Advertising is as old as man

Advertising is as old as man; in the sense that since the beginning there has been advertising just that the world didn’t see it as advertising.
Advertising according to American Marketing Association (AMA) is a paid non-personal presentation and promotion of goods, services or ideas by an identified sponsor.
Advertising is the use of paid mass media, by an identified sponsor, to deliver marketing communications to target audiences. (Pickton et al, 2005).
Crosier, 1999 says advertising is communication via recognizable advert placed in a definable advertising medium, guaranteeing delivery of an unmodified message to a specified audience in return for an agreed rate for the space or time used.
Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON) define advertisement as a communication in the media, paid for by an identified sponsor and directed at a target audience, with the aim of imparting correct information about a product, service, idea or opinion.
By the various definitions above, it’s seen that advertising is a communication tool which is used by brand owners and producers to show case their products through a medium of communication to a specific target audience.
First we start off by defining what marketing. The Chartered Institute of Marketing based in the United Kingdom (UK) says “marketing is management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customers need profitably”.
Phillip Kotler defines marketing as “the science and art of exploring, creating, and delivering value to satisfy the needs of a target market at a profit. Marketing identifies unfulfilled needs and desires. It defines measures and quantifies the size of the identified market and the profit potential. It pinpoints which segments the company is capable of serving best and it designs and promotes the appropriate products and services.” Marketing as a set of human activities directed at facilitating and consummating exchanges.
Julie Barlie the Vice-president of ecommerce, Fairway Market defines Marketing a traditionally the means by which an organization communicates to, connects with, and engages its target audience to convey the value of and ultimately sell its products and services. However, since the emergence of digital media, in particular social media and technology innovations, it has increasingly become more about companies building deeper, more meaningful and lasting relationships with the people that they want to buy their products and services. The ever-increasingly fragmented world of media complicates marketers’ ability connect and, at the same, time presents incredible opportunity to forge new territory.

Also America Marketing Association defines marketing to be “the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large”.
Therefore in summary marketing could be understood to be the activity that involves the exchange of goods, services and ideas for value.
In the last decades improvement has been made in advertising and marketing industry;
In the early years of advertising in Nigeria, advertising was uncoordinated and unregulated which made it free for then advertisers to display any type of advertisement without constraint.
This led a group of advertisers to form a regulatory body such as Association of Advertising Practitioners of Nigeria (AAPN) and Advertising Council of Nigeria (ACON) in 1977, but these bodies could not function due to the lack of support from the government.
But in recent times a Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON) which is a regulatory body has been set up to oversee the activities of advertisers.
In previous years of advertising in Nigeria, the Federal Government determined what was to be advertised because all the broadcast stations were owned by the broadcast commission. There was a change by 1972 when a decree known as the Indigenization policy whereby Nigerians were empowered to take up the business of advertising and move the industry from corporate organizations to the indigenes.

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It has improved the advertising and marketing industry that it helps generate publicity and execute advertising campaign through various digital platforms. With this marketers now understand the need to go wherever the consumers and clients are.

Marketing and Advertising in Nigeria has evolved from different stages and phases. This term paper is to establish when Nigeria moved into the 7th era of marketing and also at the same time identifying when advertising reached a significant level in terms of digital strategy.
The market has evolved and sustained through different phases of marketing at different times.
1. The Simple Trade
During this era it involved where everything that was needed and available were made and harvested by hand without any form of technology. For example in that period food and crops were harvested by farmers, while the hunters hunted for games. In this era cowries were used in Nigeria as form of monetary value, or they made use of trade by batter i.e. goods-to-goods or goods-to-services.
2. The Production (Orientation) Era.
This era was where products were produced using mass production technique, knowing full well they had few or no alternative. In case of Nigeria a case of mass production were crops like cocoa, groundnut and oil which were either from the eastern or western region. Another typical example is the case of Henry Ford who produced cars just in one color (black) and people had to accept it that way after complaining cause they knew other options/ colors were not available for them. It lasted the frame of the 1860’s to the 1920’s.
3. The Sales (Orientation) Era.
In this era was where modern marketing practice began just after the production era. In this era the brand owners and producers could not easily sell their products to consumers. In this phase they had to work really hard due to the increase of market share which was a result to the rising of competitors. Also products were commoditized and pricing became a major factor for the consumers, which competitors used for their advantage. It was between the 1920’s and 1940’s.
4. The Marketing Department Era.
This era started just after the World War II 1940’s to 1960’s. The manufactures realized that the sales orientation that was being used was not resonating with the consumers. So they had to introduce businesses consolidated marketing-related activities such as; advertising, public relations, promotion into a single department. In this department, it struggled with commoditization that was increasing that cause profit margins to drop.
5. The Marketing Company Era.
The belief of ‘customer is king’ started in this era. In this era every employee in an organization worked towards the purpose of satisfying the customers’ needs. The producers and brand owners took it to consideration that they built their products and services round the needs of the consumers.

6. The Relationship Social Marketing Era.
The tactics was moved to creating a long-term, mutually beneficial relationship with the consumers. Consumer Relation Management was introduced in this era, which is about getting information and data about the consumers. This helped in moving businesses forward.
7. The Collaboration Experience Era.
The consumers have the controlling power rather than the producers and brand owners in this era. It is focused on having real- time connections and social exchanges with the consumers. The permission and the trust of the consumers have to be earned also maintaining a positive image is important before the marketers can effectively communicate with them. By doing so, it will guaranty success which makes it a crucial factors for marketers.


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