2. The three main things the European colonisers claimed were their purpose behind colonisation at the Berlin Conference in 1884 were:

2.1 The first purpose of the conference was for the Europeans to come to an agreement in respect of the Congo River and Niger River mouths and basins where they would be considered neutral and open to trade;
2.2 When the conference was held, only the coastal areas of Africa were colonized by the European powers and it was there that they made their move to gain control over the inland of the African continent.
2.3 They negotiated over the various inland boundaries in the continent, not taking into account the cultural and language boundaries which was already adopted byt he African population.
3. European colonisers were in fact trying to:

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3.1 compete for control over the different parts of Africa and strip Africa for their own gain.

Meeting at the Berlin Conference, 1884

Causes of colonisation
Effects of colonisation
European causes

1. European explorers saw great opportunity in resources and investment which could be tapped into by them.

2. The best method to ensure that the Europeans could realise their vision was to take complete, political control of Africa through the process of colonisation.

3. At the time that the explorers travelled into Africa, unemployment and a decrease in investment was a major threat to Europe.

4. The Industrial revolution also meant more people would need work which posed a threat.

Political (geographical) effects
1. A resolution was taken at the Berlin Conference wherein the continent of Africa was divided into fifty different countries.

2. This new map of the continent was superimposed over the one thousand indigenous cultures and regions of Africa.

3. The division of the countries did not work as different people were grouped together from dissimilar groups who really did not get along.

4. New African societies were formed based on different ideological and social beliefs which resulted in them being weak and politically unstable.
African causes

1. The various Kingdoms were constantly in competition with each other to be the wealthy and have great power;

2. The competition between the kingdoms thus allowed the Europeans to make use of the opportunity of creating rivalry between the Africans;

3. The Europeans therefore managed to get the African leaders to side with them against other leaders.

Economic effects:

1. European explorers saw great opportunity in the markets, resources and investment which could be tapped into by them which was due to the depression was in play in Europe. Countries like France, , Great Britain and German were losing money and they saw Africa as their0golden ticket, the easy way out of the depression.

2. Europeans stripped Africa of its many raw goods which included oil, ivory, rubber, palm oil, wood, cotton, and gum (for paper).

3. Because of cheap African labour, these materials were easily acquired which assisted to spark a financial boom in Europe.

4. Africans lost their land and cattle and were stripped of all of their natural resources such as gold, silver, diamonds and coal .

5. Africa and its inhabitants suffered with many consequences at the hands of Europeans.

Social effects:

1. The division of social groups were created by the Europeans which brought about conflict amongst the different ethnic groups that had not existed before.

2. The African culture was affected, the Africa way of life, their traditions and way of life were destroyed.

3. The African religion was also affected by the introduction of Christianity, which forced people to learn the European languages. Africans were taught to change their eating habits and to dress like Europeans abandoning their own traditional ways.

4. Families were separated due to the partition of Africa. This created new boundaries leading to conflicts and the slavery where millions of people were forcibly separated from their families and homelands.

Psychological (mind) effects

1. Colonised Africans were treated not only as sub-humans, they were denied basic rights such as education and the right to land for decent housing, farming, mining and fishing.

2. Africans were made to feel inferior due to the social inequality in the colonies

3. European settlers and Europeans in Europe were encouraged to feel superior.



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