____________________: THE PRIMARY FACTOR TO IMPROVE INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM EXECUTION
Education is one of the key drivers of economic growth. Within an increasingly competitive market in the higher education sector, university student satisfaction is an important component in attracting and retaining high achievers, who, in turn, improve the reputation and standing of the school. Increasingly, the funding models for universities are dependent on indicators of research achievement and student satisfaction (Wikipedia). Combining it to the information and communication technology category, where the foundation of most industries relies into, there is no doubt that the educational satisfaction needs to be worked on.
Schools that train their students in yesterday’s skills and outdated technologies are not meeting the needs of tomorrow’s world. These children will not fit into tomorrow’s professional requirements. Research undertaken worldwide has confirmed that ICT can help to improve student learning by providing better instructional techniques. Teachers play a crucial role in integrating ICT. The present day teachers should know not only the content of their subject but also the pedagogy to impart the knowledge effectively by integrating technology. According to ITU (Telecommunications Standardization Sector), ICTs can act as a facilitator in promoting learning skills, when implemented and utilized effectively.
This study will focus on finding the most effective ways to improve the information and communications technology program execution in Asian Institute of Computer Studies, Calamba branch. A survey type of research, providing survey questionnaires, and to be conducted due to the fact that the ICT students were the main beneficiaries of this research and direct information coming from the students themselves serves as a logical basis, plus, AICS is a computer specialized school. Educational institutions are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of quality considerations in delivery of teaching, research programs and service. This is due to the increasing numbers of students entering the education system and government funding increasingly being tied to assessment of the quality of the teaching and research programs at educational institutions (Shago 2005).
Statement of the Problem
The study wants to prove that ________ is the primary factor to improve information communication technology program execution at AICS Calamba. This hopes to answer the following questions:
Main question: What are the factors that hinders the execution of ICT program?
Specific questions: The study aims to answer these questions:
What is the meaning of student satisfaction?
What are the major concerns of students to improve the ICT program execution?
How important is the quality education to learners?
How could the institution improve its program execution?
Quality of education and student satisfaction is one of the most important concerns of students, academic staff, policy-makers and higher education researchers internationally. It is believed that there is a cause and effect relationship between these two. There four theories in these study that the researcher will introduce. According to John William Atkinson’s expectancy-value theory, students’ achievement and achievement related choices are most nearest determined by two factors, expectancies for success, and subjective task values. Expectancies refer to how confident an individual is in his or her ability to succeed in a task whereas task values refer to how important, useful, or enjoyable the individual perceives the task. The “happy-productive” student theory (Cotton, Dollard, ; de Jonge, 2002) states that student satisfaction is hindered by psychosocial factors such as coping stress and well-being. Based on this theory, it is evidenced that high levels of psychological distress at university related to lower satisfaction. The third theory is the “investment model” by (Hatcher, Kryter, Prus, ; Fitzgerald, 1992) that explains the relationship between student satisfaction, stress and academic performance. Satisfaction increases when the rewards of study increase (higher grades).Using the investment model, students at risk for “dropping-out” can be identified through counselling and other student support services as a preventive measure. To increase retention rates and the quality graduates, schools need to consider the satisfaction needs of students. The forth is based on “consumer satisfaction theory” by (Churchill ; Suprenant, 1982) which considers satisfaction as students’ expectations about university are met with positive confirmations of expectations leading to higher levels of satisfaction. These theories are relevant to this study because they all strengthen the claim that quality of education is important to satisfy the educational needs of the students in order for the university or institution to also produce quality graduates. These will be used as parameter for better execution of program.
Input Process Output
Profile of the respondents:
Reference from past studies and literature
____________________: The primary factor to improve information communication technology program execution
The study aims to know the factors that intervene with the quality ICT program execution in AICS Calamba. The following are the specific objectives:
To define the meaning of student satisfaction.
To discuss the value of quality education.
To know the concerns of students about the ICT program execution.
To analyze the factors and solve the problems underlying the poor execution of ICT program.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will contribute greatly to the ICT students on their learning process giving them the ability to enjoy their studies and be productive on their performances because of the implementation of better systems of program execution. Chained to the schools and institutions which will benefit in the sense of producing a quality students for the society to be utilized and be the source of innovation and development. And especially, this research will try to inspire others not to stop finding ways for the progress and future.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The target respondents of this study will be the ICT Grade 11-12 students of AICS CALAMBA branch attending in school year 2017-2018, providing questionnaire to be conducted for the reason that ICT students primarily uses the computer technology and AICS is specializing the computer studies. This study is was not intended to be misunderstood stating that the ICT course is better than the other courses that the institution offers, but to at least narrow down the possible solutions for the computer related category.
