1.2 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION
According to world health organization global burden and prevalence of respiratory tract infection is progressing day by day. The International Respiratory Societies has released a report which identifies five conditions that primarily contribute to the global burden of respiratory disease (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute respiratory infection, tuberculosis and lung cancer), the morbidity and mortality associated with lung diseases is stumble and four millions of people die per year prematurely by chronic respiratory diseases. Infant and young children are especially susceptible. Nearly three million children mostly under 5 years died by pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infection.
In Pakistan, prevalence of respiratory tract infection is ranging from 14 to 15 million Acute Respiratory tract infection episodes occur in children annually leading to at least 100,000 deaths each year.
1.3 COMPLICATIONS OF RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION
Major complications of respiratory tract infection are sinusitis, otitis media, acute tracheobronchitis, pneumonia, laryngitis, and aspergillosis.
1.4 PATHOGENESIS OF RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION
Acute Sinusitis is an upper respiratory infection either bacterial, viral oaring or fungal. The inflammation of sinuses lead to blockage of the normal sinus drainage pathway which further lead to mucus retention, decrease mucociliary clearance and predisposition to bacterial growth.
Respiratory Tract Infection are usually due to majority of bacterial, viral and fungal pathogen. Bacterial pathogen included, Moraxella catarrhalis, Hemophilus species, Acinetobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonaie, Enterobacter species and Staph aureus. Fungal pathogen included, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida galabrata and Candida krusei.
Candida species, frequently effect immune-compromised, and hospitalized patients. There are higher rate of morbidity, and mortality, associated with these fungal infections which lead to an imperative public health problem (Organization, 2003). Therefore, these Candida species, is responsible for increase number of infection. Fungal infections, are treated with antifungal drugs, including itraconazol, fluconazole, cltrimazol, nystatin, and amphotericin B, antifungal susceptibility plays an important role for the appropriate selection antifungal drugs, and also important to follow drug expansion, and for increasing drug resistance (Dismukes, 2000).