (76.31 cm), maximum number of tillers hill-1 (46) maximum dry matter (165.27g /hill), grain yield and straw yield (8.35 and 8.58 t/ ha respectively) but was statistically at par with 100 percent RDN through inorganic sources of fertilizers.
Barik et al. (2006) revealed that application of vermicompost alone or in combination with 75% or 50% of recommended NPK fertilisers resulted in higher filled grains panicle-1 (82.3) than all other treatments including 100% RDN from sole application of urea on sandy loam soil of West Bengal during 2002 and 2003
Dinesh et al. (2006) found that highest grain yield with 50 percent compost + 50 percent NPK source, which was at par with 50 percent FYM + 50 percent NPK in the year 2004 and both the practices produced significantly higher grain yield over FYM or compost or NPK fertilizer alone. However, in the year 2005, 50 percent compost + 50 percent NPK proved better than all the nutrient sources.
Mishra et al. (2006) stated that the in different source of N i.e. FYM, vermicompost, poultry manure highest grain yield (64.3 q/ha) of aromatic rice (Pusa basmati-1) due to incorporation of 25% nitrogen through organic source and 75% nitrogen through urea.
Subhendu et al. (2005) found that the highest grain yield obtained in plots that received 50% nitrogen through inorganic fertilisers and 50% through FYM followed by the treatments received 75% nitrogen through inorganic fertilisers and 25% through FYM on clay loam soils of West Bengal
Das et al. (2002) A field experiment was conducted in Orissa, during 1999 to determine the effect of integrated application of vermicompost and chemical fertilizer on rice. The best results in terms of straw and grain yields were obtained with 50% vermicompost + 50% chemical fertilizers
Jeyabal and Kuppuswamy (2001) stated that integrated application of 50% N through vermicompost + 50%through recommended fertilizer N and biofertilizers recorded a grain yield of 6.25 t/ ha. It was 12.2% higher than that obtained with 100% fertilizer N alone during 1994-96 in Tamil Nadu
Sujathamma et al. (2001) found that significantly higher grain yield (3546 kg ha-1) and straw yield (5435 kg/ ha) were obtained with the application of 50% N through vermicompost + 50% N through chemical fertilizer compared to control (2978 and 4489 kg /ha, respectively).
Murali and Setty (2000) found that vermicompost @ 5 t/ha resulted in significantly higher plant height, number of tillers/hill, dry matter accumulation, higher number of panicles, number of grains/panicle,1000 seed weight, higher grain yield and straw yield over no vermicompost.
2.1.2. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management practices on weed dynamic
2.1.2. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management practices on nutrient uptake by crop
Harikesh et al. (2017) A field experiment was carried out at Agronomy Farm of Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Narendra Nagar (Kumarganj), Faizabad (U.P.) during Kharif 2015 and 2016,they reported that among integrated nutrient management practices, quality attributes like hulling % and protein content in grain were recorded significantly higher with the application of 50% RDF + 50% N through vermicompost treatment during both the years and in pooled analysis.
Kumar et al. (2014) they found that 125% RDF + 5 t/ha vermicompost recorded significantly higher yield, yield attributes and in comparison to other treatments and this was followed by 100% RDF + 5 t/ha vermicompost. 125% RDF + 5 t/ha vermicompost was increased the N uptake in grain (36.81%) and straw (42.81%), P uptake in grain (32.62%) and straw (31.56%) and K uptake in grain (35.46%) and straw (25.39%) over control.