Definition of Terms
Assumption – A thing that is accepted as true or as certain to happen without proof.
Basis – The underlying support or foundation for an idea argument or process.
Crucial – Decisive or critical, especially in the success or failure of something.
ICT (Information and Communication Technology) – Is a term used to define rapidly emerging, evolving and converging computer, software and networking, telecommunication, internet, programming and information system technologies.
Integrate – Combine (one thing) with another so that they become whole.
Pedagogy – the method and practice of teaching, especially as an academic subject or theoretical concept.
Reputation – The beliefs or opinions that are generally held about someone or something.
Retain – Continue to have (something); keeps in possession of such as memory, knowledge etc.
Satisfaction- Fulfillment of one’s wishes, expectations, or needs or the pleasure derived from this.
Specialize – Concentrate on and become expert in a particular subject or skill.
Review of Related Literature and Studies
Administrators and instructors believe on the benefits of personal instruction provided by teachers in traditional classroom settings and merge this with online access to interactive, media rich technologies along with assessment tools (L Batangas). “The flexible time-space accounted for by the integration of ICT into teaching and learning processes contributes to increasing the interaction and reception of information. Such possibilities propose changes in the communication models and the teaching and learning methods used by teachers, giving way to new scenarios which favor both individual and collaborative learning (J. Cabero). The importance of ICT has been recognized by educational institutions worldwide. Today, schools are under pressure to adapt to this technological innovation. ICT provide remarkable opportunities for developing countries to enrich their educational system since it can help in acquiring and assimilating knowledge (V. L. Tinio).
First of all, it is necessary to define the notion of satisfaction and especially student ?satisfaction”. Satisfaction – a fulfillment of need or desire, the pleasure obtained by such fulfillment. “Satisfaction is the feeling of pleasure or disappointment attained from comparing a product’s perceived performance (outcome) in relation to his or her expectations. If the performance falls short of expectations, the customer is dissatisfied. If the performance matches the expectations, the customer is satisfied. If the performance exceeds expectations, the customer is highly satisfied or delighted” (Wikipedia). Student’s satisfaction is defined by Wiers-Jenssen, Stensaker and Grogaard (2002: 185) as students? assessments of the services provided by universities and colleges. Student satisfaction is a continually changing construct in the Higher Education environment due to repeated interactions (Elliott and Shin 2002). It is a dynamic process that requires clear and effective action as a result of an institution listening to its students. Student satisfaction is a complex construct influenced by a variety of characteristics of students and institutions (Thomas and Galambos 2004: 252). Student satisfaction is an overall response not only to the learning experience of a student (Wiers- Jenssen et al. 2002). Continuous improvement of quality is a philosophy. Within this philosophy is a set of broad principles and values that provide guidance on how to restructure and improve organizations (Frasier 1997:7). Continuous quality improvement requires an organization to meet or exceed the customer’s expectation of quality (Frasier 1997:8).
In the growing literature on academic quality there is often extensive debate about the meaning of the term (Green 1994). Many have suggested that ‘academic quality’ is amorphous, non-measurable, or so ambiguous in its meaning, deeming it inappropriate for public intervention (Dill 2007). Harvey and Green (1993:2) put forward a number of ways of viewing quality. Firstly, Harvey and Green mention the traditional view that quality is linked to the idea of exceptionally high standards. Secondly, quality is seen as consistency focusing on processes and set specifications that it aims to meet. Thirdly, quality relates to relevance to its purpose while fourthly quality is equated with value for money at the heart of which is the 2 notion of accountability. Fifthly quality is seen as transformative because education is not a service to the customer, but an ongoing process of transformation of the participant. On this follows two notions of transformative quality in education i.e. enhancing and empowering the consumer. While quality in other sectors was often associated with the idea of customer satisfaction and market adaptation, one can find a range of translations of quality within higher education (Stensaker 2007:113).
Higher education institutions are becoming more business-like. Similar to the importance of satisfying customers to retain them for profit-making institutions, satisfying the admitted students is also important for retention. It might be argued that dissatisfied students may cut back on the number of courses or drop out of college completely. Hence, the satisfaction-intention-retention link for students in higher education should be studied and carefully managed (Kara 2004:1). Tinto (1982) formulates a student integration theory of persistence or retention based on the relationships between students and institutions. He argues that retention involves two commitments on the part of the student. The first commitment is the goal to obtain a college degree; and the second one is the decision to obtain that degree at a particular institution (institutional commitment). And students are able to judge the quality of the service, because they have various performance experiences in the university (Selnes 1993).
The globalization of education has intensified competition among universities, not only for local, but also for international students. The elimination of socioeconomic barriers and the opening of opportunities to connect people more closely in time and space are among the dramatic benefits associated with globalization (Mavondo et al. 2004). “Globalization „encouraged? higher education to become more business-like. For example, higher education is increasingly expected to interpret international student recruitment from an economic perspective…During the late 1980s and particularly the 1990s, higher education institutions gradually started seeing fee-paying students as a source of revenue and this led to the development of an international market for higher education students. In this market the strategy of some institutions is to attract foreign students to enroll in one of their regular programs against far higher tuition fees than regular national students have to pay” (Maassen and Cloete 2006: 17). Universities and academic systems themselves have developed many strategies to benefit from the new global environment and attract nonresident students (Altbach et al. 2009).
Student? satisfaction with university has individual, institutional and social benefits. From an institutional point of view, satisfied students are more likely to continue in their studies and succeed academically, and this is likely to enhance the financial position and reputation of the institution. Successful universities realize that it is very important to retain enrolled students rather than concentrate on attracting new ones. One reason for this is because a competitive advantage can be gained through student satisfaction (Elliott and Shin 2002) and they can be marketed in the university’s marketing tools. Satisfied students make effective public relations agents.” Highly satisfied students “engage in favorable word-of mouth publicity”. Word-of-mouth from satisfied students lowers the cost of attracting new customers for the university and enhances the university’s overall reputation, while that of dissatisfied students has the opposite effect (Fornell 1992). Also, they can return as graduate students, recruit prospective students or regularly donate as alumni. The most mentioned relationship-building practices are referrals, testimonials, and visits to customers? sites by potential customers.” Understanding the underlying dimensions of student satisfaction and the factors that contribute to student satisfaction has several potential benefits and applications for institutions, students, and society (Wikiversity). As mentioned above, the literature on student? satisfaction and student? perception of academic experience is very complex. Two threads of perspectives are apparent: the academic and the social. The authors supporting one or the other perspective mention the factors that can affect students? satisfaction with their university. Many authors underline the importance of the same factors (for example Harvey (1995) and Hill (1995). They both mention library 21 services, accommodation services, course content, teaching quality, catering service, academic workload and so on.
Synthesis of Reviewed Related Literature and Studies
Besides academic quality, Wiers-Jenssen, Stensaker and Grogaard (2002) assert the quality of university support facilities is very important in achieving student satisfaction. They examine how overall student satisfaction in Norway can be broken down into component assessments, referring to broader aspects of the student? learning experience. They see student satisfaction as students? assessments of the services provided by universities and colleges. They broke the concept down into several sub-categories, such as: 1. Quality of teaching (academic and pedagogic). 2. Quality of supervision and feedback from academic staff. 3. Composition, content and relevance of curriculum. 4. Balance between different forms of organized teaching activities and self-tuition. 5. Quality of support facilities. 6. Quality of physical infrastructure 7. Quality and access to leisure activities. 8. Social climate. In more detail, Guolla (1999:88) states that “a student’s satisfaction may be influenced by poor classroom facilities of which an instructor may have limited resources to change”. So, the campus environment can be seen as a web of connected happenings that influence student satisfaction (Elliott and Shin 2002). Therefore, it is necessary to enhance “the perceived value by providing services or service attributes not provided by the competition” (Claycomb and Martin 2001:391). Researchers (Wiers-Jenssen et al. 2002) found that smaller institutions have more satisfied students than larger institutions, and additionally different environments within the institution can have different influences on students.
Respondent of the Study
The respondents of this study are limited to 40 mixed male and female Grade 11-12 students of AICS CALAMBA in which 20 are males and 20 are females. These respondents are the ones who are knowledgeable enough to answer the questions proposed in the study. They will answer the questionnaire that the researcher will provide to them which supplies the information that the researcher needs.
Instrument of the Study
To provide and gather as much information and relative evaluation as possible, questionnaire will be used. The questionnaire will be used as the main data-gathering instrument for this study and primarily utilized as self-designed survey questionnaire. The researcher critically analyzed the data first to determine reliability and second to determine the true meaning and value of the data.
Validation of the Instrument
The survey questionnaire was validated by a research teacher/professor. The corrections and suggestions will be included and be used accordingly for the instrument’s better validation. The instrument was carefully structured to avoid confusions and misunderstanding for the sake and convenience of the respondents. The same instrument used in this research was tested by other researchers and could be seen online for more accurate validation.
In order to support the validity of the data, survey has been conducted to gather information. The researcher also consulted in the internet, other literature, studies and tutorials that will help strengthen the data gathered. The researcher will give questionnaire to the respondents directly regarding the statement of the problem. The questionnaire will be utilized directly due to the fact that the researcher can get more accurate answers since clarifications can be made if the respondent does not understand the question presented.